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n I T E I) n V K D W IN M . li A C O N 


BOS r O N 
O S T P U 1^ L I S H I N (; C O M P A N ^' 





A Glance at the History of Boston — Its Development from 

THE Little Commercial Town to the Great Modern City . i 


Trade and Commerce a Half-century At;o and now ... 3 


Retail, Wholesale, and Financial Quarters, past and present . 8 


Development of the Great Lines centring in Bo.ston — The 

Street-Car System 10 


Public and other Structures, Modern and Historic, and Insti- 
tutions WITHIN THE Business Quarters 27 


Rise and Proc.ress of the Back-Bay Improvement — Distinguish- 
iNc; Features of the District To-day — lis Buildings, 
Churches, and Dwellings 54 


Its Development from the Narrow Neck — Interesting Institu- 
tions .AND Churches — The Great C.athedrai 73 


Quaint and Pictures(jue W.\ys and By-wavs — Beacon Hill and 

ITS Literary Quarter — Some Interesting Landmarks . . 81 


Modern Fe.viures of the Historic "Traynini; Field" of 

WiNTHROp's Time and the Newer Park 85 




Earlier Boston Playhouses and those of To-day .... 90 


Features of the many Socla.l and Professional Organizations 

of the Town 100 


East Boston, South Bo.ston, Roxbury, Dorchester, Charlestown, 

West Roxuury, and Brighton 106 


Professional Men 120 


Boston Harbor, showinc the "Atlant/ 
Richards Building .... 
Station of Boston & Albany Railroad 
Station of Boston & Maine Railroad - 
Station of Boston & Maine R.4ilroad - 
Station of Boston & Maine Railroad - 
SiATioN of the Old Colony R.ailroad - 

OF 'THE White Squadro 

Western Division 
Eastern Division . 
Lowell Division . 
Providence Diviskjn 

Station of Old Colony Railroad — Main Division 

Station of Old Colony R.ailroad at North Easton 

Station of Fitchburg R.ailro.4X) 

\'iEW of Hoosac Tunnel, Fitchburc; R.ailroad . 

Station at Waltham, Fttchhirg Railroad . 

Station of the New York & New England Railroad, with Interior V 

I. The Royal Smoker. 2. Dining Car. 3. Parlor Car. 4. Interior View of Pullmai 

Station of Bos-ton, Revere Beach, & Lynn Railroad . 

\'iEw OF Electric Car on Tremont Street, West End Street Railw.j 

Steamer " Swampscoit," of the Boston, Revere Be.4Ch, & Lynn R.\u. 

Interior View of Power-house of West End Street Railway 

Interior View of Power-house of West End Street Railway 

Chamber of Commerce ..... 

Iron Buildini; — G. T. McLauthlin & Co. 

Faneuil Hall 

Proposed New Building of the International Trust Co.mi 

John H.ancock Building 

Building of the American Bell Telephone Comi'an\- 

State-street ExcHANtiE 

Fiske Building 

John C. Paige Insurance Building 

Ames Building ....... 

New Court House ...... 

Sears Building ....... 

City Hall ....... 

" Wht Isl: 


Ai.i'.iDN Bl'ii.dim; — Houghtdn & Duiton . 
Chaiavkk IkiMiiNG — W. H. Brine . 

State Hol'se 

The Pkmhek'iox ..... 



CdPLEY Square ...... 

New Public Library 

Blulding of the American Le(;i()n of Honor 
\\'ooDnuRY Building ..... 

Pierce BiiLi.iN.i 

Langhaii Holel 

New England Conserv.viory of Music 
Washingtonian Home .... 
BuiLiiiNG ov THE PoPE Manufacturini; Co.mpanv 

Public Garden 

Interior View OF Boston The.\tre . 
Interior View of Hollis-street Theatre . 
KxiERioR View of the New Columbia Theatre 


Works of the \\'aluokth Manufacturing Compa 

Boston (;as Works 

Residence of J<ihn P. Spaulding 
Residence of Charles V. Whhten . 
Building of the Forbes Lithographic Compan\ 
Bunker Hill Monument .... 
\\'orks of the I/iw Art Tile Co.mpan\ 
Residence of William F. Weld 





A MONC; .American cities Boston holds a unique 
^ position. It is to-day at once the most 
famous of the few historic cities of the repubUc 
and in the best sense the most progressive. In 
no other city of our bounding country is there 
such a peculiar blending of the old and the new, 
the ancient and the modern, as here in Boston. In 
its business quarters are well-preserved landmarks of 
the colonial, the provincial, and the revolutionary 
periods cheek by jowl with the most modern struct- 
ures of this age of progress. Sterling citizens suc- 
cessfully maintain conservative business methods, 
while enterprises of the greatest importance and 
magnitude in distant parts of the country, as well 
as within the city's boundaries, are fostered and ad- 
vanced by Boston merchants and Boston capitalists. 
Possessing the genius and sagacity of the merchants 
of the earlier Boston who won the fiimous sobriquet 
of " solid," the men of the Boston of To-day also 
display the characteristics which are found in the 
best type of the enterprising American of these 
times. While Boston men have developed from 
the compact litde commercial town of fifty years 
ago the substantial modern metropolis, Boston cap- 
ital has built great Western cities and established 
great Western railways, developing the resources 
of the country and opening up its incalculable 
agricultural and mineral wealth. 

For many years after the setdement, the North 
End, the earliest " court end " of the town, was the 
greater part of Boston proper. The original Boston 

consisted of a " pear-shaped peninsula " about two 
miles long, and one mile wide at its broadest part, 
broken by little creeks and coves and diversified by 
three hills. The loftiest of these — reduced into 
our present Beacon hill — was described by the 
early chroniclers as " a high mountaine with three 
litde hils on the top of it." And it was this forma- 
tion of the highest hill that suggested the name 
" Trimontaine," first given the place by the set- 
tlers at Charlestown, and which Winthrop's men 
changed to " Boston " when they moved across the 
river, in October, 1630, and established the new 
town. Until after the Revolution the topographi- 
cal features of the town were not greatly changed. 
Towards the close of the last century, in 1784, 
Shurtleff relates, the North End, which had then 
" begun to lose its former prestige and gave un- 
questionable evidence of decay and unpopularity," 
contained about 680 dwelling-houses and tene- 
ments and 6 meeting-houses ; " New Boston," 
or that portion we now call the " Old West End," 
including Beacon hill, about 170 dwelling-houses 
and tenements ; and the South End, then extend- 
ing from the "Mill bridge " in Hanover street, over 
the old canal, to the fortifications on "the Neck," 
near Dover street, about 1,250 dwelling-houses, 10 
meeting-houses, all the public buildings, and the 
principal shops and warehouses. " Some of the 
mansion-houses of this part," says Shurdeff, writing 
twenty years ago, " would now be considered mag- 
nificent ; and the Common, although perhaps not 
so artistically laid out, with paths and malls as 
now, was as delightful a training-ground and pub- 
lic walk as at the present time." No streets had 
then been constructed west of Pleasant street and 
the Common. 

Early in the present century, in 1803, Charles 
street was laid out ; the ne.xt year Dorchester Neck 
and Point, the territory forming the greater part of 


what is now South Boston, were annexed to Boston ; 
twenty years later, when the town had become a city, 
came the great improvements of the elder Quincy, 
the second mayor,' whose administration covered 
six terms, from 1823 to 1829. These included the 
building of the Quincy Market-house, officially 
termed the Faneuil Hall, to the confusion of citizens 
as well as strangers ; the opening of six new streets 
and the enlargement of a seventh ; and the acquisi- 
tion of flats, docks, and wharf rights to the extent 
of 142,000 square feet; "all this," says Quincy's 
Municipal History, " accomplished in the centre of 
a populous city not only without any tax, debt, or 
burden upon its pecuniary resources, but with large 
permanent additions to its real and productive prop- 
erty." Next, in 1830, the development of the 
newer South End, south of Dover street to the Rox- 
bury line, was begun, though not systematically pur- 
sued until about twenty years later; in 1833 the 
upbuilding of " Noddle's Island," before that time 
a "barren waste," we are told, but none the less a 
picturesque spot and a favorite with fishing-parties, 
was energetically started, when its name was changed 
to " East Boston ; " in 1857 the great " Back Bay Im- 
provement," the result of which is the beautiful 
"New West End" of to-day, began; at the same 
time the " marsh at the bottom of the Common," 
over which there had been controversy for years, was 
formally set apart for the Public Garden, and soon 
after systematic plans for its development made ; 
in 1867 the city of Roxbury was annexed to Boston 
by popular vote (becoming officially connected in 
January, 1868), in 1869 the town of Dorchester 
(officially joined in January, 1870), and in 1873 
the city of Charlestown and the towns of Brighton 
and West Roxbury (officially, in January, 1874) ; 
and after the great fire of November, 1872, which 
burned over sixty-five acres in the heart of the busi- 
ness quarter and destroyed property valued at S75,- 
000,000, immense street improvements were made 
through the widening and straightening of old thor- 
oughfares and the opening of new ones, and a 
more substantial and more modern business quar- 
ter, architecturally finer in some respects than any 
similar quarter in any other .American citv, was 
built up. 

By the reclamation of the broad, oozy salt 
marshes, the estuaries, coverts, and bays once 
stretching wide on its southern and northern 
borders, the original 783 acres upon which Boston 
town was settled have been expanded to 1,829 acres 

1 Boston was made a city in 1S22, and John Phillips, father of Wen- 
dell Phillips, was elected the first mayor. The first city government 
was organized on the ist of May that year. 

of solid land, and by annexation from time to time 
21,878 acres have been added," making the present 
total 23,707 acres, or 37.04 square miles. Where 
the area was the narrowest it is now the widest, and 
in place of the compact little town of a hundred 
years ago on its "pear-shaped peninsula" less than 
two miles in its extreme length and its greatest 
breadth only a little more than one, is the greater 
Boston of To-day, extending from north to south 
eleven miles and spreading nine miles from east to 
west. In place of the population of 25,000 which 
the Boston of the first year of the present century 
counted, the Boston of To-day counts 450,000; and 
the taxable valuation of the city has increased from 
115,095,700 in 1800, to $911,638,887 (Feb. i, 
1S92). The total taxable area in the city is 716,- 
215,872 square feet. The total number of dwelling- 
houses is 52,Sj;i ; (if hotels, 86; of family hotels, 
512; of stDn- liiiililinL;^, 3,553; and miscellaneous, 
5,728. In niunu ii)alities within a radius of eight 
miles of the State House the population in 1891 was 
over 680,000, and of twelve miles, 873,000, or 38.97 
per cent, of the entire population of the State. Of 
this surrounding territory the Boston of To-day is 
the real business centre. 

The greatest and most marked changes that have 
taken place between old and new Boston have been 
effected within the memory of many persons now 
living. In the transformation — I'ch of the pictur- 
esqueness and old-time charm has disappeared, but 
in their stead there is much in the beautiful modern 
city to delight the eye ; while the flavor of mellow 
age which with all its modernness the town yet re- 
tains, and the blending of the old and new which it 
so frequently displays, have a fascination which no 
other American city possesses. In its intellectual 
and artistic growth and development its progress has 
been as marked as in its physical aspects and its 
material prosperity. The great educational and 
literary institutions of the Boston of To-day, both 
public and private, stand among the very highest. 
Its ])ublic-school system, its Public Library, its Art 
Museum, its Museum of Natural History, its Insti- 
tute of Technology, its Athenaeum, and its collec- 
tions of historical treasures, are all in their way 
unsurpassed. In literature it has long been pre- 
eminent, and in spite of the gaps which death has 
made in the ranks of its authors, its primacy in this 
respect is not seriously threatened. Many of the 
most important books of the day bear the Boston 

2 In this total are included the S36 acres secured by the develop- 
ment of East Boston, and the 785 acres of Breed's Island. No account 
is made of the 437 acres of Rainsford, Gallop's, Long, Deer, and 
Apple Islands, and the Great Brewster, all of which are within the 
city limits. 


inii)rint, its publishing houses are among the fore- 
most in the country, and the best of its periodical 
publications are held at the high standard which 
Boston was among the earliest in the history of 
American literature to reach. In the department of 
music its superiority is everywhere acknowledged. 
The first of .'\merican cities to take an advanced 
position with respect to musical taste and culture, it 
has steadfastly held the lead, and to-day its Symphony 
Orchestra and its many musical associations admir- 
ably maintain its position. Offering greater advan- 
tages than any other American city, and affording 
through the winters practically unlimited opportuni- 
ties of hearing the very best music of the highest 
grade, it attracts large numbers of musical students 
and patrons of the art. Its theatres, too, are among 
the most beautiful and comfortable in the country. 
And important factors in the social and cultivated 
life of the town are its numerous literary, art, pro- 
fessional, business, and social clubs, many of them 
established in finely appointed club-houses. 

In philanthropic, benevolent, charitable, and 
church work the Boston of To-day is also among the 
foremost. Its institutions for the benefit of the 
people or of those classes who need a helping hand, 
for the relief of the suffering and the afflicted, and 
for the care of the unfortunate, are many and varied ; 
and they are nobly sustained. It has been esti- 
mated that the capital invested in charitable work in 
the city is Si 6, 000,000; that there is one charitable 
or benevolent society for every twenty thousand 
people within its boundaries ; and that the annual pri- 
vate contributions of Bostonians for benevolent pur- 
poses exceed half a million dollars. Through the 
local organization widely known as the " Associated 
Charities" many of the societies ahd associations 
are brought into close communion, and the work is 
so systematized that it is made more effective and 
thorough than it could possibly be were each organ- 
ization operating independently in the field. Of the 
church buildings many are fine examples of the best 
architectural work of the day, and in church prop- 
erty millions of dollars are invested. The religious 
organizations are active in many directions, and 
Boston clergymen are with other good citizens con- 
cerned in movements and work for the material 
as well as the spiritual well-being of the com- 

In a word, the Boston of To-day is a great modern 
city, far reaching in its enterprise and industry, of 
manifold activities, a place of many attractions, well 
built, feirly adorned ; sustaining well the reputation 
which the old town bore as the commercial and in- 
tellectual capital of New England. 




T^HERE are few men in active business life in the 
^ Boston of To-day who can recall at all clearly the 
general outlines even of the Boston of half a cen- 
tury ago, and fewer still who can trace in detail the 
various and remarkable changes which have trans- 
formed the bustling little town of that time into the 
great city of to-day. In 1840 the three initial rail- 
roads, the Lowell, the Providence, and the Worces- 
ter, had been in operation but five years, up to which 
time the Middlesex Canal to tide-water at Clinton 
street, the "wonder of its day," ' had flourished, and 
the chief system of internal communication had 
consisted of numerous lines of stage-coaches and 
baggage-wagons, employing some thousands of fine 
horses. The first Cunard steamship had appeared 
in the harbor, and regular Atlantic steamship service 
had just begun. East Boston, which as late as 1833 
had but one dwelling, had only recently been laid 
out in lots by the East Boston Company, char- 
tered in that year ; South Boston had less than five 
thousand inhabitants, distantly removed, save by toll- 
bridges, from Boston proper ; and the narrow penin- 
sula on which Boston was crowded was reached 
from the neighboring places by only one free road, 
that over Roxbury Neck. 

Of the aspect of the town at the beginning of the 
period from 1830 to 1840 a graphic picture was 
given in the interesting report of Edward J. Howard, 
secretary of the old Board of Trade for the year 
1880, marking the two hundred and fiftieth anniver- 
sary of the settlement of the town. The area of the 
city had not been materially enlarged for a hundred 
years. Harrison avenue was then known as Front 
street (the name of Harrison was given it in 1841 in 
honor of General Harrison), and from Beach street 
to the old South Boston bridge was lined with 
wharves, where cargoes of wood, grain, and other 
commodities were landed and sold. There were but 
five houses between what is now Dover street and 
the Roxbury line. Lands east and west of Wash- 
ington street, and a portion of the Common, were 
utilized for the pasturing of cows ; what is now 
Causeway street was an irregular and unbroken high- 
way. On Beacon hill were the residences of the 

In traffic in 1S03. It extended from 
Chelmsford, now I.owcll, and water 
Oir north as Concord, N.H. It con- 


newer aristocracy — along Beacon street, between 
the State House and Charles street, Hancock av- 
enue, Louisburg square, Mt. Vernon, Walnut, Chest- 
nut, Pinckney, Hancock, Temple, Bowdoin, and 
Somerset streets, on the western and southern slopes 
of the hill; the older aristocracy still clinging to 
their stately dwellings on Tremont, Winter, Summer, 
Franklin, Atkinson (now Congress), Federal, High, 
and Purchase streets, Otis place, and even Washing- 
ton square on Fort hill, which was described in a 
weekly newspaper of the time as " a very princely 
quarter." Dock square was then the business cen- 
tre of the town, the principal mercantile streets 
being Court, Cornhill, Washington, HaiiDxcr, Tiiion, 
State, North and South Market streets, Men hants 
row, Chatham, Blackstone, Commercial, India, 
Broad, Central, Doane, Water, Congress, Kilby, and 
Milk streets, and Liberty square. 

The hotels were few and primitive, with the single 
exception of the Exchange Coffee House, at the corner 
of State and Congress streets, built on the site of 
the greater and grander one burned on the night 
of the 3d of November, 18 18,' where business 
men gathered on all public occasions ; but solid 
comfort and good cheer were ever to be found 
within their hospitable walls. The Eastern Stage 
House in Ann (now North) street, with its porte 
cochere, was the most venerable. Then there were the 
Earles' Coffee House on Hanover street, where the 
American House now is, through whose arched por- 
tals the Albany stage started once a week ; the 
Lamb Tavern on Washington street, where.the Adams 
House now stands, and the Lion next, its site now 
covered by the Bijou Theatre ; the old Marlboro, on 
Washington, between Winter and Bromfield streets. 

ginal Exchange Coffee 

More th.iii $51.1.000 were 

from the ground lioor t< 
the rooms of tlie hotel, 
change, but it w.i- not i: 

with its painted sign of " St. George and the 
Dragon ; " the Bromfield House on Bromfield street ; 
the Mansion House and the Commercial Coffee 
House on Milk street ; the Bite Tavern on Faneuil 
Hall square ; and the old Hancock Tavern near by 
on Corn court. 

It was between the years 1820 and 1840 that the 
town enjoyed its greatest prosperity in foreign and 
domestic commerce, leading all its rivals in the ex- 
tent and richness of its trade. Then great fortunes 
were made by the merchants and shippers engaged 
especially in the China and East India trade, the spa- 
cious and secure harbor sparkled with shipping from 
the great ports of the world, and the wharves were 
crowded with vessels discharging and receiving car- 
goes. The principal wharves, lined with substan- 
tial warehouses, Long, Central, and India, were 
owned by corporations ; and so extensive were 
the shipping interests at the port during this period 
and for some years after, that wharf property was the 
most remunerative real-estate pro])erty in Boston, 
several wharves netting an annual income of from 
§20,000 to $60,000. 

The old methods of doing business contrasted 
strangely with those of to-day, for the merchant 
had his counting-room in his warehouse and per- 
sonally superintended the sale of his goods, with 
the quality and value of which he was supposed 
to be most familiar. Merchandise brokers were 
scarcely known then, for with their conservative 
ideas the solid men of the Boston of that time held 
fast to the secrets of their trade. Their counting- 
rooms bore no trace of the showiness and splendor 
which mark the business offices of the merchants 
of to-day. There were no carpets, steam heat, 
bric-a-brac, luxuriously upholstered chairs and roll- 
top desks in those old-time counting-rooms, nothing 
but the severely plain furniture and fittings required 
for the actual transaction of business. " And yet," 
says Howard, " there was a mercantile aristocracy 
in those days. . . . We had merchant princes 
then. There were Perkins, Lyman, the Appletons, 
the Grays, the Lawrences, the Cunninghams, the 
Joys, Boardmans, Bryant, and Sturgis, the Hoopers, 
and a host from MarbWhe&d, Salem, Gloucester, and 
Newburyport, who came to the front with their 
names and their checks when difficulties shadowed 
the metropolis." 

Provincial as were the old methods, the fame of 
her merchants extended far beyond the narrow 
limits of the Boston of that day, and their transac- 
tions covered a wide field. In 1830, Boston having 
absorbed the commerce which up to that time 
she had shared with Salem, Beverly, Marblehead, 

BOSTON OF r()-I)A\' 

Gloucester, and N ewburyport, had become the com- 
mercial capital of New England in fact as well as 
name ; and as the foreign commerce at that time 
was mainly limited to New England, her supremacy as 
a commercial power was unquestioned. " Then, with 
the development of our domestic manufactures dur- 
ing the decade 1830-1840," says Howard, "we 
emphatically impressed the markets of the world 
and successfully competed with England even 
within her own dominions, as we did a score of 
years later with our clipper ships when we nearly 
controlled the freighting commerce of the world." 
In was in 1844, four years after the establishment 
of the Cunard line, that Enoch Train started his 
line of famous packet-ships between Boston and 
Liverpool to meet the demands of the increasing 
trade between the two ports, and to supply the 
freight service which could not be furnished by 
the steamships then designed chiefly for passen- 
gers and mail service. Several of the finest ships 
of the line, remarkable for their excellent sailing 
qualities, were built at East Boston, and it speedily 
eclipsed the celebrated New York lines, which here- 
tofore had monopolized the business. 

Then began the building of the magnificent fleet 
of Boston freighting ships employed in the Southern, 
South American, and West Indian trade, and in that 
of California after the discovery of gold; "a fleet 
that for twenty years," says Howard, "challenged 
the admiration and competition of the commercial 
world." Great ship-building yards were established 
in East Boston and South Boston, notably those of 
Donald McKay, Daniel D. Kelley, and E. and H. 
O. Briggs, and many of the finest and speediest 
ships ever built were launched from them. During 
this decade, from 1840 to 1850, "the coast of 
.Africa trade and that of the Western Islands centred 
here. We had by far the largest trade between 
.America and Russia. . . . We monopolized the 
trade with Manila, the coast of Sumatra, Bombay 
and Calcutta, Valparaiso and Buenos .Ayres, and had 
only Baltimore as a competitor for the Rio trade. 
. . . Boston at this time had a large trade 
direct with Holland and the south of F^urope. The 
salt trade with St. Ubes anu Cadiz was very large, 
but the Mediterranean and Straits trade was the 
most important of our European commerce. The 
arrivals from Bordeaux, Marseilles, Trieste, Messina, 
Palermo, Malaga, and Smyrna were the largest in 
number next to those of the West Indies, from 
foreign ports. . . . Except, perhaps, for one or 
two months in the year, it was almost impossible to 
find an unoccupied berth at any of the wharves from 
Charlestown bridge to Fort hill, and in busy months 

the vessels would lie three deep at the dock, while 
in the stream there were hundreds awaiting a berth 
to discharge at." 

Then came the great changes wrought by the 
rapid development of railroad systems in the West 
(largely through Boston capital) as well as in the 
East ; the supplanting of sailing-vessels by steam ; 
the shifting of leading commission houses, and later 
much of the foreign trade, from Boston to New 
York, which had been quicker to recognize the 
newer ficilities for transportation and to adopt them ; 
and finally the Civil War. With the development of 
the new systems of transportation newer business 
methods, in place of those which served so well the 
merchants of the earlier periods, were demanded ; 
greater and broader enterprise. After a season of 
painful hesitation the situation was grasped, and the 
business abilities of Boston merchants and capital- 
ists were again displayed in various directions. As 
a result, in course of time all branches of trade ex- 
panded, and the area of the city proper was extended 
to meet the demand for larger accommodation 
within the business quarters. During the decade 
from i860 to 1870 the costly Hoosac Tunnel," into 
the building of which the State was drawn, was 
pushed towards completion, early in the next decade 
opening up a new avenue to the West ; the consoli- 
dation of the Boston & Worcester and the western 
railroads (in 1867) into the present Boston & 
Albany^ directly aff"ected the interests of the city 
and increased its foreign exports ; and the revival 
two years later of the Grand Junction Railroad, with 
its docks at East Boston, — chartered in 1847, 
opened in 185 1, the year of the great Railroad 
Jubilee,^ and originally intended to connect the rail- 
road lines centring in the city, — proved another 
valuable addition to the facilities of the city for the 
transaction of its trade and commerce. New steam- 
ship lines, foreign and coastwise, were also estab- 
lished and terminal facilities improved. The 
levelling of Fort hilP (begun in 1869), and the 

' See chapter on Railroads. 

2 See chapter on Railroads. 

3 To celebrate the opening of railroad communication between 
Boston, the Canadas, and the West, and the establishment of steam. 
ship lines to Liverpool. It continued through three days, — the 17th, 
iSth, and iqth of September, 1851. It was attended by Lord Elgin, 
then the governor-general of Canada, and his suite, President Fill- 
more and members of his Cabinet, and other men of distinction in 
Canada as well as the United Suites. There were receptions, parades, 
trades processions, a grand dinner under a pavilion on the parade- 
ground and Charles.street mall of the Common, and a brilliant night 
illumin.ation of the city. 

< The second of the three "great hills" of Boston, originally about 
eighty feet in height, with rugged bluffs on its north and east sides, 
.and easy slopes on the town side. Here the tirst fortifications wercv 
erected by the colonists, hence its name. Here in April, 16S9, Sir 
Edmund Andros, " governor of New England," sought shelter from 
the incensed colonists whose rights he had usurped, and forced to 


building of Atlantic and Eastern avenues along the 
water-front, an enterprise that was at first much op- 
posed, changed materially that section of the city, 
and furnished one of the finest commercial thorough- 
fares, in the country. 

The marked impetus to the business of Boston 
given by all these enterprises and changes was 
sharply checked by the disastrous fire of 1872, and 
the long period of business depression which the 
country at large suffered from 1873 to 1877. The 
"Great Fire of 1872," — as the event of the night 
of Saturday the 9th of November that year is to be 
known in our local history, — which burned over 
about 65 acres in the heart of the business quarter 
comprising 30 streets, swept through the great 
wholesale domestic and foreign dry-goods district, 
that of the wool trade, of the hides, leather, and shoe, 
of the ready-made clothing, and of the hardware ; 
burned out 960 firms, a third of this number in the 
dry-goods trade alone; destroyed 776 buildings, in- 
cluding several of the finest business blocks in the 
city, and the picturesque old stone church of Trin- 
ity on Summer-street ; and caused a property loss 
conservatively estimated at $75,000,000. This was 
one of the most trying periods of the commercial 
history of Boston. During the depression there was 
an almost unprecedented shrinkage in values ; money 
was scarce, rates of interest ranged exceptionally 
high. It was a severe test, but it was bravely met. 
Within a year the "Burnt District " was largely re- 
built with finer, safer, and more substantial struct- 
ures than those which had been swept away, and 
great street improvements in the quarter were ad- 
vanced — • Washington, Summer, Congress, Federal, 
Milk, Hawley, .Arch, and Water streets were widened ; 
Arch was also extended ; Pearl, Franklin, and Oliver 
were extended ; and Post-office square was laid out ; 
the city expending in the entire undertaking more 
than three and a quarter millions. With the revival 
of business succeeding the long depression, a period 
of great prosperity and development began. New 
life was given to the organizations of merchants. 
The Shoe and Leather Exchange, reorganized and 
strengthened, established itself in new rooms on Bed- 
ford street. In 1879 the Furniture Exchange was 
established and brought into direct communication 
with furniture exchanges of other cities. With the 

The hill ivas used for i 
iitinn. Its slopes were e 

summit surrounded by trees ^ 
small square surrounded by j 
the hill. 

n a circular plot of ground on t 
own as Independence square, 
arehouses now marks the site 

rapid advancement of building operations the Master 
Builders' Association, now established in its own 
building. No. 164 Devonshire street, was formed ; 
and the Mechanics' Exchange was enlarged and ex- 
tended. In 1885 the great Chamber of Commerce 
was organized by the union of the Commercial and 
Produce Exchanges ; and at the same time the Fruit 
and Produce Exchange, with quarters in the Quincy 
Market-house. In 1890 the Real Estate Exchange 
was organized. Other organizations which have 
grown in strength and importance in recent years are 
the Coal Exchange, with quarters at No. 70 Kilby 
street ; the New Englainl Metal .\ssociation. No. no 
North street ; the ()il Tr.ulc Association, No. 149 
Broad street ; the Druggists' Association, No. 307 
Washington street ; the Earthenware Association, 
No. 5 1 Federal street ; the Paper Trade Association, 
No. II Otis street; the Stationers' Association, No. 
122 State street; the Fish Bureau, No. 3 Long 
wharf; the Wholesale Grocers' Association, No. 
200 State street ; the Board of Fire Underwriters, 
No. 55 Kilby street. Meanwhile the number of 
clubs of merchants increased; and the Mer- 
chants' Association, representing different lines of 
trade, with its committees on arbitration, on trans- 
portation, on debts and debtors, and to investigate 
failures, was formed from members of many leading 
firms. While in some branches of business Boston 
has lost through natural and unavoidable causes the 
supremacy it once had, in others — such as the 
wool, in which its trade exceeds that of any other 
city, the leather, boot and shoe, clothing and cloth- 
ing manufiicture, furniture, metal and metallic 
goods, machines and machinery, produce, food prep- 
arations, and printing and publishing — it still 
leads and is likely to maintain its position. The 
number of manufacturing and mechanical establish- 
ments in the city, shown by the latest State census, 
that of 1885, was 5,199, the total amount of capital 
invested in them, $73,346,258, and the value of the 
goods made and work done, $144,376,206 ; since 
that time the growth and expansion has been steady, 
and the figures of to-day must show a very marked 
increase. The combined cost of the new buildings 
erected in 1891 was $10,568,800, which has been 
exceeded but twice, in 1873 and 1874, the years 
immediately following the Great Fire. 

The total value of imports at the port of Boston in 
1891 was about $70,000,000, and of exports, $81,- 
400,000. The ocean steamship lines now running 
regularly are the Cunard, the Leyland, and the 
^^'arren, to Liverpool ; the Anchor and the Furness, 
to London ; the Anchor and the Allan, to Glasgow ; 
the Wilson, to Hull ; and the White Star, to Antwerjj. 





ONE result of the " Great Fire of 1S72," and of 
the growth of the various branches of trade 
during the prosperous period succeeding the busi- 
ness depression of 1873-7, was a shifting of busi- 
ness centres. A generation ago the dry-goods 
merchants, both wholesale and retail, were mostly 
established in the lower part of Washington street, 
Tremont row, Court and Hanover streets. Boston 
was at one time the chief dry-goods market of the 
country, and as the mills grew in number more 
territory was required, and the wholesale trade 
moved into large granite stores on Milk, Kilby, 
and Atkinson (that part of the present Congress 
street south of Milk) streets, and Liberty square. 
Subsequently Pearl street was occupied until it 
was crowded out by the leather trade ; and 
then its present quarters on Devonshire, Summer, 
and Franklin streets, Winthrop square, Chauncy, 
Kingston, and Bedford streets, were established. 

The retail dry-goods trade for many years cen- 
tred on Hanover street when that thoroughfare was 
nearest the residential parts of the town. Then it 
worked southward, until to-day it extends from 
Scollay square to Boylston street, the greater estab- 
lishments occupying choice positions on Washing- 
ton, Winter, and neighboring streets. With other 
retail shops it has invaded the quarters long re- 
served for the best dwellings, — Tremont street fac- 
ing the Common, Beacon street at one end and 
Boylston street at another. The popular retail 
shopping district now embraces, besides Washing- 
ton and Tremont streets between the points above 
named. Park, Winter, and parts of Summer streets, 
Tem]5le place and West street, and is pushing down 
Boylston street into the sacred precincts of the 
Back Bay district, cutting into the fine sweep of 
comfortable dwellings on the slope of Beacon hill 
opposite the Common, and crowding residences 
from Beacon street opposite the Public Garden. 

The ready-made clothing trade, an immense in- 
dustry to-day, is the outgrowth through various 
stages of sailors' outfitting establishments. Origi- 
nally it was confined to the North End, but when 
John Simmons, of Quincy Market hall, and George 
W. Simmons, we are told, first advanced the char- 
acter of the trade to a mercantile standard, it fol- 
lowed the dry-goods trade, and is now established 
in the quarter which that in part occupies. 

The shoe and leather industry, for which Boston 
has been from the beginning the market centre, 
began to assume large proportions as far back as 
1830. For many years the American House, built 
in 1835, was the headquarters of the trade, and 
Fulton street was the business centre. In 1 849 
the trade began to move southward into Pearl 
street, then mainly occupied by wholesale dry- 
goods houses ; and within a short time this section 
became its new centre. Then block after block of 
dwelHngs on High street were levelled to make 
room for warehouses. After the fire of 1872, which 
wiped out the district, it was rebuilt, and for several 
years the trade continued to cling to it. Then a 
tendency towards Summer street about and beyond 
old "Church green" was taken; and later the 
trade spread into Lincoln and South streets, where 
a number of fine building blocks have been in re- 
cent years erected. This section, which is now the 
centre of the trade, is within easy reach of four large 
railroad lines, and near by is the Shoe and Leather 
Exchange, where trade reports are regularly bulle- 
tined during business hours, established in one of a 
group of buildings remarkable for their solidity and 
architectural finish. 

The great wool trade is to-day mostly concen- 
trated on Federal, Pearl, and High streets ; the 
paper trade, which has developed extensively dur- 
ing the past forty years, on Federal street and its 
vicinity ; in the same neighborhood, principally on 
Federal and Franklin streets, is the crockery trade, 
which miports large quantities of goods for inland 
distribution ; on Milk street and its vicinity the whole- 
sale drug trade ; and on Fort Hill square and its 
neighborhood the iron trade and the hardware trade, 
which before the fire of 1872 was confined chiefly 
to Dock square (now lost in Adams square) and its 

The wholesale grocery, fish, salt, and the flour 
and grain interests still hold fast to their old quarter, 
including Commercial, India, Broad, and adjacent 
streets near the water-front ; the produce trade is 
mainly on South Market, Chatham, and Commercial 
streets ; the headquarters of the provision trade are 
in Commerce street and the streets about Faneuil- 
Hall Market ; the jobbing foreign fruit trade is on 
Merchants row, Chatham, and South Market streets 
and their neighborhood ; and the great tea, coffee, 
and sugar interests are on Broad street and its im- 
mediate vicinity. 

The financial centre, as in the early days, is still 
State street, although the banks are scattered over 
the business sections of the city. But within the 
compact territory bounded by State, Washington, 




Milk, and Broad streets, or its immediate neighbor- 
hood, the greater number of leading banks are 
found ; and the private banking-houses, the trust 
companies, the safety- vaults, the offices of the stock- 
brokers, the insurance agencies, the real-estate 
brokers and agents, the financial offices of the 
great Western railroad companies which are estab- 
lished here in Boston, and the Stock Exchange. 




THE great railroad industry which in the past two 
decades has assumed such vast proportions 
and has accomplished so much in the development 
of the country and its resources, vastly increasing its 
prosperity and binding sections together, had its 
origin here in Boston. It seems almost incredible 
that within the memory of men yet in active life, 
there was not a single railroad in all the United 
States, and that all means of transportation for both 
passengers and freight were by the stage-coach, 
baggage-wagon, the packet-ship, the coaster, or the 
canal-boat. New York City and Albany were dis- 
tant from Boston by a three days' journey, and the 
trip was attended by much discomfort and not a 
little danger. 

The project of establishing a canal from Boston 
westward through the State to the Connecticut river 
and thence to the Hudson, to overcome the effect 
of the canal enterprises of New York which in the 
twenties were drawing trade, both domestic and ex- 
port, in that direction and away from this port, had 
long been talked of, and in 1825 a State commis- 
sion was established to ascertain the practicability of 
making such a canal. This commission made a 
voluminous report the following year, presenting the 
results of surveys and estimates of cost, but no action 
was taken ; and the same year the idea of the rail- 
road was substituted for that of the canal, one result 
of the enterprise of Gridley Bryant, aided by the 
financial support and public spirit of Col. T. H. 
Perkins, both Boston men. This was the construc- 
tion and opening of the " Granite Railway " for the 
purpose of conveying granite from the Quincy quar- 
ries to the water. Although this pioneer railroad, 
the first built in the country, was, with its branches, 
but four miles long, constructed in a primitive 

fashion, and operated by horse-power, it was the 
germ from which the perfected systems sprung. 
Petitions from Boston now appeared in the Legisla- 
ture for surveys on the part of the State for a railway 
to the Hudson, and with much hesitation were 
finally granted. But although surveys were speedily 
begun, it was not until after four years of discussion 
that anything practical was accomplished. Two 
entire routes were surveyed, one, the southern, fol- 
lowing nearly the line of the present Boston & 
Albany, and the other much the same route as the 
present Fitchburg Railroad. The commissioners 
reporting upon them invariably proposed a railroad 
operated only by animal-power, the final report, that 
of 1829, recommending a double-track line, the 
space between the rails to be graded for a horse- 
path. At length, in 1830, petitions for the incor- 
poration of private railroad companies were filed in 
the Legislature, and that year the first charter was 
granted, that of the Boston & Lowell ; and the next 
year the Boston & Worcester and the Boston & 
Providence were chartered. Thus the State happily 
was kept out of the railroad business into which it 
had been in danger of drifting. 

Of the great systems now centring in Boston, 
the Boston cr' Albany is entitled to first mention, 
as it includes the line first opened. The charter 
of the Boston & Worcester became law on June 23, 
1 83 1 . The corporation was empowered to construct 
a railroad in or near Boston and thence to any part 
of Worcester. The capital stock was 10,000 shares, 
at par value of Sioo each. On the 1st of May, 1832, 
the corporation was formally organized. The length 
of the road according to surveys was about 43^^ 
miles, and the estimated cost, including equipment 
(the road-bed to be graded for a double track), was 
$883,000. On the 15th of March, 1833, the di- 
rectors of the Worcester line were individually incor- 
porated as the Western Railroad Corporation, with 
authority to locate and construct a railroad from the 
Worcester terminus to the Connecticut river in 
Springfield, and thence across the river to the 
western boundary of the State in a direction towards 
the Hudson. The capital stock was to consist of 
not less than 10,000 or more than 20,000 shares of 
$100 par value. Thus from the first the Boston & 
Worcester controlled the charter of the Western. 
In the meantime the New York Legislature incorpo- 
rated the Castleton & West Stockbridge Railroad 
Company to construct a road from Castleton, N.Y., 
nine miles below Albany, to the State line at West 
Stockbridge. Two years later the name was changed 
to the Albany & West Stockbridge, with authority to 
extend the line to Greenbush, across the Hudson 



from Albany. In May, 1834, the Boston & Worces- 
ter was partially opened for travel (to Newton only), 
the cars drawn by English-built locomotives, thus 
having the distinction of being the first steam rail- 
road operated in New England. The line was com- 
pleted to Worcester on the 4th of July the follow- 
ing year, and the event was duly celebrated on the 
6th with a dinner and speeches. The road was con- 
structed by engineers who had never seen any of 
the English roads, and many original devices were 
followed. Not only were the earlier locomotives 
imported from England, but the men to run them. 
American locomotive works, however, were soon es- 
tablished, and during the very first year of the oper- 
ation of the Worcester road an American-made loco- 
motive was placed upon its tracks and performed 
efficient ser\'ice. In 1841, on the 4th of October, 
the Western road was completed from Worcester to 
the New York line, the Connecticut-river bridge 
having been finished on July 4th; and on the 21st 
of December following the connecting link in New 
York to .Albany was completed, and on that day 

trains were run, thus opening a direct rail line from 
Boston to Albany. This important event was com- 
memorated in March, 1842, by a meeting of the 
executive officers of the States of Massachusetts and 
New York and other prominent men at the Town 
Hall in .Springfield. At the banquet notable 
speeches were made, and one toast, which has gone 
into history, was that offered by General Root, of 
New York, who gave : " The happy union of the 
sturgeon and the codfish ; may their joyous nuptials 
efface the melancholy recollection of the departure 
of the Connecticut-river salmon." The Boston & 
Worcester and the AVestern railroads were operated 
as two distinct corporations until 1869, when they 
were consolidated under the present title of the 
Boston & Albany Railroad Company. This corpo- 
ration now owns and operates 375.70 miles of track, 
and also the Grand Junction Railroad and its finely 
equipped wharves at East Boston, thus securing a 
deep-water connection. It has here a substantial 
grain elevator with a capacity of 1,000,000 bushels, 
and another in the city proper, on Chandler and 



Berkeley streets, with a capacity of 500,000 bushels. 
Its main passenger station on Kneeland street has 
a comfortable head-house and well-arranged train- 
house 444 feet long and JiS}4 wide. Its line to 
New York City is one of the most popular ; four 
flist trains to that city are daily sent out, the 4 
o'clock P.M. train making the run in six hours ; 
and its \\'estern business is very extensive. On 
ail the express trains and road equipment are the 
most approved devices for the comfort and safet)' 
of its passengers. The president of the Boston 
& Albany is William Bliss ; the general-manager, 
W. H. Barnes, and general superintendent, H. T. 

The Boston <s^ Maine Railroad — formed in 
1842 by the consolidation of the Boston & Port- 
land, chartered in Massachusetts in 1833, the Boston 
& Maine, chartered in New Hampshire in 1835, 
and the Maine, New Hampshire, & Massachusetts, 
chartered in Maine in 1836, and opened to the 
junction of the Portland, Saco, & Portsmouth at 
South Berwick, Me., in 1843 — is entitled to second 

mention, from tlie fact that it now operates as part 
of its own system the original Boston & Lowell. 
The latter was the shortest of the initial roads, but 
early in its career made connection with Nashua, 
N.H., and then with the New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont systems to the Canadian line. The Boston & 
Maine leased the Boston & Lowell and its systems 
in 1887, thus securing the control by lease of the 
Boston, Concord, & Montreal, the Nashua & Lowell, 
the Keene branch, the Northern New Hampshire, 
and several minor connecting roads, and the Central 
Massachusetts. Connection was thus made with 
New York via the Worcester & Nashua (included 
in another lease), and with Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
& Washington via the Central Massachusetts and 
the Poughkeepsie bridge. Three years before, in 
December, 1884, the Boston & Maine had effected a 
lease of the Eastern (chartered in 1836, the original 
line from East Boston to the New Hampshire line, 
opened in 1840), which then controlled the trafific 
to the northern shores of Massachusetts and New- 
Hampshire, as well as the bulk of the White Moun- 




tain travel. Thus consolidated the Boston & Maine templated. Until his sudden death in January, 
reaches a much larger area directly by its own lines 1892, James T. Furber was the general manager of 
than any other system in New England. The total this great system ; he had long been the superin- 



length of all lines operated is 1,210.03 niiles : 315.7 
owned ; 894.33 leased. At present it continues the 
three distinct stations, — its own in Haymarket 
square, and the old Eastern and Lowell stations in 
Causeway street ; but a great union station is con- 

tendent of the Boston & Maine before consolida- 
tion. Col. John W. Sanborn is now (1892) general 
manager, and Daniel W. Sanborn general superin- 
tendent. The president of the Boston & Maine 
system is Frank Jones. 


The Old Colony Railroad 
having absorbed by lease the 
lloston & Providence, the 
third of the earliest railroads, 
is next in the list. Chartered 
March i6, 1844, the original 
line between Boston and 
Plymouth (opened in 1845), 
it has gradually extended its 
operations both by building 
and leasing, until it has be- 
come the second largest rail- 
road system in New England. 
It now reaches the south-east- 
ern sections of the State, the 
western part through its leased 
lines, and, by its Providence 
division, New York, by one of 
the best all-rail Boston and 
New York lines. It also con- 
trols the three famous Long 
Island Sound steamer lines, 
— the Fall River, the Ston- 
ington, and the Providence, 
the vessels of which are the 
largest side-wheelers afloat. 
Before its acquisition of the 
Boston & Providence it had 
absorbed the Fall River, the 
Newport and Fall River, the 
Eastern Branch, the South 
Shore, the Vineyard Sound, 
the Duxbury and Cohasset, 
the Dorchester and Milton, 
the Cape Cod, the Boston, 

Clinton, Fitchburg and New Bedford, the Taunton 
and Middleboro, and the Framingham and Lowell 
railroads. It also includes in its system Gridley 
Bryant's " Granite Railway," a part of which exists 
in its original form to the present day. The lease 
of the Boston & Providence, with all its branches 
and leased roads, was secured in 1888; and the 
control of the Providence, Warren, & Bristol road 
is included in this consolidation. The system now 
embraces 577 miles of owned and leased lines of 
railroad, besides the controlling interest in the three 
Sound steamboat lines. The Old Colony also con- 
trols the Union Freight Railway, the tracks of which 
extend along the water-front from its own system to 
that of the Boston & Maine. This road is a dis- 
tributor of freight among all the steam railroads 
entering the city, and to leading wharves for lading 
steanishi])s and other vessels. The station of the 
Providence division of the Old Colony is one of the 



-^ , ■»^'i 



finest m the city : one of the few railway stations in 
which architectural effect as well as utility was con- 
sidered in the plan and constraction. The presi- 
dent of the Old Colony system, Charles F. Choate, 
and the general superintendent, J. R. Kendrick, have 
been for many years connected with the road. 

The charter of the Fitclibiirg Railroad Company 
is dated March 3, 1842, and in 1845 the road was 
completed between Cambridge and Fitchburg. 
After its extension into Boston, in 1848, its growth 
was small and slow for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury. In those years when the north-western part of 
the State was barred by the Hoosac Mountains from 
rail communication with the Hudson and the West, 
the Fitchburg was confined to performing its part in 
local New England transportation. As late as 1873 
the mileage of the road was anything but large, — 
only 50 miles of main line and 43 more of branches. 
Its capital stock was $4,500,000, and it had not a 



dollar of debt, floating or bonded. In 1847 the 
passenger station, now a striking feature of Cause- 
way street, with its walls and battlemented towers of 
dark gray stone, was built, — the oldest railway 

station now in use in the city. The directors in 
their report to the stockholders for 1848 offer their 
congratulations on the completion of the building, 
but find it necessary to make apologies for its size 
and elegance. In those early days of railroads such 
a space as this station afforded was more than 
ample, and its projectors evidently thought it big 
enough for the Fitchburg Railroad for all time. 
Now, however, its utmost limits are barely sufficient, 
and doubtless in the near future the solid structure 
will give place to one more suitable for the needs of 
the terminus of a great and growing trunk line. 
The years immediately following the incorporation 
of the Fitchburg saw the incorporation and con- 
struction of the various roads which now form a part 
of its present great system. The Vermont & Massa- 
chusetts was chartered March 15, 1844, and formed 
the line, 56 miles long, between Fitchburg and 
Greenfield. In the last fifteen years the Fitchburg 
company has greatly improved this property, expend- 
ing upwards of §2,000,000 in the addition of a 
second track and in straightening the curves, -,0 far 
as the rugged nature of the country would jjermit 
and its physical condition to-day is fully equ \\ to the 
requirements of the heavy traffic which now passes 
over it. 

That which gives to the Fitchburg Railroad its 
distinctive character, and has enabled it to develop 
itself from the status of a local road to that of a 
trunk line, is the Hoosac Tunnel. The plan of 

tunnelling the mountain was first proposed in the 
report of the State commission of 1825 on the Boston 
and Hudson-river canal project. Colonel Laommi 
Baldwin, who made the surveys, recommending a 
canal tunnel through it. When the rail- 
roads were introduced and the cause of 
the canal was lost, agitation for a rail- 
road tunnel soon began. In 1848 this 
bore fruit in the organization of the 
Troy & Greenfield Railroad Company 
for the construction of a line from 
Greenfield up the valley of the Deer- 
field river through the mountain to the 
Vermont line, ^\'ork, however, was not 
begun until 1852, and twenty-one years 
jxissed before it was completed. For 
the first ten years the undertaking was 
in the hands of private parties, and 
then the State was compelled to finish 
the job. In 1866 the railroad was 
completed to the mouth of the tunnel, 
and was operated by the Fitchburg 
and Vermont & Massachusetts rail- 
roads jointly until 1874. The date 
when the hole was finally put through was Novem- 
ber 27, 1873, but regular trains did not run until 
1875. The total cost of the tunnel was $26,000,- 
000, and it is an interesting fact that when tunnel- 
ling was first projected in 1825 the cost was 
estimated at §1,948,557. The year 1874 marks the 
point at which the Fitchburg Railroad ceases to be 
of local importance only. The volume of cereal 
products coming East and of manufactured articles 
going West was already enormous, and the final 
opening of the tunnel gave the opportunity of or- 
ganizing another route by which a share of the busi- 
ness could be attracted to Boston. Towards this 




end the Fitchburg leased the Vermont & Massa- 
chusetts by which to assure its connection with the 
Troy & Greenfield and the tunnel at Greenfield. 
This acquisition raised the amount of its capitaliza- 
tion from 84,500,000 to about 89,000,000. During 
the following year were incurred the expenditures 
for improving this new part of the line, and at the 
same time extensive improvements were made in 
terminal facilities here in Boston in anticipation of 
the large business to come through the tunnel. To 
pay for this the Fitchburg increased its capital stock 

and issued more than 85,000,000 of bonds. In 
1S85 it purchased the Boston, Barre, & Gardner, 36 
miles long, giving a connection with Worcester and 
southern New England points. The increase due to 
this addition, and to the improvements above men- 
tioned, raised the capitalization so that in 1886 the 
company controlled property representing 816,000,- 
000. The contract for the operation of the Troy & 
Greenfield by the F"itchburg and the Vermont & 
Massachusetts jointly expired in 1874, and from that 
time until 1S87 that road was operated by the Fitch- 


burg on the toll-gate system. On this systein, how- 
ever, no profit could be gamed by the State out of 
the operation of the tunnel. The cost of the under- 
taking to the Commonwealth had finally reached the 
sum of S 2 4,000,000 ; it had for some time stood at 
the head of the list of the State's non-paying invest- 
ments, and financiers were agreed that the best 
course to pursue was .to dispose of the property to a 
purchaser. The Fitchburg from the start was con- 
fessedly a bidder, and at once entered into negotia- 
tions. The price which was at first considered fair 
was the modest sum of §4,500,000, but other inter- 
ests soon put in an appearance with the effect of 
advancing the Commonwealth's idea of the value of 
its property. The modest sum mentioned above was 
suggested in October, 1886, but at the end of the 
year the tunnel was considered worth not less than 
Si 0,000,000, and that was the price finally agreed 
upon with the Fitchburg. The terms of the agree- 
ment required the consolidation of the two roads 
under the name of the Fitchburg Railroad Com- 
pany. Immediately upon the acquisition of the 
tunnel, and as a necessary outcome of the policy 
which was first instituted by the lease of the Ver- 

mont iS: Massarhusrtts, an arrangement was made 
for the control of the Troy iS: Boston, the line run- 
ning from the Vermont line to Troy, N.Y., a distance 
of 37 miles. Then on June i, 1887, the Fitchburg 
assumed possession of the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel, 
& Western road, whose main line extended from 
the Vermont line, 62 miles, to Rotterdam Junction, 
there ( Dimcc ling with the West Shore road, its total 
iiiiliMge, ini hiding the branch to Saratoga, 87 miles. 
Both (jf these roads had been for some years non- 
dividend-paying properties, mainly owing to the fact 
that they parallel each other for most of their dis- 
tance. The standard of their track and rolling-stock 
had been brought to a low ebb, and large sums had 
to be expended to remedy this deficiency. The fact 
of the lines running parallel from Vermont State line 
to Johnsonville was taken advantage of to extend 
the double-track system to the latter point. On 
October i, 1890, the Cheshire Railroad became a 
part of the Fitchburg, adding $2,625,000 in stock 
and $800,000 in bonds to its capitalization, and 64 
miles to its mileage. Through this line control by a 
connection with northern and Canadian points, by 
way of Bellows Falls, was gained. In less than 


twenty years the Fitchburg has more than quad- 
rupled itself, and the necessary expenditures incident 
to such a rapid development have severely strained 
the earning capacity. The Hoosac Tunnel route, 
however, may still be considered in its infancy, for 
not five years have passed since the Fitchburg 
gained the key to the situation, — the tunnel. The 
total mileage of the Fitchburg is now 436 miles. 

As a measure toward the more advantageous hand- 
ling of through freight, and especially of the export 
traffic to Liverpool and other European ports, the 
Hoosac Tunnel Dock and Elevator Company was 
organized in 1879 under the auspices of the Fitch- 
burg road. A grain elevator with a capacity of 
600,000 bushels was built in the Charlestown dis- 
trict, together with four piers suitable for large steam- 
ships. To-day three lines of steamships run regu- 
larly from the docks of the company, — the Leyland, 
the Furness, and the Allan lines, — for the ports of 
Liverpool, London, and Glasgow respectively. 

The history of the New York c^ New England 
Railroad is a peculiar one. The railroad now owned 
by that corporation is the result of a consolidation 
of a large number of roads which were organized at 
different times, and at different places, and for 
different purposes. Very soon after the first railway 
in the country was constructed public meetings were 
held in Middletown, Conn., and subscriptions made 
as early as 1833, for the purpose of making surveys 
looking to the construction of a through line between 
Boston and New York, to run via Middletown. The 
same year a company was chartered in Connecticut 
to construct a road from Hartford to the quarries in 
the Bolton Mountains ; and a charter was granted 
in Massachusetts for a road from Worcester towards 
New London. The road which was organized in 
Connecticut as the result of the meeting in Middle- 
town was consequently consolidated with a compmy 
chartered in Massachusetts and another company 
chartered in Rhode Island, and the road from 
Boston to New York, as originally contemplated, 
was finally completed in 1872, and now forms the 
shortest route between these cities, and is the route 
over which the popular " New England Limited," or 
so-called " Ghost Train," runs. The road from 
Hartford to the Bolton Mountains was not immedi- 
ately constructed, but the charter was revived in 
1849, and the road built from Providence to Water- 
bury, Conn., a portion of which now forms a part of 
the main line of the New York & New England 
from Boston to the Hudson river. The road from 
Worcester towards New London was constructed 
about the year 1838 from Worcester to Norwich, 
and is leased to the New York & New England ; and 

it now forms, with the boats of the Norwich and 
New York Transportation Company, controlled by 
it, the through rail and boat line called the " Nor- 
wich Line" from Boston to New York. The Massa- 
chusetts portions of the road were originally chartered 
as local roads, about the year 1 849 : the Walpole 
road, extending from Dedham to Walpole ; the Nor- 
folk County, from Dedham to Blackstone ; the 
Charles River Branch and Charles River, from 
Brookline to Woonsocket. Under a peculiar charter 
granted by the Legislature of Connecticut in 1863 
the company known as the Boston, Hartford, & Erie 
was organized with the right to purchase any road 
which might form a part of the through line from 
Boston to the West. This company purchased 
several small roads, and by consolidating and uniting 
them sought to complete a road from Boston to a 
connection with the Erie road at the Hudson river. 
A mortgage was made covering all the consolidated 
roads for $20,000,000, known as the " Berdell 
mortgage." The State of Massachusetts was induced 
to take between three and four million dollars of 
these bonds. .A portion of them were sold to the 
Erie road, and the balance was mostly taken by 
capitalists here in Boston and vicinity. Failing to 
complete the road with the proceeds of these bonds, 
application was again made to the Massachusetts 
Legislature for State aid. This was denied, and the 
property was placed in the hands of a receiver. 
The trustees under the Berdell mortgage, Messrs. 
William T. Hart and Charles P. Clark, took posses- 
sion, foreclosed the mortgage April 17, 1873, and 
the New York & New England Railroad Company 
was organized from the bondholders, each bond- 
holder receiving ten shares of New York & New 
England stock for each Berdell bond held by him. 
The New York & New England Company then com- 
pleted the road from Putnam to Willimantic and 
from Waterbury to the river, and paid off all the 
underlying mortgages, obtaining the necessary money 
for this purpose by making a new first mortgage on 
its property for $10,000,000 and a second mortgage 
for $5,000,000. In 1883 the company became 
financially embarrassed, and its property was placed 
in the hands of a receiver on the ist of January, 
i8cS4. The debts were paid by the issuing of pre- 
ferred stock, and the property was again restored to 
the company on the ist of January, 1885. Since 
that time its business has continued to increase from 
year to year, and its gross earnings for the year end- 
ing June 30, 1 89 1, were between six and seven 
millions of dollars. The company now owns and 
controls over 600 miles of road which form direct 
connection between the cities of Boston, Providence, 





1 ^., "^ 






l^kijii^ a 




)F lO-DAY. 

Worcester, Springfield, and Hartford, New York, and 
the South and West, and it is one of the largest 
roads in New England. It also possesses admirable 
terminal facilities at tide-water. The present presi- 
dent (1892) is Charles Parsons. ' 

Boston, Revere Beach, &= Lynn Railroad. Eigh- 
teen or twenty years ago attention was called to 
large tracts of unoccupied land in East Boston and 
Revere, and in the immediate vicinity of Revere 
beach, and the plan was conceived of opening up 


these lands by building a narrow-gauge railroad, 
which at that time, as the result of the successful 
Festiniog Railroad in Wales and the use of the 
Fairlee bogie engines, was coming into vogue in 
this country. By a happy thought the new line 
was projected along the crest of Revere beach and 
across the Saugus river to the foot of Market 
street, Lynn, thus in connection with the ferry 
across Boston harbor, making a short and attrac- 
tive route between the two cities. The road was 
rapidly, in fact, hastily, built and put in operation. 
It was but a single-track road using a light thirty-five- 
pound iron rail, and the bridges were of the most 
temporary form of construction. The road was 
opened in July, 1875, and immediately made Revere 
beach accessible to thousands of pleasure seekers 

who before could reach it only by a long circuitous 
drive. The road earned during the summer months 
a handsome surplus over expenses. The next, or 
centennial year, the phenomenal business was re- 
])eated, but unsettled land damages, together with 
the purchase of additional equipment, taxed the 
resources of the road, so that at the close of the 
year its stock was below par. January i, 1877, a 
new management took charge, the president being 
the late Edwin Walden, of Lynn. The indebtedness 
was funded, the land-damage claims were 
settled, and a systematic improvement of the 
road-bed, structures, and equipment undertaken. 
'I'he attractions of the beach were advertised, 
and outdoor entertainments on the grounds of 
the Ocean House were instituted, the success 
of which led to the establishment of the Point 
of Pines enterprise. The buildings of the latter 
were opened in 1881, and a great increase in 
the summer business of the road followed. The 
regular running of trains the year round, to- 
gether with the addition of evening trains, soon 
began to develop the lands of the land com- 
panirs. resulting in the rapid growth of the 
]irt_-scnt \illages of Crescent beach, Beachmont, 
anil Wiuthrop, the latter being reached by a 
separate road afterwards consolidated with the 
mam line. In 1882 the superintendent, Mr. 
Whorf, resigned to take charge of the Tampico 
Division of the Mexican Central, and his as- 
sistant, Charles A. Hammond, of Lynn, was 
elected to his place. Under Mr. Hammond's 
charge the road had been double-tracked and 
steel-railed, its equipment nearly doubled, new 
stations built, a circuit line in Winthrop con- 
structed, and other improvements completed, 
notably the terminal station and ferry-slip in 
Boston. For the past three years fifteen-min- 
ute trains have been run the greater part of the 
day during the summer season, while the increased 
business from Winthrop has been provided for by 
"through" trains. On March 12, 1889, occurred 
the death of President Walden, under whose man- 
agement the road had attained solid prosperity and 
the value of the stock had quadrupled. The 
present president is Melville O. Adams. 

The Street Railway system was introduced in 
Boston in 1856, the first line, established by the 
Metropolitan Company (chartered in 1853), from 
Boylston street to Guild row, Roxbury. This was 
opened in September, and before winter had fairly 
set in the line at the Boston end was extended to 
Scollay square. Thereafter the development of the 
system was rapid. In December the same year 



the South Boston line was opened, and earlier in the underground conduit was tried, and beyond 

the season the Cambridge ; the next year the West Chester park the overhead trolley wires were 

Middlesex to Charlestown ; and in 1859 a line to used. About a month later some electric cars of 

Brookline. Very soon all these lines were extended Thomson-Houston make were started between 

in various directions, and spurs thrown out, and the Bowdoin square and Harvard square, Cambridge, 

principal business thoroughfares of the city were They were operated by the Thomson-Houston 

occupied by the rails. In 1872 the Highland line, company for six months, and the test proving satis- 

in competition with the Metropolitan, was estab- 
lished, and in 1882 the Charles-river, in competi- 
tion with the Cambridge lines. Then in 1SS7 
began the revolution in the street-railway system, 
brought about by the West F".nd Company. It was 

factory to the West End Company it gave an order 
for 600 motors. This was the first decisive step in 
the adoption of the system which was subsequently 
extended over the city. The conduit line proving 
unsatisfactory had before that been abandoned. 

a very modest beginning. The original capital was By autumn the work of introducing the new sys- 

but 5680,000, and the line was primarily intended to tem had begun in earnest. The power was origi- 

run to Brookline, for the purpose of developing the nally furnished from a power-house in Allston and 

territory in that town controlled by the West End from the Cambridge Electric Light Company, but 

Land Company. Consolidation of the existing soon the West End Company purchased the old 

companies with the West End, however, speedily Hinckley Locomotive Works, with grounds extend- 

followed. First the Metropolitan was secured ; ing from Harrison avenue to Albany street, and 

then the Highland acquired the Middlesex ; next here began the construction of its own great power- 

the Cambridge and the Charles-river were united ; house equipped with Macintosh & Seymour en- 

and finally the ^\'est End, with S6, 000, 000 of pre- 
ferred stock, §1,500,000 common stock, and 
§1,500,000 in outstanding bonds, was in posses- 
sion of them all. At the time of the consolidation, 
effected the 12th of November, 1887, the new 
company owned 1*480 cars and nearly 8,000 horses. 
A year later there were 500 more cars and a thou- 
sand more horses. On the ist of January, 1889, 
the first experimental electric line was started. 
This ran from Park square to Chestnut hill and 
Allston. From the square to West Chester park 



gines and Thomson-Houston generators. Mean- 
while the rolling-stock of the company was rapidly 
increased and its number of routes increased. In 
1 89 1 it had 469 electric cars on its lines and 1,692 
horse-cars; of the electric cars, 255 with a seating 
capacity one-third greater than the old short cars. 
With the opening of 1892, 172 more long cars 
were ready for the electric service. Three types 
of electric cars are employed : the eight-wheel cars, 
designed by Louis Ptingst, the master mechanic of 
the road ; the six-wheel Robinson radial cars ; and 
the Pullman double-deckers. 
One having a fondness for 
figures has made this pictur- 
esque calculation : that the 
cars of the consolidated lines 
go twice around the globe 
every day ; they carry twice 
the number of people in the 
United States every year ; the 
cars in a train would extend 
twenty miles ; the car-houses 
cover more ground than is 
included in the Public Gar- 
den. In 1890 the West End 
Company obtained a charter 
for ele\ated railways, but 
0])erations under it were sus- 
IK-ndcd |)ending the report 
and recomniendations of the 
ka|ii(l Transit Commission 
created by the Legislature of 
I So I, its members ajipointed 



by the governor of the State and the mayor of the 
city. This commission made an exhaustive inquiry 
into the whole question examining systems in Eu- 
ropean as well as in American cities, and made 
lireliminary reports in February, 1892, upon the 
advantage of a combination of the elevated and 
tunnel systems. 



AX unusual number of buildings within the busi- 
ness quarters of the Boston of To-day are 
notable, many for their architectural design and 
decoration, and others for their historic associa- 
tions. Here are nearly all of the public buildings, 
national. State, and city ; the great exchanges ; 
several of the older literary institutions ; theatres ; 
hotels ; newspaper buildings ; Faneuil Hall, the Old 
State-House, the Old South Meeting-house, King's 
Chapel, and other cherished landmarks. 

Of the older public buildings the Custom-House, 
at the foot of State street, built entirely — walls, 
columns, roof, and dome — of granite, in the pure 
Doric style, is to-day the most interesting. De- 
signed to " stand for generations " it was con- 
structed with great deliberation, twelve years being 
consumed in the work. To making a secure foun- 
dation three of the dozen years were devoted. It 
is in the form of the Greek cross ; and the features 
of its exterior are the massive fluted columns 
surrounding it, 32 in all, each shaft being in one 
piece, five feet four inches in diameter, and weigh- 
ing about 42 tons. The porticos, on high flights of 
steps, have each six columns. The granite dome 
at the intersection of the cross terminates with a 
skylight 25 feet in diameter, and granite tile covers 
the roof. Drake informs us that the building con- 
tains " about the same number of cubic feet of stone 
as Bunker-Hill Monument." The feature of the 
interior is the cross-shaped rotunda, finished in the 
Grecian Corinthian order. Amnii B. Young was 
the architect of the building. Its construction was 
authorizeil by the Twenty-third Congress, in 1835, 
when Jackson was President, and it was completed 
during Polk's administration — opened August i, 
1847. Now some distance from the water front, 

when it was built the bowsprits of vessels lying at 
Long wharf and stretching across the street, almost 
touched its eastern front. 

The new Chamber of Commerce building (com- 
pleted in 1892), at the junction of India street and 
Central wharf, is of peculiar design. Like its 
neighbor, the Custom-House, it is constructed of 
granite, but there the likeness ends. In order to 
conform to the limitations of its site the building is 
irregular in plan. The corner at the junction of 
India street and Central wharf is rounded into a 
large circle of 40 feet radius, and is carried up as a 
large tower capped by a lofty conical roof sur- 
rounded by high dormer-windows. The other 
corner, on India street, is similarly rounded into a 
smaller tower. The building is seven stories high ; 
the height of the cornice above the sidewalk is 95 
feet, and from the sidewalk to the top of the coni- 
cal roof is 170 feet. On the first floor each of the 
three principal rooms is accessible from the street 
and from the corridors. The circular room, 80 
feet in diameter, with its domed ceiling, the apex 
of which is 38 feet above the floor, is the board 
room proper. Over the entrance is the gallery for 
visitors. Opening from the board room is the large 
reading-room, 1,500 square feet in area ; one side 
of the room almost entirely of glass. Connected 
with this by sliding doors are the two parlors and 
other rooms. The fourth, fifth, and sixth floors are 
used for offices. The building is fire-proof, the 
only woodwork being the doors and the wooden 
finish of the floors. It is well provided with stair- 
ways and elevators and is lighted by electricity. 
Shepley, Rutan, & Coolidge were the architects. It 
was dedicated in a cheerful fashion, with a recep- 
tion, banquet, and speeches, on the 20th and 21st 
of January, 1892. Formed by the union of the' 
Commercial and the Produce Exchanges in Sep- 
tember, 1885, the Chamber of Commerce is one of 
the youngest of the business institutions of the city. 
It comes of good Boston stock, a lineal descendant 
of the first Chamber of Commerce, born about 1803. 
That was succeeded by the first Corn Exchange, 
founded in 1839 ; that in turn by the second Corn 
Exchange, founded in 1855 ; and that by the Com- 
mercial Exchange, founded in 1870, now absorbed 
in the new organization. Its main objects are to 
promote just and equitable principles of trade ; 
establish and maintain uniformity in commercial 
usage ; correct abuses that may exist ; acquire, pre- 
serve, and disseminate valuable business infor- 
mation ; adjust controversies and misunderstand- 
ings among its members ; and generally to advance 
the interest of trade and commerce in the city. 




The Quincy Market-house (or Faneuil Hall, its 
official title), another near neighbor of the Custom 
House, but in the opposite direction, is of the same 
style of architecture and similar in design. Built 
also of Quincy granite, its strong points are its 
portico at either end, of four granite columns, each 
shaft in one piece, and its well-proportioned dome. 
It covers 27,000 feet of land, is 535 feet long, and 
two stories high. It was built in 1825-6, at a cost, 

exclusive of the land, of §150,000. As the central 
features of the great improvements planned and 
successfully carried through by the energetic and 
far-sighted first Mayor Quincy,' in the face of 
stout opposition from conservative Bostonians who 
regarded the " Quincy schemes " as visionary, it 
stands a substantial monument of his administra- 
tion. Alexander Parris was the architect of the 

' See introductory chapter, page 2. 



building. A few years before, in conjunction with gotten that the first one, built on town land in 1742 
Solomon AVillard, he had designed the St. Paul's at the expense of Peter Faneuil, then one of the 

wealthiest merchants of the town, was intended pri- 

C'hurch on Tremont street. 

Famous Faneuil Hall, the " Old Cradle of marily for a market-house ; and that its establish- 

Liberty," opposite the Quincy Market-house, and ment was the outcome of a spirited local war over 

facing the square, is still the people's forum. The the town market-houses. A few years before Faneuil 

present building dates from 1763. It is not for- made his proposition to build the market-house and 




to give it to tlie town on condition that the people 
should legally authorize it and maintain it under 
proper regulations, the Dock-square Market-house 
which had stood on its site had been demolished 
by a mob " disguised as clergymen." The 
question over which the people quarrelled was 
whether they should be ser\'ed at fixed localities or 

at their homes, as before the establishment of the 
town markets ; and such was the divisions of public 
opinion that Faneuil's offer was accepted by a 
majority of only seven out of the whole number 
votmg. The first house was a small affair, two 
stories high, the hall in the second story, lOO feet 
by 40 ; and it was designed by John Simibert, the 



painter. Faneuil died on the jd of March, 174.5, 
and it so happened that the first pubHc gathering 
in the new hall was on the occasion of the delivery 
of a eulogy of him, pronounced by Master Lovell, 
of the Latin School. On the 13th of January, 
I 761, this first building was burned, the walls only 
remaining, and the town immediately voted to re- 
build. Funds for the jiurpose were in part raised 
by a lottery, — lotteries then being authorized by 
law, — as money for paving streets had been 
raised a few years before. The new Faneuil Hall 
was completed in March, 1763, and on the 14th 
was formally dedicated to " the cause of liberty," 
James Otis delivering the dedicatory address. It 
was in this hall that the great town-meetings were 
held in the exciting times preceding the Revolu- 
tion, and from its platform the patriot orators of 
the day stirred and 
ner\ed the people with 
their fiery eloquence. On 
the reception of the news 
of the repeal of the Stamp 
.Act it was gayly illumi- 
nated, by vote of the 
town. During the Siege 
it was transformed into 
a playhouse' for the en- 
tertainment of the " Brit- 
ishers" and the loyalists 
shut up in the town. It 
was not until 1805 that 
the building was enlarged 
to its present proportions. 
Then it was e.xtended in 
width eighty feet and in- 
creased in height ; the 
third story was added, 
the galleries put in, and 
the interior remodelled : 
all according to plans 
drawn by the architect, 
Bulfinch. The grasshop- 
jjer vane on the tip of 
the cupola, an imitation 
of the pinnacle on the 
Royal Exchange, in Lon- 
don, was cut out by Dea- 
con Shem Drown, and 
adorned the first build- 
ing. Most of the paint- 
ings which now hang on 
the walls of the public 
hall are copies, the origi- 

I .See ch.ipter on Theatres. 

nals being in the Museum of Fine .Arts. The 
great painting by Healy, which hangs back of the 
platform, occupying almost the entire area of the 
rear wall, represents Webster addressing the Senate 
on the occasion of his celebrated reply to Hayne, 
of South Carolina. The room is the old Senate 
Chamber now occupied by the United States 
Supreme Court, and the figures in the painting 
are most of them portraits of senators and dis- 
tinguished citizens of that day. The upper hall of 
the building, used as the armory of the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery, contains a number of objects 
of historic interest collected by this ancient or- 
ganization, — the oldest military company in the 
country. The market yet flourishes, occupying the 
street floor and the basement. 

The Post-office and Sub-Treasury, the great 

J- -in 




granite ])ile, a composition of pilasters and columns 
and round-arched ornamented windows, facing 
Post-ofifice square, covers an area of nearly 45,000 
feet of land. The fagades rise 100 or more feet 
above the sidewalks, and the central portion of 
each reaches a height of 126 feet. The sculptured 
figures high up on the Post-office square front adorn 
the building. They are seventeen feet high, of 
Vermont marble, and the work of Daniel C. French, 
of Concord. The group on the left represents 
Labor supporting Domestic Life and sustaining the 
Fine Arts, and that on the right Science controlling 
the forces of Electricity and Steam. In the first 
Labor is portrayed by a stalwart figure leaning 
against an anvil, its horn supporting his right arm, 
with the mother and child at his side, and at his left 
the Fine .\rts, a graceful female figure, supporting a 
vase on her knee, sculptured masks and capitals 
lying at her feet. Li the other group Science, a 
woman, is seated, directing with her right hand 
Electricity, a youth with winged feet, resting with 
her left hand on the shoulder of Steam, who is 
chained to a locomotive wheel. Her foot rests up- 
on a closed volume, — her undiscovered secrets, — 
and her left arm supports a horseshoe magnet with 
a thunderbolt as an armature. The Post-office De- 
partment occupies the basement, ground floor, and 
a portion of the second story of the building ; on 
the second floor are the Sub-Treasury with its 
ornate " Marble Cash Room," the Naval Pay Office, 
and the Internal Revenue offices ; the third floor is 
entirely occupied by the United States courts and 
connecting offices ; the fourth contains the offices 
of the Light-house Board, Light-house Inspector, 
special agents of the Treasury, jury, and model 
rooms ; and the fifth is devoted to the Signal Ser- 
vice Department. The total cost of the structure, 
land and all appurtenances, was $5,894,295. It was 
projected in 1867, but building did not begin until 
1869; and it was not until .August, 1885, that the 
work was done. Previous to its establishment here 
the Post-office had been a wanderer about the town. 
During a large part of the time before the Revolu- 
tion it was in buildings on Washington street, then 
called Cornhill, between Water street and the 
present Cornhill. During the Siege it was estab- 
lished in Cambridge. .After the Evacuation it re- 
turned to the east side of Washington street, near 
State. .'Afterwards it was removed to State street, 
on the site of the first meeting-house of the colon- 
ists, about where Brazer's building now is : then 
for a while it was in the old State House ; then in 
the old Merchants' Exchange building (the site of 
which is now covered by the great State-street Ex- 

change), where the fire of 1872 overtook it: then 
for a brief period in Faneuil Hall ; and then for a 
longer time in the Old South Meeting-house, from 
which it moved into its present permanent quarters. 

Surrounding the Post-office and in its immediate 
neighborhood are a number of handsome modern 
buildings. The group on the south side of the 
square, along the line of Milk street, composed of 
the towering granite structure of the Equitable Life 
Assurance Society, the white marble building of the 
Mutual Insurance Company of New York, with its 
graceful tower, and the granite building of the New 
England Mutual Life, are especially interesting. A 
short distance down Milk street, at the corner of 
Oliver, the great stone building of the American 
Telephone Company, completed in 1891, and the 
Mason building occupying the middle of Liberty 
square, are well designed and adorn the neighbor- 

Ambitious buildings erected on State street in re- 
cent years have greatly changed the appearance of 
this historic old thoroughfare. It is no longer pic- 
turesquely old-fashioned. With the colossal State- 
street Exchange, the massive Fiske building, the 
Farlow building, and other new structures of more 
or less elaborate design, the old street has become 
in large part modernized, and before very long will 
be entirely transformed. The Exchange, extend- 
ing from Congress to Kilby streets, while not so 
attractive architecturally as some of its. neighbors, 
fulfils the requirements of modern business in a 
way which cannot be excelled by any similar struct- 
ure in the country. In its eleven hundred and odd 
rooms are gathered representatives of nearly all the 
business professions. Lawyers and brokers flourish 
in richest profusion. But its distinguished charac- 
teristic lies in the fact that it contains the commo- 
dious (|uarters of the Stock Exchange. The great 
chamber, immediately opposite the main entrance 
on the first floor, is 115 feet long by 50 wide, and 
35 feet high. The interior decorations are in 
white and light yellow, and the Corinthian pillars 
around the side lend digftity to the room. The 
frescoing is rich. Over the door is the large vis- 
itors' gallery. In the middle of the chamber on 
the right is the " pulpit," where the chairman sits 
during the sessions. Near by is the telegraph 
room ; on the same side, at the farther end of the 
chamber, is the Boston Stock Board, and opposite 
that the New York board, with a nest of telephone 
boxes beneath it. Opposite the "pulpit" is the 
entrance to the bond-room, with its massive black 
Tennessee marble fireplace. The Exchange build- 
ing, built of stone, is in the Italian Renaissance. 





Begun in June, 1.SS9, it was completed on April 20, 
1 89 1, when the quarters of the Stock Exchange 
were occupied. Its cost above the ground was 
gi, 800,000, and including the land, §3,376,500. 
Peabody & Stearns were the architects of the build- 

At the head of State street still stands the quaint 
old State House, — the Town House before the 
Revolution, — restored through the well-directed 
efforts of good citizens to something quite like its 
appearance during the most exciting periods of its 
history. In 1882, at the time when it was rescued 
from the vandals, who in this case were the city 
authorities, it was in a deplorable condition. For 
years it had been a homely place of law and gen- 
eral business offices. The interior and exterior had 
been built over and built upon, and changed and 
cut up, in a most ruthless manner, that the city, to 
whom it belonged, might receive the fullest income 
in rentals from it. An ugly mansard roof had been 
built out from the fine old timbers, some of which 
were hacked almost apart to accomplish this work. 
The neglected, dingy face of the building was plas- 
tered with business signs. The work of restoration 
was done as thoroughly as possible, and with the 
utmost care as to details. Above the second story 
the exterior of the building is a quite faithful copy 
of the old. The windows of the upper story are 
modelled upon the small-paned windows of colonial 
days. The balcony of this story was restored upon 
the model of the still existing attic balcony, and is 
reached through the original window of twisted 
crown glass. In place of the mansard roof was 
rebuilt the old pitch-roof resting upon the original 
timbers. On the eastern gables copies of the lion 
and unicorn were placed ; and subsequently, to 
appease over-sensitive citizens who foolishly ob- 
jected to this part of the restoration, a bright gilt 
eagle was set up on the western front with the State 
and city arms. The building is painted a yellowish 
olive, with darker trimmings, following the colors in 
the oldest oil painting of the structure in existence, 
bearing the date of 1800. The interior, again 
above the first story, shows the arrangement and 
architecture of the old time. The two main halls 
here have the same floor and ceilings, and on three 
sides the same walls that they had in 1748. The 
finish here consists of dado, frieze, and ornamental 
mantels and doorcases. In the eastern room, look- 
ing down State street, an apartment not more than 
thirty-two feet square, the royal governor and council 
used to sit in the days before the Revolution ; and in 
the western room, on the Washington-street end, sat 
the General Court. The whole of the second floor. 

the attics and cupola, are leased by the city to the 
Bostonian Society, the organization which secured 
the restoration, incorporated in 1881 " to promote 
the study of the history of the city of Boston and the 
preservation of its antiquities." It maintains in the 
rooms a free public exhibition of a most interesting 
collection of antiquities. 

No building now standing in the city has a more 
interesting history than this Old State House. Built 
in 1748 upon the site of the former Town House 
which had been burned, the walls of the latter util- 
ized in the new structure, it became the <|uarters of 
the courts and the legislature of the colony, of the 
royal governors and the provincial council ; after the 
Revolution, the meeting-place of the General Court 
of the Commonwealth ; after the town became a 
city, the City Hall ; and for a while the post-office. 
In front of its doors, during the Stamp Act excite- 
ment, the people burned the stamped clearances. 
Within the building, in 1768, the British troops 
were quartered, taking possession of all parts of it 
except the council chamber, " to the great annoy- 
ance of the courts while they sat, and of the mer- 
chants and gentlemen of the town who had always 
used its lower floor as their_ exchange. " Near its 
eastern porch occurred the Boston Massacre of 
March 5, 1770. Within the council chamber Sam 
Adams, as chairman of the committee of the great 
town meetings held the next day, which voted that 
the town " should be evacuated by the soldiers at 
all hazards," demanded of Lieut. -(iovernor Hutch- 
mson and the council the immediate removal of the 
troops " with such dignity and firmness " that the 
request was promptly complied with.' Here Gen- 
eral (iage held a council of war with Generals Howe 
and Clinton just before the affair at Bunker Hill. 
As the royal proclamations had been read from the 
balcony at the east end, so the Declaration of In- 
dependence was read when " undissembled festivity 
cheered and lightened every face. " And that 
night in the sciuare before the house " every King's 
Arms in Boston and every sign with any resem- 
blance of it, whether Lion and Crown, Pestle and 
Mortar and Crown, Heart and Crown, &c., together 
with every sign that belonged to a Tory, was taken 

■d in her statue 
il in old Dock 
The p.itriot is 

i\ Boston 

. hiselled 
linid be- 

1 I nun J 

]j I II 11 "J 









down and made a general conflagration of." In 
one of its rooms the constitution of the State was 
planned ; here the convention that ratified the new 
United States Constitution sat before adjourning to 
the Federal-street meeting-house ; ' and here Wash- 
ington on the occasion of his last visit to Boston, in 
1789, standing on the platform of the colonnade at 

1 The convention first met in the old Brattle-square meeting-house, 
which stood until 1S71, when it was sold and torn down to make way 
for a business block. 

the west end of the building projecting " boldly into 
the main street so as to exhibit in a strong light the 
man of the people," reviewed the great procession in 
his honor. In later times, when it was the City Hall, 
it was made the refuge of William Lloyd Garrison 
from the mob of October, 1835, which had broken 
up an anti-slavery meeting. Here Mayor Lyman 
rescued him, and, as night was falling, by a ruse got 
him out from the northern door and safely con- 
veyed to the old Leverett-street jail for protection. 




Other notable buildings, new business structures 
in this neighborhood which command attention 
either by their style or size, are the towering Ames 
building, on the corner of Washington and Court 
streets, sixteen stories high and the loftiest in town 
(Shepley, Rutan, & Coolidge, architects) ; the sub- 
stantial Sears building, on the opposite corner of the 
same streets, in part rebuilt and considerably en- 
larged in 1890-91 after a fire which burned out a 
portion of the interior (Cummings & Sears, archi- 
tects) : and the Hemenway building, on the corner 
of Tremont street and Pemberton square. Of these 
the new Ames building attracts most attention by 
reason of its height and ornateness of design. It 
covers an exceedingly small area when it is consid- 
ered that its granite walls rise a distance of 190 feet. 
In less than twenty months from the date of the 
building permit, the nth of December, 1889, the 
work was completed. The cost was between 
§600,000 and §700,000. Here are established sev- 
eral banking institutions and many professional and 
business men. 

The City Hall, on School street, its highly orna- 
mented front and the west walls of white Concord 
granite, and those on the City Hall avenue and 
Court square sides of stone from the old City Hall 
that stood on the same spot, was designed by C. 
J. F. Bryant and Arthur Oilman. Its style is the 
Italian Renaissance as elaborated by modern French 
architects. The heavy dome which crowns the 
structure is itself surrounded by a balcony with 
lions' heads at its corners and a gilded eagle at the 
front. Planned on a liberal scale, it was supposed 
that the building would be fully equal to the needs 
of the city for many years ; but it early proved inad- 
equate, and many departments of the government 
are now crowded into other quarters in nearby 
buildings. If the erection of an entirely new City 
Hall on Beacon street between Somerset and Bow- 
doin streets (the project proposed by Mayor Mat- 
thews in 1892) is not authorized, it is possible that 
u))on the completion of the new Court House an 
annex to the present building will be constructed 
from the present Court House, or upon its site, 
across Court square. The City Hall yard, through 
which the building is approached, is made attrac- 
tive by well-kept lawns and masses of flowers or 
plants displayed in the large urns. Of the bronze 
statues on either side of the walk, that of Frank- 
lin, by Richard S. Greenough, was first set up in 
1856 in front of the old City Hall, and moved to 
its present position in 1865 ; and that of the first 
Mayor Quincy, by Thomas Ball, was placed on 
the 17th of September, 1879. Both have re- 

ceived their fair share of criticism ; but the sober 
judgment of the quieter critics was evidently ex- 
pressed by those who pronounced the one a most 
interesting statue, and the other a strong figure un- 
gracefully draped. The Franklin stands eight feet 
high on its granite pedestal capped with a block of 
verd-antique. The four bas-reliefs represent in- 
teresting periods in the philosopher's career. The 
cost of the statue was met by popular subscription, 
and on the occasion of its dedication Robert C. 
Winthrop was the orator. The Quincy statue was 
paid for from the income of the Jonathan Phillips 
fund.^ The present City Hall was dedicated on 
the 1 8th of September, 1865. That which preceded 
it, the then " Old Court House " remodelled, had 
been used since 1840, and before that the Old 
State House was the City Hall. The first city 
government was organized in Faneuil Hall (the 
ist of May, 1822). 

Nearly opposite the foot of School street, oc- 
cupying the corner of Washington and Milk, stands 
the Old South Meeting-house, another historic land- 
mark, for the preservation of which we are indebted 
to a few patriotic citizens. Jealously protected, it 
holds its place in one of the busiest parts of the 
city. The external appearance has not changed in 
a hundred and fifty years. Standing in Governor 
John Winthrop's lot, it is an historic building oc- 
cupying historic ground. Until its destruction by 
the British during the Siege, the old homestead of 
the first governor stood next the church towards 
Spring lane. The land for the meeting-house was 
given by Madam Mary Norton, to whom the Win- 
throp estate ultimately passed in trust, " forever for 
the erecting of a house for their assembling them- 
selves together publiquely to worship God." In the 
little cedar meeting-house, the first built on the spot 
(in 1669), Benjamin Franklin was baptized in 1703, 
when his father's home was across the way on Milk 
street, the site of which was for many years marked 
by the "Post" building at No. 15. And in 1696 
Judge Sewall stood up in his pew here while his 
confession of contrition for his share in the witch- 
craft delusion was read. The present house was 
built in 1730 and dedicated in April that year. It 
was within this building that those great town-meet- 
ings for which Faneuil Hall was too small were 
held, when momentous questions were considered 
and decisive action taken. It was here that the 
overflowing meeting the day after the " Boston 
Massacre " waited while Sam Adams and the others 
of its committee went back and forth to the Town 




House until Hutchinson yielded and gave the order 
for the withdrawal of the troops. Here on the 27th 
of November, 1773, was held the great meeting 
which resolved that the " Odious Tea " should not 
be landed; and on the i6th of December the last 
of the series, and the greatest of all, which was 
followed by the destruction of the tea by the " Sons 
of Liberty " disguised as " Mohawks." This was the 
meeting of seven thousand determined townsmen 
who sat until long after candle-light waiting for the re- 
turn of the messengers sent to Hutchinson, who had 
stolen off to his country place at Milton ; and when 
they finally appeared with the word that he had 
refused his pass for the tea ships to proceed to sea, 
" solemnly arose the voice of Samuel Adams, ' this 
meeting can do nothing more to save the country.' 
Then rang from the gallery the signal war-whoop. 
It was reechoed from the street below. The meet- 
ing adjourned to Griffin's (now Liverpool) wharf, 
and the work was done." Here Warren delivered 
the annual oration commemorative of the " Massa- 
cre " in March, 1775, three months before he was 
killed at Bunker Hill, when the doorways, aisles, 
and pulpit steps and platform were occupied by 
British officers and soldiers; making his entrance 
into the church through the window back of the 
pulpit to avoid an affray by forcing his way through 
the crowded doorway and aisles. During the 
Siege the meeting-house was transformed into 
a for Burgoyne's regiment of the 
" Queen's Light Dragoons." " Dirt and gravel was 
spread on the floor," says Frothingham ; " a bar 
was fixed over which the cavalry leaped their horses 
at full speed ; the east galleries were allotted to 
spectators ; the first gallery was fitted up as a re- 
freshment-room. A stove was put up in the winter, 
and here were burnt for kindling many of the books 
and manuscripts of Prince's fine library." After 
the Revolution the interior was restored to its 
former condition. No regular religious services 
have been held in the meeting-house since 1872, 
when the Old South Society moved to the Back 
Bay. After the Great Fire of 1872, which happily 
spared it, it was used as the post-office, as has 
already been stated, until the com])letion of the 
first section of the present government building. 
The loan exhibition of Revolutionary and other 
relics which was afterwards established within the 
meeting-house has been enriched by gifts from time 
to time, until now it has become one of the most 
interesting collections in town. The fees received 
for admission go into the preservation fund. The 
Old South lectures to young people given each 
season in the meeting-house help to keep fresh in 

the minds of the youth of the day the details of the 
history of their country. 

For the preser%ation of King's Chapel, which 
marks the corner of School and Tremont streets, 
no movement of citizens has yet been necessary. 
It has been steadfastly protected and sustained by 
those who possess it. No finer example of the 
architecture of its day remains with us. Built of 
dark granite, — the stone brought from Braintree, 
where it was taken from the surface of the ground, as 
there were then no quarries, — with its small quaint 
windows, its heavy square tower surrounded by 
wooden Ionic columns, and its low roof, it stands in 
a neighborhood of most modern buildings a digni- 
fied and picturesque relic of the past. Most inter- 
esting, however, is the interior. Its rows of 
columns supporting the ceiling, the richly painted 
windows of the chancel, the antique pulpit and 
reading-desk, the square high-backed pews, the 
mural tablets, and the sculptured marble monu- 
ments lining the outer walls, — all combine to im- 
press the visitor with its faithful likeness to old 
London city churches. The corner-stone was laid 
in 1749, but the structure was slow in building, 
and it was not until the late summer of 1754 
that the first services were held within its walls. 
Then it was without the portico, which was not 
completed until 1789; and the steeple, which was 
embraced in the design of the architect, Peter 
Harrison, was never built. During the Siege the 
British officers attended the regular services of the 
chapel, and among the royalists who fled with 
Howe's army when the town was evacuated was its 
rector, taking with him the church registers and 
vestments. Then for about five years, while its 
own meeting-house was undergoing repairs, the Old 
South Society occupied the chapel, and it was not 
until 1782 that the remnant of the old parish again 
took possession of it. It was in that year reopened 
for regular services, with James Freeman as 
" reader ; " and the interesting fact is frequently re- 
called that under his teachings the first Episcopal 
church established in Boston became the first 
Unitarian. The change was formally made in 1787, 
when Dr. Freeman was ordained rector, and the 
connection with the American Protestant Episcopal 
Church terminated. The first King's Chapel, which 
the present succeeded, was that one built in 
1688, during the administration of the arbitrary 
Andros, whom the colonists finally overthrew, for 
the first Episcopal parish whose services had previ- 
ously been held in the Old South, the use of which 
a portion of each Sunday for this purpose Andros 
peremptorily demanded. The site for the chajjel 

i^t^t^l^ '^^'^ 

I II -' ■ Jill 




was taken by Andros from the territory set aside for its sides are bounded by Pemberton sciuare, a third 

the old burying-ground — the oldest in town, in by Somerset street, and the rear of the building 

which are the graves of (Governor John Winthrop, ends far down the slope to the north, where it abuts 

his son and grandson, (;overnor Shirley, Lady against a block of dwelling-houses on Somerset 

Andros, John Cotton, John Davenport, John Oxen- street. The material used in construction is 

bridge, and others of the early settlers. This site granite from ([uarries in Maine and Massachusetts, 

was subsequently legally acquired, in 1749, by pur- 
chase from the town. 

The new Court House for the County of Suffolk, 
occupying the entire west side of Pemberton 
square, is intended to replace the gloomy granite 
structure in Court square, which since the year 
1836 has served the various purposes of a seat of 
justice for the county. In its natural features the 
site is admirably chosen. The ground slopes from 
its base on three sides, and upon the fourth a 
gentle ascent leads to the State House, two blocks 
away, crowning Beacon hill. The new building 
stands upon the easterly slope of the hill ; two of 

with the exception of that portion of the rear build- 
ing fronting on Somerset street, to be occupied 
by the city prison and criminal courts, which is 
of faced brick trimmed with granite. The new 
structure is massive but symmetrical in its propor- 
tions. The style of architecture is of the German 
Renaissance. The plan is upon the system of open 
court-yards, there being four within the area of the 
general block, with all the rooms and corridors, to- 
gether with the exterior walls grouped about them, 
and thus an abundance of light and air is obtained 
for all the various apartments at every section of 
the building. The actual area in the four court- 




yards required to fulfil the object of light and air is 
14,632 square feet, while the building itself covers 
about 65,356 feet. The building proper is 85 feet 
in height; to the top of the central dome, 250 feet 
above Pemberton square level ; the length is 450 
feet; and the greatest width 190 feet. The con- 
struction of this Court House was begun under the 
authority of an act of the Legislature of 1885, and 
the work was placed under the direction of a board 
of three commissioners, Solomon B. Stebbins, 
Thomas J. Whidden, and Godfrey Morse, appointed 
by the mayor of Boston. A competition was 
entered into among the architects of the country, 
and about thirty responded. The designs prepared 
by George A. Clough were selected, and under his 
direction the building is being erected. The 
corner-stone was laid on June 6, 1887, and the 
work will be completed this year (1892). Its 
total estimated cost is $2,500,000. It contains 
ample and convenient accommodations for the 
Supreme Judicial Court of the Commonwealth, the 
Superior Civil Court and Criminal Court, the Mu- 
nicipal Criminal and Civil Courts, the Probate Court 
and Registry, and the Juvenile Court and Inquests. 
The sherift's and similar offices are on the ground 
floor, adjacent to the main entrance. All entrances 
for judges and jury are in the rear of the building. 

In this neighborhood, and on the slope of Beacon 
hill, are a number of the literary and other institu- 
tions which give character to the city. Of these, the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, its granite-faced 
building occupying one side of the King's Chapel 
Burying-ground and next adjoining the Boston 
Museum, is most important. This is the oldest 
historical society in the country, and upon its roll of 
members are many of the most distinguished names 
in American literature. Originally organized in 
1 791 (incorporated 1794) by a small number of 
students of American history, and limited to " thirty 
citizens of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, " 
its first meetings were held in the attic of Faneuil 
Hall. It was not until 1857 that the society was 
enlarged, and then the limit was fixed at one hun- 
dred resident members. From the first its object 
has been the " collection, preservation, and diffusion 
of the materials for American history," and so early 
as 1792 its first volume of "Collections" was 
printed. From Faneuil Hall it moved to rooms in 
Hamilton place, then to Franklin place, and in 
1833 to its present quarters. In 1872 this building 
was thoroughly remodelled and made fire-proof. 
The publications of the Society have thus far been 
54 volumes of " Collections ; " 26 volumes of Pro- 
ceedings and an Index volume ; a Catalogue of the 

Library in two volumes; a Catalogue of the Dowse 
Library (bequeathed to the society in 1856 by the 
late Thomas Dowse) in one volume ; a Catalogue of 
the paintings, busts, and other material belonging 
to the Cabinet ; and a volume of Lowell Lectures 
on Massachusetts and its Early History. The 
library, including the Dowse collection of 4,650 
volumes, contains about 36,000 bound volumes and 
upward of 90,000 pamphlets, many in each depart- 
ment being very rare. The collection of manu- 
scripts is very rich, and numbers 738 bound volumes, 
161 unbound volumes, 75 pamphlets, and upward of 
7,000 separate manuscripts. Among them are the 
letters and papers of Gen. William Heath and 
Timothy Pickering, the Trumbull and Belknap 
Papers, a large collection of manuscripts used by 
Francis Parkman in writing his histories, and two 
volumes of Winthrop's journals. The collection of 
books relative to the Rebellion is one of the largest 
in the country. In the cabinet are many valuable 
portraits, busts, and other objects of historical in- 
terest. Over the door of the room which contains 
the Dowse Library are two swords worn in the 
Battle of Bunker Hill by an American and an Eng- 
lish officer — Colonel Prescott and Captain Linzee — 
whose descendants afterward intermarried, the his- 
torian William H. Prescott, a grandson of Colonel 
Prescott, having married the granddaughter of Cap- 
tain Linzee. The membership of the society is 
still limited to one hundred, but the rooms are gen- 
erously open to scholars and others for reference. 
Robert C. Winthrop was long the president, having 
held that office for twenty-eight consecutive years. 
Upon his retirement he was succeeded by the Rev. 
Dr. George E. Ellis. Dr. Samuel A. Green has 
been the librarian for many years. 

The classic freestone fagade of the Boston 
Athenpeum, on Beacon street, just above Tremont 
place, from designs by Edward C. Cabot, well in- 
dicates the character of this structure. It was 
built as long ago as 1847-49, ^' '^ cost of about 
§200,000, — large for those days. Its style is that of 
the later Italian architecture, an excellent " example 
of a Palladian palace front, " says Charles A. Cum- 
mings in the "Memorial History," "with high base- 
ment of rusticated piers and round arches carrying 
an order of Corinthian pilasters with lofty windows 
between, embellished with pedimented caps." The 
basement is of solid masonry, and the first floor is 
supported on ground arches of brick. The digni- 
fied vestibule contains the stairway which gives ac- 
cess to all parts of the house. On the first floor is 
a reading-room, with a room for works of fiction ad- 
joining, and also the delivery-desks. The library 




hall occupies the whole of the second floor. An 
iron balcony is attached to the walls, which is 
reached by several spiral staircases. This is one of 
the quietest, lightest, and most perfect reading- 
rooms in the city. The third floor is also used for 
library purposes. Statues and busts in marble, as 
well as paintings, serve the useful purpose of decora- 
tion throughout the building. Old Bostonians 
rightly regard the Athenaeum as one of the choicest 
of the city's literary institutions. It had its origin 
in the " Anthology Club," a " modest centre of lit- 
erary radiance in the little town," it has been called, 
organized by a number of literary gentlemen in 
1804. For a while its members edited and pub- 
lished the " Monthly Anthology ; or, Magazine of 
Polite Literature;" and in 1806 they established an 
" Anthology Reading-room and Library. " This 
was the beginning of the present Athenaeum. The 
society was incorporated that year, and was estab- 
lished in Scollay's building, which used to stand in 
ScoUay square. Soon after it removed to a house 
on Tremont street, where the Historical Society's 
building now is, and later occupied the fair mansion- 
house of James Perkins, on Pearl street, which he 
presented to the corporation. And now was begun 
on a larger scale the collection of the library and of 
works of art. The former early took rank as one of 
the best libraries in the country, and the latter be- 
came large and important. Annual exhibitions 
were held in the art gallery, and it has been said 
that the society did more than any other organiza- 
tion to " foster in this community a knowledge and 
love of art. " The larger part of its art collection 
formed the nucleus of the Art Museum. The cor- 
poration has funds of over §450,000, the income of 
which is used for the purchase of new books for the 
library, works of art, and other necessary expenses. 
The library has grown very large and valuable, and 
now numbers 175,000 volumes and 56,000 pam- 
phlets. Among the interesting collections is the 
library of Washington, purchased in 1848 at a cost 
of S4,ooo ; and a large number of permanent photo- 
graphs, by Braun, after paintings in the chief Euro- 
pean galleries, — 4,313 in all, more than any other 
library in the world possesses. The librarian of the 
Athenaeum, Charles A. Cutter, one of the foremost 
of American bibliographers, has occupied the posi- 
tion for many years. Only the shareholders have 
the right to use the books of the Ubrary, but students 
and strangers are always courteously accorded the 
privileges of the institution. Mr. Samuel Eliot is 
its president. 

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
occupies the hall on the street floor of the Athe- 

naeum building at the left of the entrance, and here 
is its valuable library, which nicludes volumes of its 
" Transactions " and of reports and papers of various 
learned societies at home and abroad with which it 
corresponds. It has had a long and honorable 
career. Founded in 1780, for the purpose of pro- 
moting scientific observation, philosophic inquiries 
and discoveries, a knowledge of the antiquities and 
natural history of America, it has included in its 
membership many of the most learned and distin- 
guished citizens of the L'nited States. It has 
charge of the awarding of the Rumford medals 
provided for by the trust founded by Count Rum- 
ford (Benjamin Thompson, a native of Woburn, 
made Count by the Elector of Bavaria, whose ser- 
vice he entered in 1784, previously Sir Benjamin 
Thompson, knighted by the English king for his 
services on the British side in the Revolution, to 
which he turned after failing to get a commission in 
the Continental army) " for the advancement of the 
knowledge of light and heat and of their practical 
application." At its centennial celebration in May, 
1880, Robert C. Winthrop delivered the oration. 

In the same neighborhood, at No. 13 Somerset 
street, is the building of the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society, one of the leading antiquarian 
organizations of the country, its incorporation 
dating from 1845. It was started by five gentle- 
men interested in genealogical research, among 
whom was Samuel Drake, the author of those in- 
teresting books on early Boston which all lovers of 
the town and students of its history prize. For 
many years the rooms of the society were on 
Tremont street, near those of the Historical Society. 
In 1870 the present house was purchased, and after 
a thorough reconstruction was opened and dedi- 
cated in March the following year with fitting cere- 
monies. Its cost was §40,000, and this sum was 
comfortably raised by subscription among the mem- 
bers and friends of the society. The first president 
was Charles Ewer, one of the incorporators, and he 
was succeeded by Ciovernor John A. Andrew, who 
held the position until his death in 1868, when the 
late Marshall P. Wilder was chosen. A. C. Oood- 
ell, the present president, succeeded Mr. Wilder. 
The society has a library of 16,000 volumes, about 
70,000 pamphlets, relating to New England local 
history and including many family genealogies ; a 
large number of rare manuscripts and a cabinet of 
curiosities. The rarest books are kept in a fire- 
proof room on the first floor of the building, and the 
main library is on the second. The society pub- 
lishes quarterly the " New England Historical and 
Genealogical Register." 






Jacob Sleeper Hall, also on Somerset street, 
near Beacon, is the main building of Boston 
University. It occupies the site of the old Somer- 
set-street Baptist Church, whose tall spire was for 
years a familiar landmark. It is a quietly decorated 
building of pressed brick and terra-cotta, the style 
a freely treated Renaissance. A number of the 
windows are filled in with cathedral glass in delicate 
tints, and the transom lights of others are glazed 
with quarry glass. The entrance doors are of oak. 
At the left of the front is a private entrance for 
women students. The interior is admirably ar- 
ranged and artistically embellished. The architect 
of the building was ^^'illiam G. Preston. Here are 
the headquarters of the University, the College of 
Liberal Arts, and the School of All Sciences. Front- 
ing on Ashburton place, and connected at the rear 
with the main building, is the building of the Law 
School ; and farther over on Beacon hill, occupy- 
ing the tall brown-stone building No. 7 2 Mt. Vernon 
street (formerly the fine dwellings of the late Na- 
thaniel Thayer and Francis B. Hayes) is the School 
of Theology (formerly the Boston Theological Sem- 
inary, one of the oldest schools of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church). The other departments of the 
LTniversity are the .School of Medicine, connected 
with the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital,' 
and the College of Music, better known as the New 
England Conservatory of Music,' both at the South 
End. The University was founded in i86g, and 
started liberally endowed. Its greatest benefactor 
was the late Isaac Rich, one of its founders, who 
left by his will his entire estate, after the payment 
of certain other bequests and claims, from which the 
institution realized about $700,000. The other 
founders were Lee Claflin and Jacob Sleeper, for 
whom the main building is named. William F. 
Warren, S.T.D., LL.L)., is the president of the 

The faced-granite building on Beacon street, at 
the corner of Somerset, now the Congregational 
House, used to be the home of the Somerset Club, 
and originally it was a block of two mansion- 
houses, one of them, that of David Hinckley, in its 
day, seventy-five years or so ago, the finest in town. 
On its site long stood a quaint old stone house, 
the oldest then standing in town, built by the Rev. 
James Allen, pastor of the First Church (from 
1668-17 10), and occupied by his descendants until 
shortly before its removal. The Somerset Club 
moved out in 1872, and in 1873, \vhen the building 
came into the possession of the Congregational 
Association (incorporated in 1854), it was raised and 

^ and 2. See chapter on the South End. 

remodelled. This work was considered at the time 
a marvel of engineering skill. In the Congrega- 
tional House are now established the executive 
officers of the American Board of Missions, the 
Massachusetts Home Missionary Society, the Con- 
gregational Publishing Society, the Woman's Board, 
the American Missionary Association, the New 
West Fxlucational Society, the American College 
and Education Society, the Woman's Home Mis- 
sionary Association, the American Peace Society, the 
Congregational Library, the City Missionary Society, 
and the Boston School of Oratory. Here, too, 
are the editorial and business rooms of " The Con- 
gregationalist," newspaper. In the large hall on the 
third floor the Congregational ministers have their 
regular Monday meetings, and the Congregational 
Club its monthly dinners and social gatherings. 

Architecturally the Channing building, at the cor- 
ner of Beacon and Bowdoin streets, — the L^nitarian 
Denominational House and headquarters of the 
American Unitarian Association, — is the most 
peculiar of the group of noteworthy buildings on 
this part of the hill. It is constructed of brown 
sandstone, in the Roman style called " rusticated," 
having many of the characteristics of the fortress- 
like palaces of Rome, Florence, and Naples. The 
windows are round-headed, arranged in twos and 
threes, and the decorations about them, with the 
cornice capping the structure, help to relieve its 
heaviness. The approach to the main entrance is 
by a dignified flight of stone steps. Within are 
denominational book salesrooms, officers' and com- 
mittee rooms, and on the upper floor Channing 
Hall, well lighted by side windows and skylights, 
and finished with the roof-timbers in sight. The 
building is a most substantial structure throughout. 
The partitions are either u\' brie k or of cement 
blocks, the stairs are of iron, the halls are finished 
in face-brick, and the rooms in oak. Peabody & 
Stearns were the architects. The building was 
dedicated on June 24, 1886. Its inception was in 
a meeting of the Unitarian Club on December 13, 
1882, when the late Henry P. Kidder offered to 
head a subscription for the enterprise with $10,000. 
The fund was speedily raised, the lot secured, and 
the work of construction begun. 

The old Amory mansion-house, on the corner of 
Beacon and Park streets, now used for business pur- 
poses, has not lost all its dignity and picturesque- 
ness through the many changes it has experienced. 
Good taste has been displayed in the work of 
modelling it for the uses of trade, and care has been 
taken to preserve as far as possible the old lines and 
finish. It has been in its day a famous house. In 




the Park-street side — it was early in its career 
converted into two dwellings — George Ticknor 
lived from 1830 until his death in 1870, and the 
ivy-covered porch and front was the artistic feature 
of the short thoroughfare. It was built about the 
year 1804 by Thomas Amory, and was called by the 
townspeople "Amory's Folly" because of its size 
and elegance, for ahead of the times. At a later 
period, and before it was divided, it was kept as a 
fashionable boarding-house by a Mrs. Carter. Here 
Lafayette staynl when in Boston in 1824, as a 
guest of the city, Mayor (^uincy having rented the 
house for his week's visit. Among its other distin- 
guished occupants, at one time and another, were 
Christopher Gore, one of the best of our governors, 
with whom Daniel Webster studied law, and for 
whom the library of Harvard College was named ; 
Samuel Dexter, one of the giants of the bar and a 
statesman who filled various cabinet offices in the 
national government ; and Edward G. Malbone, the 
famous miniature painter, who has preserved for 
many Bostonians the likenesses of their great-grand- 
mothers. The site of this rare old mansion-house 
was earlier occupied by the brick almshouse, with 
its gambrel roof and projecting gable. 

The State House, on the summit of the hill, with 
its gilded dome, the crowning feature in every 
picture or "View of Boston," and the first object 
which attracts the eye of the traveller approaching 
the city, is the best example — indeed, one of the 
few now remaining — of the work of Charles Bul- 
finch, the pioneer Boston architect who did so much 
in his day, through the buildings which he designed, 
to improve the architectural appearance of his 
native place.' It stands on that part of the Gov- 
ernor Hancock estate which was known as the 
" Governor's pasture," and the entire lot of land 
was purchased from his heirs for $4,000. The 
work of building the Capitol was begun in 1795, 
and it was completed and first occupied by the 
Legislature in January, 1798. The corner-stone 
was laid on the 4th of July, 1795, with much cere- 
mony. It was drawn up the steep hill by fifteen 
"milk-white horses," representing the number of 
States then in the Union, and the ceremonies were 

the B. 
New S 
long si 

ved on the board of selectmen of 

conducted by the Grand Lodge of Freemasons. 
Governor Samuel Adams, representing the State, in 
a very brief address expressed the hope that within 
the walls of the house " liberty and the rights of 
man would be forever advocated and supported." 
The approach by the lofty fligbt of broad stone 
steps, the generous lawns on either side studded 
with flower-beds, is exceptionally attractive. The 
noble Doric Hall, embellished by the marble statue 
of Governor Andrew, busts of Lincoln, Sumner, 
Wilson, and others, occupying niches, and Chantrey's 
marble statue of Washington, with the tattered bat- 
tle-flags of Massachusetts regiments grouped in the 
foreground, occupying the glass-enclosed recess, is 
the most interesting feature of the interior. In the 
pavement near the Washington statue are facsimiles 
of the tombstones of Washington's ancestors from 
the parish church at Brington, near Althorp, North- 
amptonshire, England, presented by Earl Spencer 
to Charles Sumner, and by him to the Common- 
wealth in 1 86 1. Nearby, also, are the tablets from 
the Beacon-Hill monument of 1790-91, "to com- 
memorate that train of events which led to the 
American Revolution and finally secured liberty and 
independence to the United States." This stood 
on the site of the old beacon (at about the south- 
east corner of Mt. Vernon and old Temple street), 
and was taken down in 1 8 1 1 when the hill at this 
point was lowered. The two bronze statues in the 
State House yard, of Daniel Webster, by Hiram 
Powers, on the right of the steps, and of Horace 
Mann, by Emma Stebbins, were placed, the former 
in 1859 and the latter in 1865. Both when first 
set up were sharply criticised by local critics, — the 
Webster as clumsy and awkward, and the Mann as 
crude and ungainly. Thomas Ball's Andrew, within 
Doric Hall, on the other hand, was generally com- 
mended, especially the clearly cut features of the 
face and the sculpture of the hands. Webster is 
represented as " in the act of expounding the Con- 
stitution," Mann as addressing an audience, and 
Andrew, as he so often appeared in the war days, 
standing on the State House steps to receive the 
marching salute of Massachusetts regiments going 
to or returning from the front. 

From time to time the State House has been en- 
larged, the most extensive additions having been 
made in 1853-56, when the "new part," extending 
back upon Mount Vernon street, was constructed ; 
and in 1868, when the interior, with the exception 
of this " new part," was almost entirely recon- 
structed. But with all these extensions and altera- 
tions the building years ago proved too small for 
the Commonwealth's business, and, as in the case of 



the city government, many departments were forceil 
into neigliboring buildings. Finally, the building of 
the " State House Extension " was authorized, and 
the construction of that structure was begun in 
1889. It occupies the site of the massive granite 
reservoir (pronounced in its day the noblest piece 
of architecttire in the city), bounded by Mt. Vernon, 
Hancock, Derne, and Temple streets, the latter 

Union Club-house and the rooms of the long-es- 
tablished Woman's Club at No. 5, the Park-street 
Church, at the corner of Tremont, is reached ; 
across the way, through dainty Hamilton place, is the 
side and carriage entrance to Music Hall ; and a 
short walk down Tremont street, the pleasantest 
afternoon promenade in the retail quarter of the 
town, brings one to St. Paul's Church, between Win- 


lET -3B Jf 




Street being discontinued and its area included 
in the State House lot. Built, the first story of 
white Vermont marble and those above of English 
yellow brick, the main columns and the cornice 
of white marble, the annex harmonizes with the 
original building, with which it is connected by a 
structure spanning Mount Vernon street. .Messrs. 
Brigham & Spofibrd are the architects. I'he 
corner-stone of the new structure was laid with 
some ceremony on the 21st of December, 1889, 
Oliver .Ames, as governor, representing the State. 
Down the hill again, through Park street, past the 

ter street and Temple ])lace, hard i)ressed by 
business blocks. 

The Park-street was the first Congregational 
Trinitarian church established after the Unitarian 
whirlwind had swept through the Orthodox ranks, 
and soon after the formation of the society, in 1809, 
the meeting-house was built. Its designer was 
Peter Banner, an English architect, and its tall and 
graceful spire was the most carefully studied feature 
of his work. The wooden capitals for the steeple 
were made by Solomon Willard, the local architect 
who carved the Ionic capitals of St. Paul's, and 



whose most ambitious work was the design of the 
Bunker-Hill Monument. The Park-street choir of 
fifty and more singers, whose singing was accom- 
panied by flute, bassoon, and violoncello, was a 
great attraction in the old days. From it were 
drawn many of the original members of the famous 
Handel and Haydn Society founded in 1815. The 
peaceful old Granary Burying-ground, at the end of 
which Park-street Church stands, contains the 
graves of more distinguished people than any other 
in the city. Here are buried seven of the early 
governors of Massachusetts, — Bellingham, Dum- 
mer, Hancock, Adams, Bowdoin, Sumner, and Eus- 
tis ; also Peter Faneuil, Paul Revere, John Hull, 
Uriah Cotting, Judge Sewall, the parents of 
Benjamin Franklin, the victims of the Boston 
Massacre, Robert Treat Paine, John Phillips, the 
first mayor of Boston, and others of note in their 
day and generation. 

Of the Music Hall, the interior only interests. The 
e.xterior, indeed, is almost entirely concealed by the 
surrounding buildings ; but nothing of beauty is 
thus hidden, as the building is a plain brick struct- 
ure making no architectural display. The hall 
proper is 130 feet in length, 78 in width, and 65 in 
height, proportions carefully studied for acoustic 
effect. The walls, broken at intervals by project- 
ing pilasters, the well-designed galleries, and the 

subdued decorations, render the interior attractive 
to quiet tastes, and the pleasing eftect is enhanced 
by the excellent sculpture displayed — Crawford's 
bronze statue of Beethoven, the gift of Charles G. 
Perkins, which stands at the rear of the platform, 
and the cast of the Belvidere Apollo filling a niche 
at the opposite end, over the main balcony, flanked 
by appropriate brackets and busts, presented by 
Charlotte Cushman. The crowning glory of the 
interior, however, was taken away with the removal 
in 1885 of the Great Organ, one of the largest and 
finest organs in the world, built in Bavaria by the 
builders of the magnificent instrument in the great 
Cathedral of Ulm. It had stood here for more than 
twenty years, a beautiful object in its rich case of 
black walnut, with finely carved figures surmount- 
ing the pipes, its bust of Sebastian Bach, and 
curious figures which seemed to support the pon- 
derous mass upon their mighty shoulders. The 
organ was purchased by the Conservatory of Music 
and removed to its building at the South F^nd. 
The renowned Symphony Concerts, now the most 
important feature of the crowded musical season, 
were begun in Music Hall in 1881. 

St. Paul's Church (Protestant E))iscopal), luiilt of 
gray granite, with its Ionic hexastyle portico of 
Potomac sandstone, and a pediment which accord- 
ing to the original design was to be filled by a bas- 





relief representing Paul preaching at Athens, is 
described by Phillips Brooks in the " Memorial 
History " as a " Grecian temple " which " seemed 
to the men who built it to be a triumph of archi- 
tectural beauty and of fitness for the Church's 
service." It was the design of Alexander Parris 
and Solomon Willard, and was consecrated in 1820. 
Conspicuotis in the tasteful interior are the memo- 
rial tablets in honor of three former rectors, Rev. 
Dr. Samuel F. Jarvis (the first rector of the church), 
John S. Stone, and Alexander Vinton, and of Dr. 
J. C. Warren, for thirty-si.K years vestryman and 
warden. Daniel Webster for many years owned a 
pew in St. Paul's, — that numbered 25 in the north 

What may be called the Tremont-street prome- 
nade ends with the Masonic Temple on the corner 
of Boylston street, the granite building with oc- 
tagonal towers rising to the height of 120 feet, 
which was dedicated on St. John's Day, June 24, 
1867, with elaborate ceremonies, a great street 
parade, President Johnson and other men of dis- 
tinction in line being the popular feature. Around 
the corner, on Boylston street, the building of that 
admirable institution, the Young Men's Christian 
Union, with its shajiely tower, is a quietly eflective 

The theatres within the business quarter are 
described in Chapter X. The great daily news- 
paper buildings being nearly all on Washington 
street, between State and School streets, — those of 
the "Herald," "Post," "Globe," "Advertiser," 
"Record," and "Journal," and the others in the 
immediate neighborhood (the "Transcript" on 
Washington street at the corner of Milk, the 
"News" on School and the "Traveller" on State), 
— that portion of the old thoroughfare is naturally 
and properly called " Newspaper Row." Many of 
the leading hotels, too, are crowded in this con- 
tracted business section, — Young's, Parker's, the 
Tremont, the Quincy, the American, the Revere, 
the Tavern, the Adams, Clark's, and Reynolds', 
the United States, and on the outskirts of the 
quarter towards the Back Bay district the Thorn- 

The only portrait statues set up in the " down- 
town " thoroughfares are those of Sam Adams in 
Adams square (already described), of Winthrop in 
Scollay square, and of Lincoln in Park square. The 
Winthrop, of light bronze, representing the first 
governor after landing from the ship's boat on 
the shore of the New World, holding in one hand 
the roll of the colony charter and in the other a 
volume of the Scriptures, is by Richard S. Green- 

ough. It is a duplicate of that placed by the State 
in the Capitol at Washington. It was uncovered 
to the public on the day of the celebration of the 
250th anniversary of the settlement of Boston, 
September 17, 1880. The cost, $7,391, was met 
from the Jonathan Phillips fund.' The Lincoln is 
popularly known as the Emancipation Group. 
Kneeling at the feet of the strong figure of Lincoln 
in an attitude of gratitude is that of the slave, the 
broken fetters falling from his limbs in obedience 
to the proclamation of emancipation. The slave's 
fiice is said to be a likeness of the last slave re- 
manded to the South under the fugitive slave law. 
This group was the work of Thomas Ball, and it 
was presented to the city by Moses Kimball in 
1879. It is a duplicate of the " Freedman's 
Memorial " statue in Lincoln square, Washington. 





BEACON HILL may be said to mark the 
boundary line between the old and the new 
Boston. To the east and north lies the compact 
old town, and to the west stretches the spacious 
new, — the famous Back Bay district, with its broad 
avenues and wide intersecting streets, lined with 
fine dwellings, stately buildings, churches, art and 
educational institutions, some of them striking 
examples of the best architectural work of the time 
and others most remarkable for eccentricity. Laid 
out on an intelligent and artistic plan from the 
beautiful Public Garden to the picturesque Back 
Bay Fens, the beginning of the superb chain of 
public parks which when completed will rival those 
of the fitirest cities of the Old World, — this is the 
ideal West End, the fashionable quarter of a great 

As everybody knows, the Back Bay district is en- 
tirely on made land. In the old days, between the 
marshes at the foot of the Common and the Brook- 
line hills there was a "beautiful sheet of water " at 
high tide, spreading to the " Neck " at the old 
South End. This was formed by the bend which 
the Charles River made to the west of the penin- 

he Old state Hn 



sul:i on which the town lay, before its waters, pass- 
ing the northerly side, reached its mouth at the 
east. Brookline and the high roads beyond were 
reached from Boston only by way of the Neck and 
Roxbury. This was the situation until the building 
of the famous Mill Dam and causeway in 1818-21, 
extending from Charles street at the foot of Beacon 
Hill to Brookline, and the cross dam from the main 
dam to Gravelly Point in Roxbury — the project of 
the Boston & Roxbury Mill Corporation for the 
double purpose of creating water-power by means 
of tide-mills and of establishing toll roadways for 
travel. Thus were enclosed, by solid structures of 
stone and earth, about six hundred acres of flats 
over which the tide admitted by the gates ebbed 
and flowed, and broad thoroughfares forty feet wide 
were opened between town and country. The com- 
pletion of the work was rightly regarded at the time 
as a stupendous enterprise, and an event duly to 
be celebrated in formal fashion.' 

The chartering of this corporation (June, 1814) 
was the entering wedge for the changes which ulti- 
mately transformed " the beautiful sheet of water " 
skirting the Common into the richly furnished West 
End of the Boston of To-day. But such a trans- 
formation was never dreamed of by the projectors 
of the Mill Dam enterprise or by the citizens who 
celebrated its successful establishment. The Back 
Bay Improvement, as it was called, was in large 
part the result of long years of agitation for the 
abatement of a nuisance which the Back Bay had 
become. After the completion of the dams, grist- 
mills and iron-works, machine-shops and manufac- 
tories, were built about the enclosure; in 1835-36 
the tracks of the Providence & Worcester railroad 
were laid across it ; a large part of the city sewage 
flowed into the basin ; and in time it came to be a 
most unsightly and unwholesome quarter, " a nui- 
sance," the Board of Health declared in 1849, 
•' offensive and injurious to the large and increasing 
population residing " upon its borders. Meanwhile 
the shores and flats became valuable, the water- 

1 The Mill Dam was formally opened for travel July 2, iSzr. 
In celebration of the event a cavalcade of one hundred citizens 
and people in carriages and chaises licaded by General William H. 
Sumner, of Jamaica Plain, as chief marshal, passed over the dam 
from the Brookline shore, at a signal fired by the Snutli End Artil- 
lery. They were received on the Boston side I v .1 > 1 .a.I 1 l^wns- 
people. Then they returned to Brookline and V. . . i;lia 

congratulatory speech by General Sumner. Tin : ! , li ihc 

Mill Corporation was chartered provided for .1 t m [ijmIi 1,, w.ii,-r. 
town. This was completed in 1S26. The Mill Dam was generally 
known as Western avenue. The causeway, from the Brookline 
marshes to the old Punch.bowl Tavern in Brookline (there connect- 
ing with the Worcester turnpike), was long known as the old 
" Punch-bowl road " and afterwards as Brookline avenue; and the 
cross dam to Gravelly Point is now Parker street. The Mill Dam 
and other roadways were made free public highways in December, 


power was seriously encroached upon by the con- 
cessions to riparian owners of the right to fill their 
flats, and by the building of the railroads, and sub- 
sequently the mill company, then the Boston Water 
Power Company," w-as converted into a land com- 
pany. Controversies early arose over the rights of 
individuals, the corporations and the cities of Boston 
and Roxbury, in the shore lands and the flats ; and 
when, in 1852, the Commonwealth stepped in, its 
object was twofold : to protect its own interests in 
the territory and to advance a scheme for improv- 
ing the basin, which was then in a deplorable con- 
dition. In the spring of that year a State 
commission was appointed to consider the whole 
subject and devise a plan of improvement. Mean- 
while the Legislature, then sitting, formally by 
resolve asserted the right and title of the Common- 
wealth to all flats " lying below the ordinary line of 
riparian ownership," basing its declaration on an 
ancient law known as the "colonial ordinance" 
dated 1641, and judicial decisions founded upon it, 
by which the State retains the fee of such flats as 
are below low-water mark, or one hundred rods 
below high-water mark. The commission made an 
exhaustive report, and advised legislation author- 
izing the corporations to change the uses of the 
territory from mill purposes to land purposes, and 
providing that the filling within the tide-water basin 
should be " with good and solid earth and clean 
gravel." Provision, it was further recommended, 
should be made for perfect drainage ; the filling 
should be done in such a manner that the scouring 
force of the water should not be diminished nor the 
harbor injured ; the flats north of the Mill Dam and 
all the other roadways should be made free of tolls ; 
the streets to be laid out in the new territory should 
be wide and ample, and the territory should be so 
disposed of as " to secure for it a healthy and 
thrifty population ; " and all this should be done 
by the authority and under the direction of the 

These recommendations were adopted and a 
permanent commission was appointed with full 
powers to advance the work and to determine and 
adjust the rights of all concerned. After protracted 
negotiations all claims were adjusted, the Tripartite 
Agreement between the State, the City, and the 
Water Power Company was executed (in December, 
1856), and early in 1857 the work of filling was 

'The Boston Water Power Company, organized by stockholders 
:he Roxbury Corporntion, was inc()rporated (in 1824) to use the 

fi'-^ I. Ill I JH..M 1 , in.i Ml i^ij ili( tin iiiess was divided, the new 

i'['"'' ''1 'I ' ■' ill li.imiii ', llie entire water.power and 

■■:<■ : , . II ,1 1mm,. Ill nt the Mill Dam, the old 

uimii} M l.iiiiiiij ilir I-. Mav\ ay^ .iiui till' 1. 1 lids north of the dam. 



actively begun. That done for the Commonweahh 
was by contract, the contractors taking their pay in 
land. Its portion of the territory was that south of 
the Mill Dam and north of an east and west line 
starting near the present station of the Providence 
division of the Old Colony Railroad, and the Water 
Power Company's portion was that south of the line. 
The territory north of the Mill Dam was reclaimed 
by the Mill Corporation. The total amount of ter- 
ritory belonging to the State in 1856 was 4,723,- 
856 square feet; and of this 379,976 square feet 
have been given to the city and to various insti- 
tutions, and 2,027,083 devoted to streets, open 
squares, and passageways. From the land sold in 
the market, 2,316,798 square feet, the Common- 
wealth has realized, net, $4,275,644. The avails of 
these sales have been applied to educational pur- 
poses and to the endowment of several of the sink- 
ing-funds of the Commonwealth. 

Endowed with ample authority the commission- 
ers adopted the plan of avenues, streets, and public 
grounds over the entire territory, — including the 
lands set off to the \Vater Power Company and 
other riparian owners, — designed by the late Arthur 
Oilman. The streets are all parallel to, or at right 
angles with. Beacon street, continued over the Mill 
Dam that was. Of the three avenues between that 
thoroughfare and Boylston street, two, Marlborough 
and Newbury (so named in memory of the names 
which in the early days were attached to portions of 
the older parts of the present Washington street), 
are sixty feet wide, and the houses on each side are 
set back twenty-two feet : and the other, which lies 
between them, Commonwealth avenue, the glory 
and pride of the Back Bay district, is two hundred 
and forty feet wide between the houses on each 
side, with a delightful tree-lined parkway in the 
middle, broken here and there with statutes of 
famous men. Arlington street, next the Public Gar- 
den, running at right angles to the three avenues, 
begins the series of broad cross streets, at intervals 
of about six hundred feet, across the whole terri- 
tory. These are named alphabetically, and a tri- 
syllabic word alternates with a dissyllabic. In 1872 
St. James and Huntington avenues, the latter one 
hundred feet wide, to the south of Boylston street, 
were laid out ; in 1882 Copley square (for a while 
known as .Art square) was established; and later, 
West Chester park was extended from the South 
End across the Back Bay to Beacon street and the 
Charles river, where it connects with the new Cam- 
bridge bridge opened in 1891. The most recent 
development has been in the region west of the 
extension of Chester park and about the Fens, by 

the extension of Commonwealth avenue along the 
Back Bay park and out to Chestnut hill ; the open- 
ing of the new thoroughfares, Charlesgate East and 
Charlesgate West, from Beacon street, on either 
side of the waterway from the old gates in the Mill 
Dam, into the Fens ; and the beginning of the new 
avenue westward to the right from Beacon street, 
near Charlesgate East, early to become famous as 
the Bay State road. Thus several more superb 
roadways for driving have been o])ened through 
a quarter of the Back Bay which, when completed, 
will be most brilliant and pirtures(iue. 

Within this favored quarter are the Museum of 
F'ine Arts and the new Public Library building ; the 
buildings of the Institute of Technology, the Society 
of Natural History, the Har\'ard Medical School, 
Chauncy Hall, and the Sisters of Notre Dame 
Academy and Convent : the Prince (public) School, 
the Normal .Art School, and the College of Phar- 
macy ; the St. Botolph, Art, .Algonquin, and Athletic 
clubs ; Trinity, Arlington-street, Old South, Em- 
manuel, Central, First, Second, First Baptist (for- 
merly the Brattle-square), South Congregational 
(formerly the Hollis-street), and Mt. Vernon 
churches, and the Spiritual Temple ; the building of 
the Young Men's Christian Association : the Bruns- 
wick, Vendome, Victoria, Huntington, and Copley- 
square hotels ; the Berkeley, Kempton, Bristol, 
Cluny, Oxford, Ludlow, Exeter Chambers, Hamil- 
ton, Agassiz, Kensington, Grosvenor, Royal, Charles- 
gate, and other great apartment houses more or less 
effective in design and sumptuous in e(|uipment ; 
the permanent Exhibition Building of the Charita- 
ble Mechanic Association ; and blocks ujion blocks 
of fine and costly dwellings. 

Of this striking display of elaborate architecture 
the beginnings were modest. But they were ex- 
amples of the best work of our architects of that 
day, and at once gave character to the new quarter. 
The earliest buildings here were the dignified struct- 
ures of the Natural History Society and the Insti- 
tute of Technology (the main building), W. G. 
Preston, the architect of both ; and of the churches, 
the Arlington-street, designed by .Arthur Oilman ; the 
Emmanuel, by A. R. Estey ; the Central, by R. M. 
Upjohn ; and the First, by Ware & Van Brunt 
(now Van Brunt & Howe). These were built 
between the years 1862 and 1868. Within the 
next ten years were completed the Brattle-square 
Church, designed by the late H. H. Richardson ; the 
Second, by N. J. Bradlee ; the Old South, by Cum- 
mings and Sears ; noble Trinity, by the lamented 
Richardson, with Gambrill of New York ; the Hotel 
Brunswick, by Peabody & Stearns; the Hotel 



\'eiidome, by J. F. Ober and Oeorge 1). Rand; and tory Society and the Hortirultiiral Society, rcpre- 

the main section of the Art Museum, by Sturgis & senting the industrial and fine arts, their purpose 

Brigham. Later noteworthy work is that of William being to institute a Conservatory of Art and 

R. Emerson, in the Art Club (1882), the first Back Science. Although this enterprise was not suc- 

Bay club-house designed especially for club uses, cessful, the Legislature declining to grant the pe- 



but the second established in this quarter ( the St. 
Botolph, occupying the stately dwelling of the late 
Henry P. Kidder, No. 2 Newbury street, being the 
first) ; George T. Meacham, in the New Hollis- 
street Church (1884), now the South Congrega- 
tional ; Sturgis & Brigham, in the building of the 
Young Men's Christian Association (1883) ; Van 
Brimt & Howe, in the Harvard Medical School 
(1883) ; McKim, Mead, & White, of New York, in 
the magnificent .Algonquin Club-house (1886) ; 
the late John Sturgis, in the Athletic Club-house 
( 1888) ; W. G. Preston, in the Charitable Mechanic 
I'^xhibition building (1881); and McKim, Mead, 
& \\hite, in the new Public Library, now building. 
Before building on the " new lands " was begun, 
an association of gentlemen who called themselves 
the " Committee of Associated Institutions of 
Science and Art" was formed (1859), to secure 
from the State a grant of land here for buildings for 
various institutions, among them the Natural His- 

tition for land, it led directly to the establishment 
of the Institute of Technology, one of the earliest 
technical schools in the country, and to-day the 
foremost institution of its kind. In i860, the year 
following the rejection of their petition, the com- 
mittee gave their indorsement to the memorial 
from Professor William B. Rogers, for the establish- 
ment of " a school of applied sciences, or a com- 
prehensive polytechnic college, fitted to equip its 
students with the scientific and technical principles 
applicable to industrial pursuits." This also failed 
in the Legislature of i860, and then Professor 
Rogers outlined to the committee a plan for the 
formation of an Institute of Technology having 
" the triple organization of the Society of Arts, 
a Museum or Conservatory of Arts, and a School 
of Industrial Science and .Art," which they at once 
most heartily forwarded, in cooperation with a com- 
mittee of representative citizens. Professor Rogers 
was made chairman of the latter committee, and 



as a result of his energetic action an act of incor- 
poration was obtained early in 1861 and a grant of 
land secured for the buildings of the institution, 
and also for that of the Natural History Society, 
then established in Mason street. 

Of the ground granted, which is bounded by 
Boylston, Berkeley, Newbury, and Clarendon streets, 
the Natural History Society has the easterly one- 
third and the Institute the remaining two-thirds. 
The Natural History building was the first built. It 
was finished in 1864. Of generous proportions, a 
structure of freestone and brick, it is sedate and 
elegant in style and finish. The facade is embel- 
lished by Corinthian columns and capitals. Over 
the entrance is carved the society's seal, which 
bears the head of Cuvier ; on the keystones of 
the windows are carved heads of animals, and a 
sculptured eagle surmounts the pediment. The 
building faces Berkeley street, standing well back 
from the thoroughfare, within ample well-kept 
grounds. The lecture-room and the library, the 
latter containing a fine collection of 15,000 volumes, 
and rooms devoted to geological and mineralogical 
specimens, occupy the first floor; and on the 
second is the large exhibition hall, sixty feet high, 
with balconies, and other rooms in which is dis- 
played the extensive collection of birds, shells, 
insects, plants, skeletons, and various objects of 
interest to students of natural history, gathered by 
the society during its sixty years of honorable 
existence. The Museum is open to the public 
on Wednesdays and Saturdays. The society holds 
frequent meetings, and provides lecture courses in 
the season. In its laboratory instruction is given 
to classes of the Institute of Technolog)' and the 
Boston University, and there is also a class com- 
posed of teachers in the public schools. The cost 
of the building was Si 00,000. The society has 
been generously aided by gifts of money and be- 
quests. The greatest benefactor was the late Dr. 
W. J. Walker, of Newport, R.I., whose gifts during 
his lifetime and by his will reached the substantial 
sum of $200,000. 

The Institute of Technology was organized with 
Professor Rogers as president immediately after 
the act of incorporation was obtained, and the 
School of Industrial Science was at once es- 
tablished, so that it was well under way when the 
main building was completed in 1866. In mate- 
rial and design this is similar to that of its neighbor, 
the Natural History Society. It also is of pressed 
brick with freestone trimmings, and of dignified 
style. An impressive feature is its entrance, 
reached by a noble flight of broad stone steps. 

The development of the Institute was so rapid 
that the first building was early outgrown, and in 
1884 the second building, next beyond on Boylston 
street, designed by C. Fehmer, was erected. The 
exterior of this is severely plain, with no attempt 
at architectural effect ; the skill of the architect 
is seen in the design of the interior, which is 
admirably arranged for the special purposes of the 
building. It is mainly devoted to the depart- 
ments of chemistry, physics, electricity, and archi- 
tecture, and to instruction in language. In the 
basement is a photometric room ; also a laboratory 
for the architectural department, where experi- 
ments may be made with limes, mortars, and 
cements, and problems worked out in the actual 
materials of construction; and on the third floor 
is a laboratory of sanitary chemistry. The older 
building is now used by classes in mathematics, 
literature, history, political science, geology, miner- 
alogy, and biology. In the basement are thoroughly 
equipped mining and metallurgical laboratories. 
The offices of the Institute are still in the main 
building; and in the large audience-room, Hunt- 
ington Hall, where the graduation exercises are 
held, the Society of Arts has its regular meetings. 
The third large building of the Institute, on Trinity 
place, known as the " Engineering Building," was 
completed in 1889. It is devoted to the en- 
gineering laboratories, and to instruction in me- 
chanics and hydraulics and mechanical and civil 
engineering. On Garrison street are the series of 
workshops, with the quarters of the Lowell School 
of Design (erected in 1885) ; and on Exeter street, 
the Gymnasium and Drill Hall. 

The Lowell School of Practical Design was 
established in 1872, by the trustees of the Lowell 
Institute, for the purpose of " promoting industrial 
art in the United States." The corporation of the 
Institute of Technology assumed the conduct of 
it. The school occupies a drawing-room and a 
weaving-room. The latter affords students an 
opportunity of working their designs " into actual 
fabrics of commercial sizes and of every variety of 
material and of texture." It is supplied with two 
fancy chain-looms for dress goods, three fancy 
chain-looms for fancy woollen cassimeres, one 
gingham loom, and one Jacquard loom. And the 
school is regularly provided with samples of all the 
novelties in textile fabrics from Paris. 

The Institute as now constituted embraces the 
School of Industrial Science, devoted to the teach- 
ing of science as applied to the various engineering 
professions, as well as to architecture, chemistry, 
metallurgy, physics, biology, and geology; the 



Subsidiary School of Practical Design ; and the 
Society of Arts, whose meetings are held semi- 
monthly and whose Proceedings are annually pub- 
lished. Courses of a less technical nature than the 
regular ones (each covering four years), as a 
preparation for business callings, and a course 
preparatory to the professional study of medicine, 
are also given. The School of Industrial Science 
has become the jjrominent feature of the work. 
The development and growth of the institution 
since its foundation, a little more than a quarter 
of a century ago, have been extraordinary. The 
school opened in February, 1867, with 27 pupils; 
the number registering in 1891 was 937. At the 
beginning the professors, instructors, and pupils 
were comfortably quartered in a few rooms. To- 
day the Institute has four large buildings, and 
is yet crowded. The professors and other offi- 
cers of instruction at the start could have been 
counted on the fingers of one's hands ; now there 
are more than a hundred. Professor Rogers ' lived 
to enjoy the full fruition of his noble work, and he 
died literally in harness within his beloved in- 
stitution, and on the very day and hour of the 
graduation of one of the largest classes it had sent 
out, — a day in June, before a distinguished au- 
dience, just as he was beginning the delivery of 
his annual address. The Institute is fittingly called 
his monument. Succeeding him as president. Gen- 
eral Francis A. Walker has brought the institution by 
rapid strides to its present unrivalled position. 

A most effective group of buildings is that sur- 
rounding Copley square, with Trinity at the left as 
the square is entered from Boylston street ; then the 
Museum of Fine Arts ; the new Public Library, along 
the Dartmouth-street end ; the Old South Church 
beyond ; and the picturesque line at the left, on 
Boylston street, from the ivy-clad Chauncy Hall, 
near the Dartmouth-street corner, and the Second 
Church and chapel adjoining. The placing of 
Dallin's equestrian statue of Paul Revere in the 
middle of the square one day yet to be named, is 
expected to give the finishing touch to this en- 

The Art Museum building now forms an irregu- 
lar square or quadrangle surrounding an interior 
court to be laid out as a garden. Ultimately it will 
cover twice the present area, by successive exten- 
sions towards the south. The oldest part is that 
which fiices the square ; this was completed and 
opened to the public in 1876. Three years later 

1 Professor Rogers retired from the office of President in 1S70, 
when he was succeeded by Professor John D. Runkle; but in 1S7S he 
was reappointed to the position. He died in June, 18S2. 

the eastern section was completed. The newest 
part, and the most important, doubling the capacity 
of the Museum, was finished early in 1890, and 
opened, after a complete rearrangement of the 
treasures of the institution, on the i8th of March. 
Built in the Italian-Gothic style, of red brick, dec- 
orated with elaborate red and buff terra-cotta de- 
signs, the exterior of the building is rich and unique. 
The mouldings, copings, and all the ornamental 
work were imported from F^ngland. The two large 
reliefs on the Copley-square facade represent, that 
at the extreme right of the entrance " The Genius 
of Art," and that at the left "Art and Industry" 
united. Among the figures in the " Genius of Art," 
representing the nations paying tribute to Art, 
America is personified by a female figure holding in 
her hand Powers' " Greek Slave." Art and In- 
dustry are personified by figures in relief. The 
heads in the roundels are of artists of distinction 
and of patrons of art, the representative Americans 
being Copley, Crawford, and Allston. The project- 
ing portico, enriched with polished marble columns, 
at the main entrance to the building, adds to the 
effectiveness of the facade. The newest part con- 
sists of the two parallel wings extending southward 
from the Copley-square front and connected by a 
corridor 24 feet wide and 210 feet long at their 
southern extremities. This part covers about 
12,000 square feet, and cost about ^220,000. The 
plans were prepared by the late John H. Sturgis, and 
developed by his successors, Sturgis & Cabot. Al- 
though but about twenty-one years old (organized in 
1870), the Museum now ranks among the most im- 
portant in the world. It contains the best Japanese 
art exhibit, and is the third in rank in casts of 
classic sculpture. 

The first floor of the Museum is entirely devoted 
to the department of antiquities and casts, under the 
direction of Edward Robinson, which occupies six- 
teen rooms and galleries. At the right of the 
Copley-square entrance are, first, the Assyrian and 
Egyptian rooms. A large portion of the exhibits in 
the latter are antiquities of great value, dating as far 
back as 4,000 years B.C. The nucleus for this 
department was the C. Granville Way collection, 
given to the Museum in 1872 ; later it was strongly 
enforced by the acquisition of sculpture collected by 
the late John Lowell, and more recently still further 
enriched by the colossal fragments given by the 
F^gyptian Isxiiloration JMind. The " Archaic Greek 
Room " adjiiniinL; is dcNuted exclusively to casts of 
Assyrian and l^gyptian antiquities ; next are the two 
" pre-Phidian " rooms, containing examples of early 
Greek art ; then another room, filled with antique 


bii^ts and portrait statues ; and beyond this the large 
hall, nearly square, called the " Parthenon Room," 
in which are displayed reproductions of the 
bas-reliefs from the frieze and fragments of the 
sculptures of the pediments of the Parthenon. 
Passing into the south wing we coine to the mag- 
nificent gallery in which are displayed the many 
examples of the best Greek sculpture of the post- 
Phidian period ; and from this, in the east wing, 
opens the other large and lofty hall, containing 
the splendid collection of Greek architectural frag- 
ments. Then in order are the small rooms, con- 
taining numerous casts of Gothic and Moorish work, 
mostly architectural details ; the three rooms devoted 
to original Greek and Roman antiquities ; that con- 
taining casts of works of the Italian Renaissance; 
and the two rooms designed for the display of 
French, (Jerman, English, and other modern 

On the second floor are the picture-galleries and 
the display of Japanese art. Starting at the left of 
the hall, instead of at the right as on the floor below, 
the five galleries of oil paintings extend in a suite to 
and along the eastern section of the quadrangle. 
The collection in the First Gallery is a rich array of 
paintings of the various schools. Turner's " Slave 
Ship," lent by Mr. Sturgis Lothrop, and Paul Vero- 
nese's " Marriage of St. Catherine," lent by Mr. 
(^uincy Shaw, occupying the midde on either side. 
The Second Gallery, formerly the " Allston Room," 
is now devoted to representative works of the early 
American painters. Those of Copley, Allston, and 
Stuart are most effectively grouped on three of the 
walls, and the rest of the space is filled by paint- 
ings by Trumbull, Page, Newton, Smibert, Peale, 
Healy, Alexander, and Ames. The collection in the 
Third Gallery, now known as the " Dutch Room," 
for some years especially noteworthy, has been per- 
manently strengthened by the addition of the ten 
pictures from the San Donato collection, which be- 
came the property of the Museum in 1889; the 
Fourth Gallery is the " French Room, " and the 
F"ifth is largely devoted to works of modern Ameri- 
can painters, with a sprinkling of French pictures 
crowded out of the French Room. Here are repre- 
sented William M. Hunt, his " Niagara " and the 
"(;irlatthe Fountain " conspicuous in the collec- 
tion ; George Fuller, Elihu Vedder, Abbott Thayer, 
William Lafarge, Foxcroft Cole, Thomas Robinson, 
John B. Johnson, George Inness, S. S. Tuckerman, 
F. P. Vinton, Charles Sprague Pearce, Frank Hill 
Smith, J. J. Enneking, Louis Ritter, I. M. Gaugen- 
gigl, Mrs. Sarah Whitman, and others. In the 
water-color gallery, adjoining, the interesting work 

shown is mostly by local artists. Connectitig with 
this room are the cabinets devoted to engravings. 

Passing from the Fifth Gallery into the long cor- 
ridor of the south section of the building, the 
Fenellosa collection of several hundred scroll paint- 
ings from Japan (the gift of Dr. Charles G. Weld) 
is seen hung on the walls ; and in cases near the 
windows is Professor E. S. Morse's famous and un- 
equalled collection of Japanese pottery, containing 
nearly 4,000 pieces, good examples of every province 
where pottery is or has been made, of every maker's 
"mark, "and of the early and late styles of each 
maker. This has now become the property of the 
Museum through purchase. Turning into the Dart- 
mouth-street section the great room is reached in 
which is displayed Dr. W. Sturgis Bigelow's magnifi- 
cent Oriental art collection, composed of Japanese 
lacquers, curios, bronzes, swords, and sword-guards, 
wood carvings of various sizes, silk dresses and silks, 
and other interesting objects. The curious collec- 
tion of coins and electrotype reproduction of coins 
is displayed in the room adjoining ; and in the next 
the metal-work, an imposing array of brass, copper, 
iron, gold, silver, and bronze objects. In the large 
West Room, where now only pottery and porcelain 
are displayed, are rare examples of the fictile art 
from early times to the present ; and most interesting 
is the collection of tapestries and embroideries in 
the " Gallery of Textiles," the work in the Lawrence 
Room, and in the Wood Carving Room. 

The quarters of the School of Drawing and Paint- 
ing are on the third floor in the Dartmouth-street 
wing, and in the basement are the library and read- 
ing-room adjoining for the use of students, and the 
offices of the curator, Charles G. Loring, and his 
assistants. The Museum is open to the public 
every day, on Sundays free. The corporation is 
administered by a board of trustees, upon which are 
represented the Boston Athenaeum, the Institute of 
Technology, and Harvard University ; also ix officiis 
the mayor of the city, the superintendent of the 
public schools, a trustee of the Lowell Institute, the 
chairman of the trustees of the Public Library, and 
the secretary of the State Board of Education. 

In the great Public Library building the city pos- 
sesses the monumental edifice which it was the 
desire and aim of those charged with the work of 
construction to produce. It is at once a thoroughly 
finished building, fashioned after the best models, 
and an architectural ornament upon the possession 
of which the people, whose property it is, may well 
felicitate themselves. A great structure, in the 
style of the Italian Renaissance, quadrangular in 
shape, facing three streets, and surrounding a court, 



covering with its broad platform, and exclusive of 
the court, an acre and a half of ground, — it is de- 
signed with such skill and taste that the effect of the 
whole is one of dignity and stateliness. The chief 
architectural merit of the work consists in its elegant 
proportions and the purity of its style. The mate- 
rial used in its walls is granite quarried in Milford, 
Mass., having a slight pink tinge which gives it a 
peculiar warmth lacking in most granites ; and the 
roof is of brown Spanish tiles. The masonry is 
laid with rustic joints, and the ornamentation of the 
exterior, as is always the case in this style of archi- 
tecture, is very reserved in the lower part of the 
building, becoming more elaborate as it approaches 
the roof. The string course, for instance, is much 
enriched by a single band of carving, while the 
cornice is an elaborately designed feature. The 
windows below the string course are square topped, 
of large size, affording ample light for the working- 
rooms of the library. Above the string course 
great arched windows run around the three sides 
of the building, giving the effect of a magnificent 
arcade supporting the heavy projecting cornice. 
The same scheme is carried out in brick lines 
around the court. The main entrance in the middle 
of the Copley-square front, topped with a round 
arch over which is the great medallion of the seal 
of the library, by Augustus St. Gaudens, is ap- 
proached by the broad easy steps from the sidewalk, 
and is eventually to be set off with magnificent 
sculptures. About the doorways is some beautiful 
carving, the work of John Evans, a Boston carver ; 
and the vestibule of solid blocks of pink Knoxville 
marble, paved with the same material inlaid with 
rich Levanto marble, harmonizes well with the stone 
at the entrance. From the vestibule an unob- 
structed view of the entrance hall and the grand 
staircase is had. The great feature of this hall is its 
high, vaulted ceiling of rich mosaic work of colored 
marble iiiost artistically blended. Into this the 
names of men identified with Boston who have been 
eminent in letters, art, science, law, and public 
work are wrought. The first group on the right 
embraces those of the great anti-slavery leaders 
and philanthropists, such as Sumner, Phillips, Gar- 
rison, and Mann. Next is a group famous in 
science, such as Gray, Agassiz, Bowditch, and 
Rumford. Then a cluster of names famous in art 
and architecture, — Copley, Stuart, AUston, and 
Bulfinch ; on the left, as the hall is entered, those of 
.the historians Motley, Prescott, and Bancroft ; then 
eminent names in law, — Story, Shaw, Webster, and 
Choate ; next to the grand staircase those of the 
preachers and moral leaders, — Eliot and Mather, 

Channing and Parker ; and on each side of the cen- 
tral arch those of authors, philosophers, mathemati- 
cians, and statesmen, such as Longfellow, Hawthorne, 
Adams, Peirce, Emerson, and Franklin. The floor 
of this great entrance-hall, like that of the vestibule, 
is in white and Breccia marbles, but further enriched 
by brass inlay. The first inlay is an inscription 
giving the dates of the foundation of the library 
and of the erection of the present building, encircled 
by a wreath ; and at either corner of the square in 
which it is placed are crossed torches, with the flame 
bright and vigorous, signifying the purpose for 
which the library was established and the building 
erected. The design in the middle of the floor is 
composed of the library seal, with the signs of the 
zodiac, each in its own square of marble ; and that 
at the foot of the grand stairway is a wreath of 
laurel enclosing the names of the generous bene- 
factors or promoters of the Library, — Bates, 
Vattemare, F>erett, Quincy, Bigelow, Winthrop, 
and Jewett. On either side, guarding the stairs, 
are the great marble hons by Louis St. Gaudens, 
memorial gifts of the Second and Twentieth Regi- 
ments, Massachusetts Volunteers ; and over the 
stairway springs a great arch of Echaillon and 
Siena marbles. The broad stairs, themselves of 
Echaillon marble, with the side walls of Siena, 
constitute a most impressive feature. The great 
Bates Hall, on the second floor, extending entirely 
across the Copley-square front, is a magnificent 
piece of architectural work, with its lofty barrel- 
vault ceiling, giving fine wall and ceiling surface for 
decoration. LTpon the decorative work of the in- 
terior of the delivery-room, illustrating the search 
after the Holy Grail, or the beginning of modern 
literature, the skill of Edwin A. Abbey has been 
employed ; John S. Sargent's contribution is a great 
mural painting, " The Dawn of Christianity," as re- 
vealed in the Old and New Testament, which will 
find a place at either end of the great staircase-hall 
on the special library floor. Some idea of the ex- 
tent of the new building can be gathered from these 
figures : the superficial area of the flooring is 4 
acres ; the stacks are built to hold 20 miles of 
shelving, and can be greatly increased as more room 
is needed. The old library building on Boylston 
street was built to accommodate 220,000 books, and 
afibrded 6,868 square feet of room for students and 
readers ; the new building is built to contain 2,000,- 
000 volumes, with 32,900 square feet for students 
and readers. The total cost of the new building is 
estimated at $2,218,365; the old building cost, 
when completed in 1858, six years after the library 
was formally established, $365,000. ."Xt that time 



the library contained about 70,000 volumes : in 
1 89 1 it numbered 557,810 volumes. The new- 
building is fire-proof. The old building has long 
been overcrowded, and the various special libraries, 
the Barton, Bowditch, Prince, Ticknor, Parker, and 
others, were not easily accessible ; in the new build- 
ing, separate rooms are provided for these collec- 

The Harvard Medical School building, on Boyl- 
ston street, next beyond the new Public Library, and 
occupying the large lot between that and E.xeter 
street, is an imposing pile, with effective exterior 
and admirably arranged interior. Its brick walls 
are relieved by the red sandstone mouldings and 
lintels with the decorative panels of terra-cotta ; and 
the flat roof covering its four stories is finished 
by a sky-line of stone balustrades and low gables. 
The main front has three pavilions, of which the 
central is slightly recessed. The principal en- 
trance, by portico and steps, opens into a great 
waiting-hall, divided into two parts by an arcade 
of arches supported by polished granite columns. 
That part towards the rear is the staircase hall, from 
which iron stairs extendi to the top of the building. 
The principal rooms on the first floor are the 
faculty-room, the library, lecture-room, and a read- 
ing or study room, with the luxury of a smoking- 
room adjoining. In the second story is the great 
laboratory for general chemistry, and half stories 
connected with it subdivided for special laboratory 
service and study ; the physiological laboratory, with 
connecting rooms and private laboratories for the 
professor and his assistants ; and the general 
lecture-room, a great hall with sloping ranges of 
seats for the students, and an ample experimental 
table and hoods. In the rear is the large prepara- 
tion-room, reached by private stairs and passages, 
for the use of the professors. On the third story 
at the front is the valuable Museum of Comparative 
Anatomy, the original collection of which was given 
by Dr. John Collins Warren ; and in the south-east 
corner, the anatomical theatre, occupying the height 
of two full stories. Subordinate lecture and recita- 
tion rooms occupy the western third of this story. 
In the upper story are the laboratories of the patho- 
logical department, and for anatomical study, a 
smaller theatre for anatomical demonstration, and 
rooms for special investigations and experiments. 
Ample provision is made for ventilation and for the 
escape of chemical fumes from the hoods in the 
various laboratories. The fiat roof is conveniently 
designed for certain out-door experiments. The 
structure is practically fire-proof throughout. It 
cost a quarter of a million dollars, and this was 

met by a fund raised by friends of the school and of 
the University. It was completed in 1883. 

The standard of the Harvard Medical School 
was raised in 1875, and it is now the highest in the 
country. The school dates from 1783, and its 
establishment was the result of the delivery of a 
course of lectures before the Boston Medical Society 
by Dr. John Warren, a brother of Gen. Joseph 
Warren. It was established in Cambridge and was 
moved to Boston in 1810, "to secure those ad- 
vantages for clinical instruction, and for the study 
of practical anatomy, which are found only in large 
cities." From 1846 until its removal to the Back 
Bay it occupied the quaint binlding on North 
Grove street, near the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, now occupied by the Harvard Dental 

The Normal Art School building, Kxeter and 
Newl)ury streets, of brick with stone trimmings, in 
the Byzantine Romanesque style of architecture, is 
the work of H. W. Hartwell and W. C. Richardson, 
the architects of the " Spiritual Tenijile " across the 
way. The principal entrance, from Newbury 
street through the nr( hcd porch, leads directly 
into a large, well-li,nhtL(l Inliliw In the first story 
are the museum and the class-rooms, for instruction 
in architectural and mechanical drawing and model- 
ling in clay ; and in the basement, immediately 
below the modelling-room, the works here modelled 
are cast in plaster. In the second story are the 
rooms of the class in painting in oil and water 
colors and a lecture-room ; and in the third are 
those of the preparatory class, another lecture- 
room, and studios. The Exeter-street entrance 
opens on a corridor running through the building 
parallel with Newbury street, traversing in its way 
the lobby into which the main entrance leads. 
The school is a State institution, established in 
1873, primarily as a training school for teachers of 
industrial drawing in the public schools of the State, 
a law of 1870 making free instruction in such draw- 
ing obligatory in the public schools of towns and 
cities of over 10,000 inhabitants; but it also ad- 
mits other students in special branches. George 
H. Bartlett is now the principal, and the school is 
under the supervision of a Board of Visitors of the 
State Board of Education. Its establishment was 
the outcome of the work of the late Walter Smith, 
the eminent English art instructor, the first prac- 
tical director of drawing in the Boston public 

The Prince School building (named for Fix- 
Mayor Prince), on the opposite corner, north, is the 

' See chaptei 

North and Old West , 




first adai)tation in New England of the (lerman and 
Austrian plan of school building, by which the rooms 
are ])laced on one side of a long corridor instead of 
grouped around a common hall in the middle. By 
this plan the width of the building is the width only 
of a school-room and the corridor, and better air, 
better light, and a more direct connection between 
corridors, staircases, and entrances are secured than 
by the more common one. Long and low, it is 
but two stories high, and with its dark brick walls 
decorated with ivy, it presents an attrac ti\i' I'xtrrior, 
which cannot be said of school builcliiiL;^ in i^mcral. 
Its design is a central and two end paviliuiiN, con- 
taining twelve school-rooms and a large exhibition 
hall. It was dedicated in November, 1881. An- 
other attractive school building ((.ompleted in 
1890) is its neighbor on the south side of Newbury 
street, that of the Horace Mann Si hool tor Deaf- 
Mutes. Built, the first story of block freestone 
and the second and gables of the third story of 
rhiladeljjhia face-brick, the conspicuous feature of 
the facade is the high arched entrance-way from the 
heavy stone landing. The interior is admirably 
arranged. This school is part of the public-school 
system, and the work it accomplishes is remarkable. 
The pupils are taught to communicate by articu- 
lation rather than by signs. Prof. A. Melville 
Bell's system of visible speech beitig employed as 
an aid in the teaching. Training is also given the 
pupils in the use of pencil, crayon, Sloyd carving, 
and other industrial arts, as well as penmanship. 
The school was founded in 1869, and the name of 
"Horace Mann" was given to it in 1877. The 
Sarah Fuller Home (named for the devoted princi- 
pal of the Horace Mann School) in West Medford 
gives care and instruction to deaf children too 
young to enter the regular school. 'I'his is sup- 
ported by private aid. 

The great exhibition building of the Charitable 
Mechanic Association, on Huntington avenue and 
\Vest Newton street, covers a space of upwards of 
96,000 square feet, and the front on the avenue is 
600 feet. It is admirably planned, and more at- 
tractive in design than such buildings generally are. 
( )n the avenue front the arches of graceful curves 
and the adjacent walls laid in red brick, with sills 
and caps of freestone and terra-cotta ornaments, 
are effective. The head of Franklin on one side of 
the main arch is intended to typify electricity, and 
that of Oakes Ames railroading. The arm and the 
hammer of the seal of the association appear in the 
s])andrels, with palm, oak, and olive branches sur- 
rounding them. In the octagonal tower at the east- 
erly end of the building, the two wide entrances are 

well designed ; and the t:arriage-porch, constructed of 
brick and stone, with open-timbered and tiled roof, 
is a good piece of ornamentation. The Adminis- 
tration building adjoins the tower, the great ex- 
hibition hall extends therefrom down the avenue, 
and the main hall, with entrance from the avenue, 
forms the west end. The latter is popularly called 
" Mechanics' Hall," and is frequently occupied for 
public meetings, and occasionally for opera and con- 
certs. It has sittings for 8,000 people. The Char- 
itable Mechanic Association, which owns the building, 
founded in 179S, is one of the honored institu- 
tions of Boston, and its great industrial fairs, given 
at irregular intervals, averaging every three years, 
are the most extensive and important held in the 
cotmtry. Other great exhibitions have been given 
in its building, the most notable in recent years 
being the successful " Food and Health Exposition " 
of the autumn of 1891, modelled after the great 
London " Healtheries." 

The first church built on the "new lands" 
was the .Arlington-street (Congregational-Unitarian; 
completed December, 1861), the successor of the 
old Federal-street Church, made famous by the 
preaching from its pulpit of William Ellery Chan- 
ning. Built of New Jersey freestone, with finely 
designed tower and lofty spire steeple placed sym- 
metrically in the middle of the front, it recalls old 
London churches of the style of the time of Sir 
Christopher Wren. The interior, divided into a 
nave and two aisles by a superb range of Corin- 
thian columns, is modelled upon the Church of Sta 
Annunziata at Oenoa, by Giacomo della Porta. 
The five arches above the columns on each side of 
the nave spring with their mouldings directly from 
the capitals of the columns, and without the inter- 
vention of a square bit of entablature over each 
column. By this expedient, adopted from the 
Cienoese church, the supporting effect of the column 
is here carried up in a series of i^anelled and 
ornamented piers to the full Corinthian entablature 
above, the arches between being formed by sunk 
and raised mouldings and having their spandrels 
and soffits decorated. 'I"he chime of bells, hung in 
the tower, was the gift of Jonathan Phillips, long 
a prominent member of the congregation. There 
are sixteen in all, eight fitted for round ringing as 
well as chiming, the others for chiming only. 
The largest, or tenor bell, weighs 3,150 pounds. 
Each bears an inscription from the Scriptures. 
For many years a thick mass of American ivy 
covered the Boylston-street side of the church, 
producing a charming effect, especially during the 
early autumn months, when it took on brilliant 



colors ; but this was entirely removed not long ago, 
as it was found that it was a means of injury to the 
stone. The Arlington-street was the pulpit of Dr. 
Ezra S. Clannett, John F. W. Ware, and Brooke 

The second church building here, Emmanuel 
(Protestant Episcopal; completed in 1862), on 
Newbury street, is built of the local Roxbury pud- 
ding-stone. It is one of the smallest churches in 
the quarter, picturesque in design and most note- 
worthy for its rich and brilliant interior. The 
society was organized shortly before this church 
was built, to furnish a parish for the Rev. Frederick 

D. Huntington (now Bishop of Central New York), 
who had been pastor of the South Congregational 
Church (now Rev. E. E. Hale's) and Plunmier Pro- 
fessor at Harvard College, and had left the Uni- 
tarian fold for the Protestant Episcopal Church. A 
large medallion tablet of bronze, designed by St. 
Gaudens, in honor of the late Dr. Alexander H. 
Vinton, the second rector of Emmanuel's, is con- 
spicuously set within the church. It displays a 
portrait of heroic size, with a biographical inscrip- 
tion. Leighton Parks, the present rector, succeeded 
Dr. Vinton. 

The Central Church (Congregational-Trinitarian ; 
completed in 1867), on Berkeley and Newbury 
streets, the third Back Bay church building, is the 
successor of the Winter-street Church, which so 
long stood near the present main entrance to Music 
Hall. It also is of Roxbury stone, with sandstone 
trimmings. Of elaborate design, in the Gothic 
style, with turrets and steeple, its distinguishing 
feature is the finely proportioned spire pointing the 
tallest in the city. The interior, showing the open 
pitched roof, is bright and cheerful, although an 
excess of color is displayed in the decoration. The 
cost, including the land, was $325,000. The pastors 
of the church since its location here have been 
John De Witt and Joseph T. Duryea. Most famous 
of those who occupied the pulpit of the old church 
in Winter street were ^\■illiam M. Rogers and John 

E. Todd. 

Within the next year the fourth Back Bay church 
was finished, — the First Church (Congregational- 
Unitarian; completed December, 1868), on Berke- 
ley and Marlborough streets. As the successor of 
the first meeting-house in Boston, the rude structure 
of wood and earth which served the colonists for 
nearly eight years, it stands one of the best speci- 
mens of the finer church architecture of this latter 
day. Beauty is disclosed in every detail of its ex- 
terior, and in its rich interior good taste is dis- 
played. Its style is the English Gothic freely 

treated ; cruciform, with chapel in the rear. Here 
again Roxbury rubble is the material employed in 
the walls, with dressings of Nova Scotia and Con- 
necticut sandstones. Especially fine features of the 
exterior are the corner tower and spire, the car- 
riage-porch over which they are built, and the ves- 
tibule on Berkeley street. The columns of the 
main porch on Berkeley street and of the cloister- 
porch on Marlborough street have polished shafts 
of Aberdeen granite, and capitals carved in leaves 
and flowers of native plants. The interior of the 
church is broad and open. The nave roof, sixty-six 
feet from the floor to the apex, is open-timbered, and 
the Berkeley-street end of the nave is a gable with 
a pointed rose-window filled with tracery. At the 
west end of the church is the chancel, occupied by 
the pulpit, car\'ed communion-table, and font. The 
woodwork is black walnut throughout, with panels 
and friezes of butternut. The rich colored-glass 
windows, several of them memorial windows, gifts 
to the church, were executed in London from the 
architects' sketches, and the organ was built in 
Germany by the makers of the great organ con- 
structed for Music Hall.' This is the fifth building 
of the "First Church of Christ in Boston." The 
first, that of wood and earth, stood where Brazer's 
building now stands, on State street, corner of Devon- 
shire. The second was on Cornhill, now Washing- 
ton street, nearly opposite the head of State street, 
where the Rogers building now stands ; this was of 
wood, built in 1639 ; in 1 7 1 1 it was burned down. The 
third, on the same spot, was built in 1712, of brick ; 
and the fourth, on Chauncy street, was built in 1807. 
The list of the ministers of the church is remarkable, 
for all but one were college men. When the Back 
Bay house was built. Dr. Rufus Ellis had been the 
pastor for more than thirty years (he was installed 
in 1835, succeeding Dr. N. L. Frothingham, whose 
ser\'ice had also been long). Dr. Ellis died in 
Liverpool, England, on the 23d of September, 1885. 
On the 29th of December, the following year, 
Stopford Wentworth Brooke, son of the well-known 
English clergyman, Stopford Brooke, of London, 
was ordained as Dr. Ellis' successor. The cost of 
the present church building was §275,000. 

The Brattle-square Church, now the First Baptist, 
on Commonwealth avenue and Clarendon street, 
next completed (in 1873), is most remarkable for 
its massive Florentine square tower, rising majesti- 
cally nearly 180 feet, with the band of figure-sculp- 
ture surrounding it near the summit, between the 
belfry arches and the cornice. The four groups, 

1 See chapter on Some Noteworthy Buildings; paragraph on 

IB m 




one on each side, are designed to re]iresent 
baptism, communion, marriage, and death, and the 
statues at each angle typify the angels of the judg- 
ment blowing golden trumpets. The figures were 
carved by Italian sculptors, from models by Bar- 
tholdi, after the rough stones had been set in place. 
This building also is ofRoxbury stone, in the form of 
the Greek cross ; and its exterior well expresses the 
idea which the architect had in its design, — mas- 
siveness and solidity. The interior is in the south- 
ern Romanesque style, with high walls surmounted 
by a basilica roof of stained ash. Before it was 
finished according to the architect's plans, work 
was suspended, as the society had become 
heavily in debt, and after a few services the church 
was closed. Subsequently the society dissolved, and 
the property was purchased by the First Baptist 
Society. Thus one historical churi h or^.uii/.ition 
was succeeded by another; the " linUilr s.|iMrc " 
descending from the famous " Manikstn ( hnirh," 
formed in 1699, and the "First Baptist," from the 
First Baptist Society, formed in 1665. It was the old 
Brattle-square Meeting-house, the " pride of the 
town," finished in 1773, but two years before the 
Siege, and occupied during that time by the British as 
barracks, which bore the "cannon-ball breastpin" 
fired into it from a battery in Cambridge on the 
night of the evacuation. It was long a cherished 
landmark ; and when in 1872 it was sold and re- 
moved to make way for a business structure, many 
good citizens were sorely grieved. Of the eminent 
pastors of the church were Joseph Buckminster, 
Edward Everett, John G. Palfrey, and Samuel K. 
Lothrop, the last of the line. After the First Baptist 
had acquired the present church, the galleries called 
for in the architect's plans were put in and its acous- 
tic properties improved; and in 1882 the new 
vestry and lecture-room were added, additional 
land being purchased by the society. The present 
pastor is Philip Moxom. 

The Old South (Congregational-Trinitarian), 
Dartmouth and Boylston streets, successor of the 
Old South Meeting-house, dates from the next 
year, 1874. It has the distinction of being one of 
the costliest of the Back Bay churches, and one of 
the most ornate. The buildings consist of church, 
chapel, and parsonage, the former occupying two- 
thirds of the rectangle on which they are placed. 
The church fronts about ninety feet on Dartmouth 
street and two hundred on Boylston. Here again the 
material used is Roxbury stone, with brown Connecti- 
cut and light Ohio freestone trimmings ; and the form 
is the Latin cross. The style of architecture is the 
North Italian Gothic. The most striking features 

of the exterior are the tower, rising 248 feet, with 
rich combinations of colored stones and graceful 
windows, terminating in a pyramidal spire ; the 
lantern in the roof at the intersection of the arms 
of the cross, twenty feet square, pierced with large 
arched windows, and covered by a pointed dome 
of copper partly gilded ; the richly decorated and 
deeply recessed main entrance through the front of 
the tower; and the arcade, sheltering inscribed 
tablets, running thence to the south transept. 
Added to these the belt of gray sandstone along the 
outside walls, delicately car\'ed to represent vines 
and fruits among which birds and squirrels are seen, 
and an effect is produced unusual and unique in 
our modern church architecture. The vestibule, 
paved in red, white, and green marbles, is separated 
from the nave by a high arched screen of Caen 
stone delicately carved, supported on columns of 
Lisbon marble and crowned by gables and finials. 
The interior is finished in cherry and brilliantly 
frescoed. Panels of Venetian mosaic fill the heads 
of the arches leading from the doorways. The roof 
is open-timbered, with tie-beam trusses, further 
strengthened by arched braces above and below the 
beam, coming forward to the walls in four broad 
low-pitched gables, the ridges from which meet in 
the roof and carry the open lantern referred to 
above. The elaborate stained-glass windows are 
decorated to represent biblical scenes ; that back 
of the pulpit, which is in a broad recess at the 
Dartmouth-street end of the church, represents the 
announcement to the shepherds of the birth of 
Christ. The closely clipped lawn in front of the 
chapel, and the rich growth of ivy on this portion of 
the structure, give an air of finish and age to the 
work. The entire cost of the building was half a 
million dollars. 

The same year, 1874, the Second Church (Con- 
gregational-Unitarian), on the Boylston-street side 
of Copley square, was completed. Built in part of 
the stones of the former church -building on Bed- 
ford street, which was taken down when business 
encroachments compelled a change, its modest 
freestone front is unpretentious ; yet, with its ivy- 
covered chapel adjoining, it is one of the most 
picturesque structures in the neighborhood. The 
broad and lofty interior, showing the open-timbered 
roof, is finished in rich, dark colors. Set up by the 
pulpit is the memorial tablet to Dr. Chandler Rob- 
bins (placed by his daughter), whose service as 
pastor covered a period of more than forty years ; 
and a companion tablet to the memory of other 
former pastors, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry 
Ware, who were colleagues, is contemplated. The 



memorial organ, built by Hutchins, one of the finest 
in the city, was given by S. A. Denio, in memory of 
his daughter. Among the treasured possessions of 
the church is the rich communion ser\'ice, contain- 
ing some very old pieces, and the baptismal basin, 
which has been in use since 1706. By the side of 
the pulpit stands the chair once used by Cotton 
Mather. The Second is the famous " church of the 
Mathers," Increase, Cotton, and Samuel, founded 
in 1649; and it was its second meeting-house in 
North square which the British soldiers pulled down 
and used for firewood during the Siege. During 
the pastorate of Edward A. Horton, which extended 
from 1880 to 1892, a debt of §45,000, which had 
been hanging for years, was lifted. Mr. Horton's 
resignation taking effect the ist of February, 1892, 
was greatly regretted by his people. 

Next rose Trinity (Protestant Episcopal; conse- 
crated Feb. 9, 1877), occupying the triangular- 
shaped lot bounded by Copley square, Clarendon 
street, and St. James avenue, the masterpiece of 
Richardson. In its design, a free rendering of the 
F'rench Romanesque, as seen in the pyramidal 
towered churches of ancient Auvergne, its great 
central tower dominating the whole composition, it 
is the most imposing piece of church architecture 
we have in the country to-day. Cummings, in the 
" Memorial History," commends it as " a striking 
example of the round-arched architecture of the 
south of France," and Mrs. Van Rensselaer, in her 
" Recent Architecture in America," with more 
warmth and enthusiasm, pronounces it " the most 
beautiful structure that yet stands on our side of the 
ocean." Of the style which inspired the design, — 
that of the school that " flourished in the eleventh 
century in Central France, the ancient Aquitane," 
and developed " a system of architecture of its own, 
differing from the classical manner in that while it 
studied elegance it was also constructional, and 
from the succeeding Gothic in that although con- 
structional it could sacrifice something of mechani- 
cal dexterity for the sake of grandeur or repose," 
as Richardson, in his own description, characterizes 
it, — the examples shown in the " peaceful, en- 
lightened, ;ind isolated cities of Auvergne " were 
selected as best adapted for a building fronting on 
three streets. " The central tower, a reminiscence, 
l)erhn|is, of the domes of Venice and Constanti- 
nojile," was in Auvergne, Richardson says, fully de- 
veloped, so that in many cases it " became, as it 
were, the church, and the composition took the 
outline of a pyramid, the apse, transepts, nave, and 
chapels forming only the base to the obelisk of the 
tower." \\ith the ordinary proportion of church 

and central tower, he i:()ntends, " either the tower 
must be comparatively small, which would bring its 
supporting piers inconveniently into the midst of 
the congregation, or the tower being large the rest 
of the church must be magnified to inordinate pro- 
portion. F"or this dilemma the Auvergnat solution 
seemed perfectly adapted. Instead of a tower 
being an inconvenient and unnecessary addition to 
the church, it was itself made the main feature. The 
struggle for precedence, which often takes place 
between a church and its spire, was disposed of by 
at once and completely subordinating nave, tran- 
septs, and apse and grouping them about the tower 
as the central mass." In plan, the church is a 
Latin cross, the arms of the cross short in propor- 
tion to their width, with a semicircular apse added 
to the eastern arm, itself forming the chancel. The 
tower, supported by four great piers placed close to 
the angles of the structure, thus causing no obstruc- 
tion to the sight, stands on the square at the inter- 
section of nave and transepts, and is closed in the 
church, at a height of one hundred and three feet, 
by a flat ceiling. The aisles are mere passage- 
ways ; " they would be very narrow for a Gothic 
church," the architect observes, " but are in charac- 
ter for the Romanesque." The clear-story is car- 
ried by an arcade of two arches only. The gallery 
carried above the aisles across the arches, is dis- 
tinguished from its position by the name of the 
"triforium gallery," and it serves as a passage to 
connect the main galleries one across either transept, 
and the third across the west end of the nave 
over the vestibule. The robing-room opens from 
the north-east vestibule as well as from the chancel. 
The main western vestibule is fifty-two feet long, 
the width of the nave ; or, counting the lower 
story of the western towers which virtually form 
a part of it, upwards of eighty-six feet. The 
main portal, and the secondary doors opening 
into each of the towers, give three entrances 
into the west front ; the north-east vestibule ser\es 
as entrance both from the street and from the 
cloister communicating with the chapel adjoining, 
itself with its open outside stainvay a picturesque 
])iece of architecture ; and the south-eastern vesti- 
bule is entered from St. James avenue. The in- 
terior of the church is finished in black walnut and 
lighted by brilliant pictured windows; and all the 
vestibules are in ash and oak. But the rich effect 
of color produced by the decorative work of John 
la Farge is the great feature of the interior. The 
frescos are in encaustic painting. The colossal 
figures painted in the great tower, of David and 
Moses, Peter and Paul, and Isaiah and Jeremiah, 



with the scriptural scenes high above, and the 
fresco in the nave, of Christ and the woman of 
Samaria, are especially fine. Of the exterior of the 
church the details are artistic in design, and the 
color also is effective, the yellowish Dedham and 
Westerly granite, of which the walls are mainly con- 
structed, harmonizing well with the rich brown of 
the Longmeadow freestone employed in the trim- 
mings and the cut-stone work. The stones from 
St. Botolph Church, in old Boston, Lincolnshire, 
presented by its authorities to Trinity, which are 
placed in the cloister between the church and 
chapel, are interesting memorials. Those hav- 
ing a fondness for statistics will be interested to 
know that 4,500 piles support Trinity, that the 
great tower weighs nearly 19,000,000 pounds, and 
that the finial on the tower is 211 feet from the 
ground. In the construction of the foundations of 
the church, stone saved from the ruins of the old 
church on Summer street, which went down in the 
great fire of 1872, were utilized. The cost of the 
new Trinity and buildings was about $800,000. 

The new Hollis-street, now the South Congre- 
gational Church (Congregational-Unitarian), New- 
bury anci Exeter streets, was completed in the 
autumn of 1884, the ninth in the Back Bay district. 
Unlike its predece.ssors in this quarter it is built 
mainly of brick, with freestone and terra-cotta 
trimmings. It is in the Byzantine style of archi- 
tecture and the form of a square, but somewhat 
irregular in outline of plan. The peculiar style of 
the tower, the lower half circular and the ujjper 
twelve-sided, and the large gables, with circular 
turrets on each fagade, the stained-glass windows 
within each gable, terra-cotta tiles above and below, 
and terra-cotta castings finishing the ridges of the 
roof, — all combined give to the structure an odd 
effect. The freestone columns, with carved capitals, 
on each side of the main entrance door on New- 
bury street, are handsome ; and the gabled porch, 
surmounted by an octagonal tower finished with 
a curved roof, is an effective feature. The interior 
of the church is amphitheatre in form, the pews 
radiating from a common centre. The pulpit is 
set well forward, and just above it is the organ and 
choir gallery. The prevailing colors of the interior 
decorations are light. Of the memorial windows, 
one is to the memory of John Pierpont, and the 
other of the gifted Starr-King, both famous pastors 
of the old Hollis-street. The vestry, or lecture- 
room, with class-rooms adjoining, and the literary 
and ladies' parlors, with kitchen nearby, are in 
the basement. The church is the successor of 
the old meeting-house which long stood on HolHs 

street, and is now transformed into the Hollis-street 
Theatre.' The first meeting-house of the society 
was built in 1751-52, and the first minister was the 
" Tory, wit, and scholar," Mather Byles. The 
South Congregational Society (founded in 1827), 
Rev. Edward Everett Hale's, purchased the church 
in 1887, and moved into it in October that year, 
when the two societies were practically united. 

The Spiritual Temple (completed in 1885), op- 
posite the new Hollis-street, the main entrance on 
Exeter street, is still more peculiar in design. The 
style is the Romanesque. Of rough granite and free- 
stone, the front elaborately ornamented and enriched 
with carvings, it excites the curiosity of the stranger, 
who finds it difficult to determine the nature of the 
building until his eye catches the name cut in the 
stone over the majestic arch at the entrance. Be- 
neath the inscription and occupying the spandrels 
of the arch are two circular panels, carved with 
symbols of the society established here, and a belt 
of elaborate carving extends entirely around the 
building at the top of the chief story. The arrange- 
ment of the interior is simple and convenient. The 
well-lighted and brightly decorated audience-room 
occupies the chief story ; on the floor above it are 
smaller halls ; and on that below is another lecture- 
room, library, and a reading-room. The Temple 
is the meeting-house of the " Working Union of 
Progressive Spiritualists," and was built by a 
wealthy merchant, Marcellus J. Ayer, at a cost 
of $250,000. 

The Mount Vernon (Congregational-Trinitarian), 
Beacon street and West Chester park, is the newest 
church in the district. This also is Romanesque in 
style, of Roxbury stone, with buff Amherst stone 
trimmings, and carvings about the arched entrances, 
the finials, and the top of the square side tower, 
terminating in the steeple. The main front on 
Beacon street has the triple entrance, with gables 
and a rich rose-window, the West Chester park side 
shows a double front, with a triple two-story front 
and rose-window above, and the river side is two 
stories with three arched stone dormers. The in- 
terior is on the cruciform plan. The roof is open- 
timbered, with ash trusses, and the finish generally 
is in ash. The vestry and class-rooms are in the 
north transept on the first floor, and over the vestry 
is a dining-room with kitchen and pantries adjoin- 
ing. The minister's room and the ladies' parlor 
are in the second story, on the West Chester park 
side. The architects of this church were Walker 
& Kimball. It succeeds the sombre granite-front 
church which has so long stood on Ashburton 

1 See chapter on the Theatres. 



place. Since its organization in 1842 the Mt. 
Vernon Society has had but two pastors, — FAluard 
X. Kirk, whose service extended from 1842 to 1874, 
closing only with his death, and Samuel E. Herrick, 
who began first in 187 1 as associate pastor. 

\\'ith the churches should be classed the building 
of the Young Men's Christian Association, Boylston 
and Berkeley streets, opposite the Natural History 
building. It is quiet and tasteful in design and 
warm in color, through the blending of brick and 
brown-stone. 'The style of architecture is defined 
as Scotch baronial. The feature of the Boylston- 
street fagade is the entrance porch, from a dignified 
flight of broad stone steps, over which is the motto 
" Teneo et teneor ; " and the corner of the building 
is relieved by a round-roofed bay-window thrown 
out at the second story. 'The vestibule opens into 

a large reception-room, and within easy reach are 
inviting parlors, the library, reading, and game rooms, 
a small lecture-hall, and the business offices. On 
the floor above is the large, well-proportioned pub- 
lic hall, with anterooms ; in the next story various 
class-rooms and meeting-rooms of the directors and 
various committees ; and in the basement the gym- 
nasium, one of the largest and best-appointed in 
town. The Boston organization (established in 
December, 185 1) is the oldest of the Young Men's 
Christian Associations in the country, and with the 
exception of that of Montreal, which was formed 
but one week earlier, the oldest in North America. 
'The clubs established on the Back Bay, with the 
exception of the St. Botolph, possess houses es- 
l)ecially designed and built for their use.' The 

' See chapter 

1 Clubs. 



Art Club-house, the oldest of the number (comjileted 
in the spring of 1882), on the corner of Dartmouth 
and Newbury streets, modestly finishes the line of 
striking architectural work on Dartmouth street, be- 
ginning with the brown-stone Pierce building and 
the new Public Library on Copley square. Built of 
dark brick, with brown-stone trimmings and terra- 
rcotta decorations, in the familiar Romanesque style, 
its hexagonal tower on the principal corner, with the 
stone balcony projecting from it on the Newbury- 
street side, is the most notable feature. The mem- 
bers' entrance is from the stone porch on the New- 
bury-street front ; and through the arch of terra- 
cotta work on the Dartmouth-street side is the pub- 
lic entrance leading to the art gallery of the club. 
An effective piece of work is the semicircular 
stained-glass window over the club entrance porch. 
The interior of the house is admirably arranged and 
extensively decorated. The art gallery, broad and 
ample and well lighted by a large skylight, is tinted 
in Pompeian red ; and the three large parlors in the 
club proper are with different decorations, the colors 
so arranged as to blend and form a gradual change 
from dark to light shades. Other pleasant apart- 
ments are the library, the lecture, lounging, billiard, 
and supper rooms. The valuation of the Art Club's 
real estate was in 1891 §123,000. 

The Algonquin Club-house, on the north side of 
Commonwealth avenue, midway between Exeter and 
P\airfield streets, is the most sumptuous in town. 
The front of brick, with light-colored limestone 
trimmings, is highly ornamented and tasteful in de- 
tail. The style is based on that prevalent in the 
seventeenth century in France in the reign of Louis 
XIIL, " a brick and stone architecture, " the archi- 
tects say in their description, " thoroughly modern 
in character." In its design their aim was to give 
it " the expression appropriate to a club-house, that 
is to say, neither palatial nor domestic, though par- 
taking of both." The elaborately finished central 
entrance gives dignity to the building. Within, the 
house is commodious and elegantly appointed. 
From the great hall on the ground floor to the 
kitchens and apartments on the upper floors, every- 
thing is on a generous scale. The reading-room on 
the first floor above the entrance, the assembly-room 
and library on the next floor, and the general din- 
ing and breakfast and supper rooms on the third, 
extend across the entire front, and are furnished with 
an eye to every comfort. There are an abundance 
of private dining and supper rooms for large or 
small parties ; billiard and card rooms ; and a ladies' 
caf(5, dining and reception rooms, similar to those 
in the Somerset Club. Upon the walls of the larger 

rooms, notably in the library and assembly rooms 
are a number of paintings, some of them good ex- 
amples of the work of leading modern artists. The 
assessors' valuation of the Algonquin's real estate in 
1891 was $232,000. 

The Athletic Club-house, on Exeter street, built of 
brick with stone trimmings, shows a plain exterior, 
the greatest attention in the architect's plans having 
been given to the interior arrangement. It is one 
of the largest and best-equipped club-houses of its 
kind in the country. Its ample gymnasium is pro- 
vided with the best apparatus attainable, and it has 
tennis, racquet, and hand-ball courts, fencing and 
boxing rooms, bowling alleys and billiard-rooms, 
Turkish bath and swimming-tank, together with the 
regular features of the modern club, including a large 
restaurant. It is the only athletic club in the 
country having, with the gymnasium and other feat- 
ures, tennis and racquet courts under the same roof. 
The building was completed in December, 1888, 
and the plans of the late John Sturgis were closely 
followed by his successors, Sturgis & Cabot. 

In the domestic architecture of the city remark- 
able progress has been made during the last few 
years. There was some chance for improvement in 
taste from the time of the early modern movement 
which dictated the destruction of the old Hancock 
mansion on Beacon hill, and substituted the French 
mansard roofed houses, that were the vogue for a 
quarter of a century or more. Many of the archi- 
tects had studied in Paris, and much of their work 
recalled the atelier problems. The better examples 
of the period are the residences on Arlington street, 
notably those of Montgomery Sears, and in the 
block in which Mr. Henry W. Williams lives. The 
great fire of 1 8 7 2 filled the offices of the architects with 
problems of business buildings, and withdrew them 
for the time from the study of the dwelling-house. 
Then, through the Philadelphia Exhibition, a strong 
impetus to interior decoration w^as given by the 
many exhibits of textile fabrics, both of Europe and 
the East, of William Morris' work in carpets and 
wall papers, as well as tiles, furniture, and other 
results of the English movement. The influence, 
however, of foreign elements of study in England, 
France, and Germany, both by the travelled student 
and those who had settled here, tended towards 
rather an eclectic bloom, and a struggle for the 
novel in design, which resulted in something of 
eccentricity rather than beauty. Exteriors were 
marred by lines of black brick and surfaces patched 
in many-colored stones. Subsequently some of the 
artists had become interested in the doing of inte- 
riors, and the restraint and refinement of color and 

«l-\^ ;- 

>-^* '-- 



detail within became reflected without. Then the 
late H. H. Richardson's work, with its round arched 
Gothic, left its strong impress on the work of 
others. From his hand came Bishop Phillips 
Brooks' house on Clarendon street, and Henry L. 
Higginson's house on Commonwealth avenue. In 
somewhat similar style were the houses of Charles 
Whittier, and many more on Beacon street and 
Commonwealth avenue, with a pleasing tendency to 
French work, as seen in the two houses designed 
together for Drs. Wesselhoeft and Bell on Common- 
wealth avenue. The latest movement has been in 
a return to the classic in motive, and much dignity 
has resulted, as in the examples owned by Mrs. 
Francis Skinner, Charles Head, and others, on 
Beacon street. While in similar lines, but with 
much more feeling for the stately houses which were 
buUt for the merchants of the early part of the 
century, here as well as in Salem and Portsmouth, 
may be named the houses of Arthur Beebe, John 
Forrester Andrew, on Commonwealth avenue, and 
several others not yet quite completed. Within 
doors the same taste which has shown itself in the 
exterior designs is repeated in almost all the 
houses which have been mentioned. Frederick L. 
Ames bought, added to, and altered a house which 
was of the earlier type, and the interior is one 
noted for its beauty and splendor. It was one of 
the last works of the architect John H. Sturgi.s. 
There is very little in planning which differs from 
that of dwellings in other American cities, except an 
absence of picture-galleries. The Bostonian scatters 
his possessions of art throughout the house, regard- 
less of danger from fire ; and even the almost price- 
less collection of Millet's work is in a country 
house which might be swept away in a couple of 

But four statues have thus far been placed in the 
Back Bay quarter outside the Public Garden : the 
portrait statues of Alexander Hamilton, Gen. John 
Glover, and William Lloyd Garrison, and the ideal 
"Leif, the Norseman," — the first three in the Com- 
monwealth-avenue parkway, and the fourth at the 
beginning of the extension of the avenue west of 
West Chester park. The Hamilton, which was the 
first erected (in 1865), the work of Dr. William 
Rimmer, was received by the local critics with a 
chorus of disapproval. It was the first statue in the 
country cut from granite, and it was a popular 
opinion that this stone was too harsh for such use. 
But Dr. Rimmer had done fine work in the same 
material, notably a colossal head of St. Stephen, 
which had won hearty praise from seasoned critics ; 
and the head of the Hamilton also was generally 

commended. The trouble was less with the stone 
used than with the moulding and draping, or 
swathing rather, of the figure. The Glover, in 
bronze, done h)y Martin Milmore, which was set up 
ten years after the Hamilton, is much more pictur- 
esque in detail, and less stiff in pose. The heavy 
military cloak falls in graceful folds over the Con- 
tinental uniform, and the hardy figure of the old 
Marblehead soldier, with sword in hand and one 
foot resting on a cannon, is drawn in broad and 
vigorous lines. The Garrison, also in bronze, and 
of heroic size, is the strongest figure of the three. 
The head erect and turned slighdy towards the 
right, the high forehead and the strong features of 
the uncompromising agitator, are admirably por- 
trayed ; and the attitude of the figure, sitting in a 
large arm-chair, the long frock-coat open and the 
folds falling on either side, the left leg advanced 
and the right bent at a sharp angle, is easy and 
natural. The right hand holds a manuscript, and 
under the chair lies a volume of the " Liberator.' ' The 
Garrison is the work of Olin L. Warner, of New 
York, and was placed in 1886. The bronze I^if, 
by Miss Anne Whitney, is the most interesting of 
all our out-door sculpture. The youth of sturdy, 
supple frame stands in an eager attitude at the 
prow of his vessel, his gaze fixed as if to discern the 
first sight of a new and strange land. The figure is 
clad in a shirt of mail with bossed breastplates and 
a studded belt from which a knife hangs in orna- 
mental sheath, close-fitting breeches and sandals. 
From beneath the ca-sr^ue covering the head the 
long, wavy hair of the Saxon type flows over the 
shoulders. The eyes are shaded with the uplifted 
left hand, the right gra.sping at the hip a speaking- 
horn, itself a beautifiil bit of work, ornamented in 
relief. The weight of the body is thrown upon the 
left foot, and the head is turned slightly to the left. 






ALTHOUGH shorn of its glory by the lavish 
development of the Back Bay territory, and no 
longer the fashionable quarter of the town, the 
South End is yet an attractive section, with its broad 
and pleasant streets, inviting small [jarks, important 



public buildings, institutions, and churches, and 
many substantial dwellings of sober exterior with an 
air of roominess within. Here are seen more fre- 
quently than in the newer parts examples of the 
once popular "old Boston" style of domestic archi- 
tecture, — the round, swell front of generous width. 
But the peculiarity of this quarter, and that which 
so sharply marks the difference between it and the 
newer fashionable quarter, is the uniform style of 
the blocks of houses lining street after street : uni- 
formity was the prevailing note in the old, variety is 
that in the new. 

The making of new land and the building of the 
modern South End was begun in a small way many 
years ago. Originally the narrow " Neck," from 
Dover street to the Roxbury line, the earliest move- 
ment towards improvement here was made in 1801, 
when the selectmen reported to the March town- 
meeting a plan for " laying out the Neck lands," in 
which lots were marked off and streets were drawn 
regularly and at right angles. " To introduce variety 
a large circular space " was also marked, to be orna- 
mented with trees and called " Columbia square." 
" In reality," says Shurtleff, " it was an oval grass- 
plot, bounded by four streets, with Washington 
street running through its centre ; indeed, the 
identical territory now included in Blackstone and 
Franklin squares." But the improvement moved 
slowly, and it was not until fifty years later, long 
after Boston had become a city, that it was systemati- 
cally advanced. This was in 1849-50-5 i, during the 
administration of Mayor Bigelow, when a high grade 
for the lands was adopted, and in accordance with 
plans drawn by E. S. Chesbrough and William P. 
Parrott, experienced engineers, new streets and 
squares were laid out. Among the latter were 
Chester square and East Chester and West Chester 
parks (estabhshed in 1850), and Union park (in 
185 1 ). And at the beginning of this movement, in 
February, 1849, the old Columbia square was divided 
and transformed into the present Franklin and 
Blackstone squares. Two years before, the filling of 
the marsh lands on the east side of the Neck, known 
as South Bay, was begun, and subsequently that terri- 
tory was graded and laid out in streets and lots. 

While within this quarter there is nothing ap- 
proaching the architectual display of the New West 
End, there are not a few noteworthy structures which 
arrest the eye. Here are the buildings of the City 
Hospital, of the Massachusetts Homceopathic Hos- 
pital, and of Boston College ; the great Latin and 
English High Schools, and near by the Latin School 
for Girls, and the Girls' High School. And of 
churches here are the Cathedral of the Holy Cross, 

the Church of the Immaculate Conception, the 
Tremont Methodist, the Shawmut Congregational, 
the First Presbyterian, the Peoples', the Columbus- 
avenue Universalist, the LTnion (Columbus avenue), 
the Church of the Disciples (founded by James 
Freeman Clarke), the Warren-avenue Baptist, the 
Berkeley Temple, the Church of the Unity (where 
the Rev. M. J. Savage preaches), the New South 
(Unitarian), the Clarendon-street, the Shawmut- 
avenue Universalist, the Ohabei Sholom (Hebrew, 
formerly the old South Congregational Church, Dr. 
Edward E. Hale's'), and the Reformed Episco- 
pal. Of hotels here are the Grand on Columbus 
avenue, and the marble front Langham (formerly 
the Commonwealth) on Washington street; of 
memorial buildings with public halls, the Parker 
(in honor of Theodore Parker, transferred to the 
Benevolent Fraternity of Churches in 1891), on 
Berkeley street, and the Paine (in commemoration 
of Thomas Paine), on Appleton street; and of 
theatres, the Grand Opera House. The headquar- 
ters of the Odd Fellows are also here, in their own 
building, at the junction of Berkeley and Tremont 
streets ; the New England Conservatory of Music, 
pleasantly facing Franklin square ; and a large 
number of modern apartment-houses. 

One of the most interesting groups is that of the 
City Hospital, the Church of the Immaculate Concep- 
tion, and the Boston College, on Harrison avenue, 
between East Springfield and Concord streets, the 
former occupying the east side of the avenue, and the 
latter the west side. The hospital, consisting of 
nine pavilions connected with the central structure, 
known as the Administration building, and numerous 
other buildings, including a home for the training- 
school nurses, is designed in accordance with the 
most approved models. The buildings are sub- 
stantial, dignified, and sober in style, the only at- 
tempt at architectural effect being made in the cen- 
tral structure, in the design of its fagade, and the 
dome which crowns it. With their well-kept 
grounds they cover a square containing nearly seven 
acres.^ The Church of the Immaculate Conception 
and the Boston College were both built under the 
auspices of the Jesuit Fathers, and completed in 
1860-61. The church was one of the first stone 
church buildings in the city. It is a solid granite 
structure, without tower or spire, and the peculiar- 
ity of its design at once attracts attention. The 

' See chapter c 

■ West End; paragraph on Ne 

2 The Home for Convalescents, in connection with the hospital, is 
pleasantly situated on Dorchester avenue, Dorchester district. The 
estate consists of fifteen acres of land, partly under cultivation and 
partly woodland. The City Hospital was first established in 1S64. 



statues of the Virgin and of the Saviour, with out- 
stretched arms, the former placed above the entrance 
and the latter above all, are the striking features of 
the facade, marking the character of the edifice and 
the great church organization to which it belongs. 
In the interior, however, the most elaborate work 
is seen. Two rows of Ionic columns, with richly orna- 
mented capitals, mark the line of the side aisles. 
On the keystone of the chancel arch is a bust rep- 
resenting Christ ; on the opposite arch, over the 
choir-gallery, one representing the Virgin ; on the 
capitals of the columns, busts of the saints of the 
Society of Jesus ; and over each column a figure 
representing an angel supporting the entablature. 
The altar is of marble and richly ornamented. On 
the panels an abridgment of the life of the Virgin 
is sculptured, and on either side of the structure are 
three Corinthian columns, with appropriate entabla- 
tures and broken arches surmounted by statues of 
the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin, the whole 
terminated by a silver cross with an adoring angel 
on each side. On the right of the broken arch is 
a figure of St. Ignatius, and on the opposite side that 
of St. Francis Xavier. The elliptic dome over the 
chancel, lighted by colored glass, and with a dove 
with outspread wings in the middle, is effective. 
The chapels within the chancel rails are dedicated, 
that on the Gospel side to St. Joseph, and that on 
the Epistle side to St. Aloysius. The painting of 
the Crucifixion, behind the high altar, is by Gari- 
baldi, of Rome. The Boston College buildings are 
of brick, with little attempt at architectural dis])lay. 
The cost of the church and the college was ;j!35o- 
ooo. The architect of the church was P. C. Keely, 
of Brooklyn, N.Y., the interior designed by the 
late Arthur Oilman. The architect of the original 
City Hospital buildings was G. J. F. Bryant. 

In the immediate neighborhood of these build- 
ings is that of the New England Conservatory of 
Music, the old St. James Hotel (built in 1867-68 by 
Maturin M. Ballou), remodelled and enlarged for 
the purposes of the college. It is attractive in de- 
sign, of fine proportions, consisting of seven stories 
and a dome ; and it is admirably arranged for its 
present use. The Conservatory embraces fifteen 
separate departments, and in the College of Music 
proper, for advanced musical students, in connec- 
tion with the Boston University,' degrees in music 
are conferred. The students come from all parts of 
the country, numbering several thousand each year. 
The institution was the enterprise of the late Eben 
Tourg^e, and was established in 1867 in rooms 
in the Music Hall building. When the present 

1 See chapter on Some Noteworthy Buildings. 

building was secured for its accommodation, in 
1882, its plan and scope were considerably enlarged. 
Within the building is now a large concert-hall, reci- 
tation and practice rooms, library, reading-room, 
parlors, and museum ; adjoining it is Sleeper Hall, 
added in 1885. 

The Cathedral of the Holy Cross on Washington 
street, but a short distance below the Conservatory, 
built of Roxbury stone with granite trimmings, is 
the largest and in some respects the finest Catholic 
church in New England. Its outward appearance 
is at present disappointing, largely because of the 
abrupt ending of the towers on the principal facade ; 
but when these and the turrets, all of unequal height, 
are surmounted by the spires called for in the origi- 
nal design, it will be more dignified and imposing. 
The great tower on the south-west corner, with its 
spire, will be 300 feet high, and the smaller one on 
the other corner, 200 feet high. The style of the 
church is the early English Gothic, cruciform, with 
nave, transept, aisle, and clere-story, the latter sup- 
ported by two rows of clustered metal pillars. Its 
total length is 364 feet, the width at the transept 170 
feet, the width of nave and aisles 90 feet, the height 
of the nave 120 feet; and the entire building covers 
more than an acre of ground. The arch separating 
the front vestibule from the church is of bricks taken 
from the ruins of the Ursuline Convent on Mount 
Benedict in Somer\'ille, which was burned by a mob 
on the night of August 11, 1834.' The interior or- 
namentation and decoration of the church are rich 
and lavish. The chancel is unusually deep, and the 
altar within it, of variegated marble, is elaborate and 
costly. On the Gospel side stands the Episcopal 
throne, the cathedra of the archbishop. On the 
ceiling of the chancel are painted angels typifying 
Faith, Hope, and Charity, on a background of gold. 
The frescoing on the walls is handsome. The im- 
mense windows are nearly all filled with stained 
glass, both foreign and American, representing va- 
rious scenes and characters in Christian history. 
The designs on the transept windows represent the 

iThe picturesque ruins of the Ursuline Convent occupied the 
height Icnown as Mt. Benedict, in Somerville, a short distance from 
Charlestown Neck, until a few years ago, when the hill was levelled. 
The convent was established in Boston in 1S20, and first occupied a 
building adjoining the old Cathedral in Franklin street; it was re- 
moved to Mt. Benedict in 1826. The grounds about the building, 
which stood on the summit of the hill, were laid out in terraces, with 
fine orchards, shade-trees, and gardens. The burning of the building 
by the mob, who were infuriated by stories of ill-treatment of inmates, 
not.lbly Rebecca Reed, a pupil, and Sister Mary John, was a wanton 
act deplored by orderly citizens. In Boston a meeting to denounce 
it was held in Faneuil Hall, at which Harrison Gray Otis and Josiah 
Qiiincy, Jr., were among the speakers. Thirteen of the rioters were 
arrested, but only one, Marvin Marcey, Jr., the least guilty, it was 
said, was convicted. He was afterwards pardoned on the petition ol 
the bishop and others, on the ground that he should not suffer punish- 
ment while the ringleaders escaped. 



Kxaltation of the Cross by the Emperor Herac- 
lius, and the miracle " by which the True Cross was 
verified." Those on the chancel windows represent 
the Crucifixion, the Ascension, and the Nativity ; 
these are memorial windows, gifts to the church. 
Smaller stained-glass windows in the clere-story of 
the transept and the chancel represent biblical sub- 
jects. The interior terminates in an octagonal apse. 
On the right of the church is the Chapel of the 
Blessed ^■ irgin, containing a marble statue represent- 
ing the Virgin. The three other chapels are those 

the ground adjoining the cathedral, on the corner of 
Union Park street and Harrison avenue, is the man- 
sion-house of the archbishop, in which are the chief 
offices of the archdiocese. The cathedral was eight 
years in building, and was consecrated with a brill- 
iant ser\-ice on the 8th of November, 1875. P. C. 
Keely, of Brooklyn, N.V., was the architect. 

Most of the South End Protestant churches which 
make any pretensions to architectural effect are 
in the famihar Gothic style. One of the earliest 
built here, dating from 1862, that of the Tremont- 


of St. Joseph, St. Patrick, and the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. Between the latter and the sanctuary is the 
large vestry. The great organ, the sixth in size in 
the world, is built around the exquisite rose-window 
of the west, and the chantry, with the smaller organ, 
is near the chancel and the archiepiscopal throne. 
Of the chapels, that of the Blessed Sacrament is a 
beautiful piece of architecture, and it has a peculiar 
interest in that it contains the altar of the old cath- 
edral which stood so long in Franklin street.' In 

1 The business block known as the "Cathedral buildings," on 
Franklin street, now occupies the site of the old It was the 
second Catholic church in Boston, and its establishment was due to 
the zeal of Fathers Francis Antony Matignon and John de Cheverus, 
exiled French priests, who came here, the former in 1792 and the latter 
four years later. Both made warm friends among Protestants as well 

Street Methodist (Hammatt Billings, architect), with 
low walls and finely proportioned spires, is still re- 
garded as one of the most artistic in design. Lower 

as Catholics, and in the movement for the new church the generous 
aid of a number of influential Protestants was secured. The sub- 
scription to the building fund was headed by John Adams. A bell 
brought from Spain was given by Hasket Derby. The building was 
designed by Bulfinch; and it was consecrated by Bishop Carroll, of 
Baltimore, Sept. 29, 1S03. Boston at this time was only a mis- 
sion; and when in iSoS it was created an episcopal sec, tlie diocese 
then embracing all Xew England, Father Cheverus was made the 
first bishop. In 1S25 he was translated to France, and died, cardinal- 
archbishop, in Bordeaux, in 1836. Dr. Matignon died here in Boston, 
Sept. 19, iSiS. His remains lie buried under the floor of the 
mortuary chapel of St. Augustine in the Catholic cemetery in South 
Boston. Boston was created an archbishopric in 1S75, and Bishop 
John Joseph Williams was made the first archbishop. The old 
cathedral was sold in 1S60 to Isaac Rich, for $115,000. The first 
Catholic church was on School street, established in 17S4, in a chapel 
previously occupied by French Huguenots. 



down Tremont street, at the corner of Brookline 
street, the Shawmut Congregational Church (Con- 
gregational-Trinitarian), completed two years after, 
shows an effective piece of work in its tall, square 
campanile. Of this C. E. Parker was the architect. 
The unpretending meeting-house of the Church of 
the Disciples, on Warren avenue, is one of the 
most distinguished in the South End, not because of 
its architectural design, for it is one of the plainest, 
but because it was the pulpit of James Freeman 
Clarke. It was completed in 1869, and dedicated 
on the twenty-eighth anniversary of the first 
public meeting of the society, Feb. 28, 1841. 
At that first meeting it was resolved that the society 
should never rent or sell or tax the seats, and from 
that day to this it has been a free church. The 
present house was built and furnished at a cost of 
$57,000, all given outright by subscriptions ranging 
from $5,000 to $5. The interior is very pleasant; 
"cheerful and sunny, like our faith," Dr. Clarke has 
described it. The auditorium is capacious, and will 
seat comfortably from 1,000 to 1,500 persons. Below 
it are two halls connected by sliding doors ; a large 
Sunday-school library room, also opening into the 
larger hall ; a pastor's room, class and committee 
rooms, and a kitchen. All are high, well ventilated, 
well lighted, well warmed. The establishment of the 
church, in the beginning, was Dr. Clarke's own idea, 
and he strove for it several years before it was ac- 
complished. It first met in halls ; then it built the 
Freeman-place Chapel, on Beacon hill (named for 
James Freeman, first " reader" and afterwards rector 
of King's Chapel) ; and then, from 1853 until the 
present building was built, it was established in In- 
diana place. Among the earliest signers of the book 
of the church were Nathaniel Peabody and his 
three daughters, one of whom became the wife 
of Nathaniel Hawthorne, and another the wife of 
Horace Mann. John A. Andrew, Samuel J. May, 
Ellis Gray Loring, and George William Bond were 
other early members. For a while after the death 
of Dr. Clarke (in 1889) it was feared that the 
society would be scattered, but with the engagement 
of the Rev. Charles G. Ames as his succcessor, 
the ties were strengthened, and it is now again a 
strong organization. 

Of later churches, those on Columbus avenue are 
most noteworthy. The feature of the Columbus- 
avenue Universalist Church, built in 1872, at the 
corner of Clarendon street, also of Roxbury stone, is 
its shapely stone tower and steeple at the side, with 
the carriage-porch at the base ; and that of the 
Union Church (Congregational-Trinitarian), built in 
1870, farther up the avenue, at the corner of West 

Rutland street, is its picturesque outline, a rambling 
group of stone church and chapel, occupying the 
front of an entire square. The interior of the 
Universalist Church, built in the clere, without 
pillars, is light. It has painted windows rep- 
resenting the Man of Sorrows, the Risen Lord, and 
the Twelve Apostles; symbols of Faith, Hope, 
Charity, and Purity ; and memorials of the first pas- 
tor of the church, the revered Hosea Ballon, of its 
Sunday-school superintendent for thirty years, 
Thomas A. Goddard, and of eight deceased dea- 
cons. This is Dr. A. A. Miner's pulpit, and the suc- 
cessor of the famous old School-street church. It 
was designed by the architects L. Newcomb & Co. 
The interior of the Union Church is made attractive 
by its high pitched roof of open-worked timbers. 
The old church which it succeeds was long on Essex 
street, and its most famous pastor in the old days 
was Nehemiah Adams, whose pastorate covered thirty- 
five years : a cultivated man who early won a reputa- 
tion as a writer as well as a preacher, but was more 
generally known in local history as the defender of 
the institution of slavery in his " South-side View 
of Slavery, " published after a visit to South Carolina 
in 1854, which drew upon him the sharp criticism 
of the band of earnest abolitionists here in Boston, 
by whom he was dubbed "South Side Adams." 
The two other churches on this avenue — the First 
Presbyterian, at the corner of Berkeley street, just 
below Dr. Miner's church, and the People's Metho- 
dist-Episcopal Church, on the opposite side — are 
not particularly strong architecturally. The interior 
of the People's Church is in its arrangement more 
like a theatre than a church, the object being to pro- 
vide for an unobstructed view of the platform from 
every seat. It is a free church, and its construc- 
tion was due largely to the untiring zeal of J. W. 
Hamilton, long its pastor. The work of building 
was begun in 1879, and it was completed in 1885. 

The Latin and English High School building on 
Warren avenue, Montgomery and Dartmouth streets, 
is the largest structure in the world used as a free 
public school, and much attention was given in its 
design to architectural effect. It is built of brick, 
in the modern Renaissance style, with all the lines 
of strength treated architecturally in buff sand- 
stone, and the frieze courses inlaid with terra-cotta. 
The exterior ornamentation in the terra-cotta work 
is from designs by the sculptor, T. H. Bartlett. The 
building occupies a parallelogram 420 feet long by 
220 feet wide, and is designed after the German 
plan of the hollow square, with corridors following its 
outlines. The Latin School fronts on Warren ave- 
nue and the English High on Montgomery street, 



f ^^'^i n m 






and the two are connected in the rear by the drill- building is divided into three pavilions. The divi- 
hall and gymnasium, across the easterly end of the sion between the two courts of equal size within the 
block. Across the westerly end, facing Dartmouth block is made by the central or ' theatre " building, 
street, a building for the accommodation of the connected with the main street-fronts by a trans- 
School Board and its officers may ultimately be verse corridor. The statuary decorating both of the 
built. Each of the street-fronts of the main great vestibules from the main entrances is good 



work. That in the \estibule on the Latin School side 
is the marble monument designed by Richard S. 
Greenough in honor of the Latin School graduates 
who were in the Ci\il \\'ar. The orator and the 
poet on the occasion of its dedication in 1870 — 
William M. Evarts and Dr. William Everett — were 
graduates of the school. That in the vestibule of 


the English High side is the marble group of the 
" Flight from Pompeii," by Benzoni of Rome, the 
gift of the late Henry P. Kidder, another eminent 
graduate of the school. It stands on an African 
marble pedestal, with panels representing dancing- 
girls in bas-relief. The interior of the building is 
finished in Michigan oak. Thirty-six school-rooms 
occupy the street-fronts, and twelve receive their 
light and air from the courts. The " theatre " 

building contains lecture-halls and library-rooms for 
both schools. The chemical laboratory and lecture- 
room are in a detached building, separated from the 
remainder of the structure by fire-proof walls. The 
drill-hall and the gyinnasium above are models of 
their kind. The floor of the former is of thick 
plank, calked like a ship's deck, and laid upon solid 
concrete. It can accommodate the entire 
school battalion, and can also be used for 
mounted drill. The gymnasium is of the 
same size. The basement and court-yards 
are especially fitted for play-room. The 
building was dedicated Feb. 22, 1881. Its 
cost thus far, with the land, has been about 
S7 50,000. George A. Clough was the archi- 

The Boston Latin School was the first school 
established in the colonies, and the first edu- 
cational institution in the country. The first 
record with reference to it was made in 1635, 
five years after the landing of Winthrop and 
his associates, and it reads : " Att a general 
meeting upon publick notice ... it was 
. . . generaly agreed vpon y' o' brother 
Philemon Pormort shall be intreated to be- 
come schole master for the teaching and 
nourtering of children with vs." The first 
Latin School building was on School street, 
giving that way its name, on part of the 
ground now occupied by King's Chapel. 
The second was on the opposite side of the 
street, where the Parker House now stands. 
The third was on the same site, a structure 
of three stories with a granite front and a 
cupola, built in 181 2 ; and the fourth was on 
Bedford street, built in 1844, and lotig a 
familar landmark. This building was shared 
soon after its completion with the English 
lli.L^h S( hool (established in 182 1), and since 
th:ii tunc the two have kept together. From 
the llfdtord-street building removal was made 
to the present structure. 

The Girls' High and Latin schools building 
near by, on Newton street, is an uninteresting 
structure, originally designed for the High and 
Normal schools. When is was completed, in 1870, it 
was commended as the largest, most substantial, and 
costliest school-building in the country. The in- 
terior is well arranged, lighted, and ventilated. In 
the large hall, on the upper story, is a collection 
of casts of sculpture and statuary, the gift of citizens 
interested in the schools. The octagonal structure on 
the roof is designed to be used as an astronomical 
observatory. The High is the oldest of the schools 



here established, dating from 1855. 'J"he Latin 
School was established in 1878. The training 
which the girls of these schools receive is similar to 
that given in the English High and Latin schools 
for boys. 

The group of attractively designed buildings of 
the Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hospital, on the 
grounds bounded by Harrison avenue, Stoughton 
and Albany streets, includes the hospital proper, 
the School of Medicine (connected with Boston 
University), and the dispensary. With the impor- 
tant additions made in 1891-92 this has become 
the largest and most thoroughly equipped homoe- 
opathic hospital in the country, and the third 
general hospital in size in Boston and New England. 
The oldest portion, known as the Central Building, 
was first opened for patients in May, 1876; the 
surgical wing, on the southerly side, and the Cottage, 
or Isolating Ward, were built in 1883 ; and the ex- 
tensions of 1891-92 included the enlargement of 
the surgical wing, the construction of the medical 
wing, on the northerly side, the large building 
forming the westerly addition to the Medical School, 
the dispensary next it, and the mortuary on Albany 
street. The architect of the group was T. R. Allen, 
and in the design of the buildings the best models 
have been followed. About two hundred beds are 
now furnished in the hospital, and it is so arranged 
that the rooms are all sunny and pleasant. All the 
modern appliances for ventilation, heating, and 
lighting are employed. The fourth floor of the 
surgical wing includes the solarium, etherization 
room, and amphitheatre, the latter extending through 
the fifth floor and admirably arranged for demon- 
strations to classes of students. The dispensary is 
most systematically planned. When the building is 
completed according to the original plans a mater- 
nity department, exclusively under the care of 
women physicians, will be established. The Homoe- 
opathic Hospital was chartered as long ago as 1855, 
when it came within a single vote in the State Senate 
of receiving State aid. Failing this, its growth was 
slow. It was first established in a modest way in 
the house No. 14 Burroughs place, off from Hollis 
street, and fitted with but fourteen beds. This was 
in 187 1. In November of that year some of the 
most prominent homoeopathic physicians of the 
city were summoned for trial before the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, for " conduct unbecoming and un- 
worthy an honorable man and a member of the 
society," such " unbecoming and unworthy conduct " 
being the practice of their profession as members of 
the homoeopathic school. A summary expulsion from 
the society was prevented by an injunction from the 

Supreme Court ; but the matter was warmly discussed 
in the public prints, and popular interest was excited. 
A public fair in aid of the hospital, held soon after, 
so profited by this interest that ;?8o,ooo were real- 
ized for its funds. With this in hand the work of 
building on the present site was begun. The cost of 
the additions made in 1883 was met by generous 
contributions from citizens, and of those made 
in 1891-92 by further subscriptions and a grant of 
$120,000 from the State, authorized by the Legisla- 
ture of 1890. 





'T'O the lovers of Boston, bits of the North End, 
A despite its squalor, and much of the old 
West End of the town, are most interesting; and 
towards these sections the visitor in search of the 
quaint, the picturesque, and the mellow turns with 
agreeable anticipations. The North End especially 
is historic ground. Here is Copp's hill, of the 
original three, and its ancient burying-ground, with 
the tombs of the Mathers; and hard by, Christ 
Church, the oldest church-building now standing in 
the town, from whose steeple, the tablet on its face 
asserts, the signal-lanterns of Paul Revere were 
hung on that eventful April night in 1775 when the 
patriot flew along the Middlesex roads on his trusty 
horse warning the " minute men " of the march of the 
British to Lexington and Concord. Here is North 
square, where stood the old North Church, the 
"Church of the Mathers,"' which the British tore 
down and used for firewood during the hard winter 
of the Siege ; the old " Red Lion Inn," the famous 
seventeenth-century tavern long kept by the Quaker 
Nicholas Upshall, a " man of substance," and " one 
of the first to feel the rigor of the persecution of 
the Quakers," who finally died a martyr to his faith ; 
and until quite recently the homestead in which Paul 
Revere was born. Within the narrow precincts of 
the North End lived many of the men who were 
active in the stirring events preceding the Revolu- 
tion, the "Sons of Liberty," and the sturdy mechan- 
ics who joined with those of " laced and ruffled 

1 Sec chapter on the New West End, paragraph on Second 


coats "in the "tea party" of 1773. Here was 
Thomas Hutchinson's fine town-house, on Garden 
court, which was sacked by the mob on the night 
of August 26, 1765, during the Stamp Act troubles, 
when the chief justice and his family only escaped 
personal violence by hurriedly taking refuge in 
neighboring houses. And next to it, on the corner 
of the court and Prince street, was that of Sir 
Charles Henry Frankland, the lover of Agnes Sur- 
riage, where Lady Agnes, as he made her after she 
had so heroically saved his life in the Lisbon earth- 
quake, lived for a while after his death and her 
return to America. 

Though much of its quaintness has disappeared in 
late years with the demolition of ancient structures 
and the cutting of new ways through old landmarks, 
there yet remain in the North End some interesting 
examples of old-time building, houses of hip-roof 
variety, or with gambrel roofs and overhanging 
stories. Several of these are to be seen in Salem 
street, a number in Prince and neighboring streets, 
and a few in the vicinity of the old burying-ground. 
An interesting relic of the quiet style of colonial 
mansion-house is the well-preserved Dillaway house 
on Salem street, next to Christ Church, built of brick, 
with its end to the street and the entrance under a 
grape-vine trellis reached by a brick walk from the 
swinging gate. Christ Church, dating from 1723, 
the second Protestant-Episcopal church in Boston, 
presents a severely plain brick front with a tower and 
steeple of the Christopher Wren style (a repro- 
duction of the original one which was blown down 
in a great gale in 1804), and an interior ambitiously 
designed for that day. When, in 1884, the interior 
was renovated, an effort was made to restore it as 
far as possible to its original appearance. The 
coloring of the walls and woodwork within the 
chancel was a return to the ancient fashion, and an 
old-time style of ornamentation was copied in the 
covering of the arch with a material resembling 
hammered gold. The place is enriched with paint- 
ings and mural ornaments, among which is the first 
monument to Washington ever erected in the coun- 
try. The figures of the cherubim in front of the 
organ, and the chandeliers, were seized from a 
French vessel by the privateer " Queen of Hun- 
gary" in 1746, and presented to the church by 
Captain Grushea ; the Bible, prayer-books, and 
communion service were given by George H. 
in 1733 ; the massive christening-basin was a gift of 
a parishioner in 1730; and the sweet chime of 
eight bells hung in the tower, whose melodious 
tones are still heard, came from England in 
1744. From the old steeple Gage witnessed the 

burning of Charlestown during the battle of Bunker 

Copp's hill is the largest of the three ancient 
burying-grounds of the town (King's Chapel, Copp's 
hill, and Granary), and its situation is the most 
picturesque. It stands on a steep embankment 
left when the remainder of the hill was cut down, 
protected by a hiijh nmuh-stune wall. It was the 
second of the buryiii- -rounds established in the 
town, and occupied the summit of the hill where 
the old windmill, which gave the place its first name, 
had stood for twenty years. The ground was first 
used for interments in 1660, and was long known 
as the " North Burying Ground." From time to 
time new cemeteries were established adjoining it, 
and now the enclosure contains, besides the original 
Old North, which is that on the north-east side of 
the entrance gate, the New North and the Charter- 
street Burying-ground. Among notable graves or 
tombs here besides those of the Mathers — Increase, 
Cotton, and Samuel — are those of Chief Justice Par- 
ker ; of the father and grandfather of Governor 
Hutchinson ; of Mrs. Mary Baker, a sister of Paul 
Revere ; of Rev. Jesse Lee, the earlv preacher of 
Methodism in Boston, who organized its first per- 
manent church ; of Edward Hartt, the builder of the 
frigate "Constitution ;" and of Captain Thomas Lake, 
a commander of the Ancient and Honorable Artil- 
lery in 1662 and 1674, who, his gravestone reads, 
" was perfidiously slain by ye Indians at Kennebec, 
Aug. 14, 1676," and it is tradition that the slits 
deeply sawn in the gravestone were filled with 
melted bullets taken from his body. These have 
long since been chipped away by sacrilegious relic 
hunters. The grounds are pleasantly laid out, and 
in the summer season the gates are open to the 
public. At other times visitors obtain admission 
by application to the superintendent, who lives 
near by. The redoubt thrown up on the hill by 
the British, and from which Charlestown was fired 
by red-hot shot under the direction of Burgoyne 
during the Bunker-hill fight, was within the en- 
closure. While occupying the place as a military 
station during the Siege, the British soldiers made 
targets of the gravestones, and the marks of their 
bullets were visible for years after. Copp's hill 
got its name from an industrious cobbler named 
William Copp, who lived on its slope, on his own 
homestead. He, with his family, was buried here. 

Years ago the North End fell into disrepute, and 
was given over to the poorer and rougher classes ; 
but through all the changes a few old families have 
clung to it, and their modest, well-kept homesteads, 
speaking of comfort and even refinement, within, are 



in sharp contrast with the squalid surroundings. 
The overwhelming majority of the population is now 
foreign-born. Here many nationalities herd, and 
there is an Old- World look to the quarter which to 
many has a peculiar fascination. The Italian colony, 
now large and steadily increasing, is especially in- 
teresting. This is found mostly crowded into lower 
North street and the neighborhood of old North 
square. It has its own shops, gay with color, its own 
restaurants and theatre and church (the latter a 
brand-new structure of brick and stone, known as the 
Catholic Church of St. Leonard, on Prince, near 
Hanover street, taking the place of a smaller and 
more picturesque one which flourished for many 
years) . The small but very busy Jewish quarter is 
at the upper end of Salem street. Here are many 
Russian Jews, with the worn, hunted look which 
has come to be a characteristic of this unhappy 

The Old West End may be defined as that portion 
of the city lying between lower Tremont, Court, and 
Sudbury streets and the Charles river, and all of 
Beacon hill. That part lying on the westerly slopes of 
the hill, bounded by Pinckney street on one side and 
Beacon street on the other, is a region of fine, old- 
fashioned dwellings, not showy, like many of those 
of the New West End, or remarkable for architec- 
tural design, but comfortable, substantial, and with an 
unmistakable air of gentility. No statelier line of 
dwellings than that along Beacon street, facing the 
Common, from the State House to Charles street, is 
to be seen in the town. Mt. Vernon street, with its 
mansion-houses set well back from the walk, and its 
blocks of roomy, old-time dwellings, and Louisburg 
square, with its old-fashioned fenced enclosure filled 
with venerable trees, have a quiet dignity which only 
age and solidity can attain ; Chestnut street, one side 
lined with lindens, possesses a charm all its own ; 
and Pinckney street, with its quaint, broken lines as 
seen from Joy street, where it starts, is one of the 
most picturesque ways in Boston. 

Within this quarter many of the old Boston fami- 
lies have long resided, and it has been the favorite 
dwelling-place of literary folk. It was in Chestnut 
street, in Dr. C. A. Bartol's rare old house, that the 
famous Radical Club used to meet ; here Richard 
Henry Dana the elder lived for years, and here he 
died ; Francis Parkman's winter home is on this street ; 
Bishop Paddock lived here in the episcopal resi- 
dence to the end of his long service. On Walnut 
street, opposite the head of Chestnut, the father of 
John Lothrop Motley lived when the historian was a_ 
boy. On Mt. Vernon street, T. B. Aldrich, the poet, 
lives, and farther down the way Mrs. Margaret De- 

land, the novelist ; here also Miss Anne Whitney has 
her studio. On Charles street, near by the house 
which was long the home of Oliver Wendell Holmes, 
Mrs. James T. Fields still resides, and with her 
Sarah Orne Jewett. On Pinckney street Edwin P. 
Whipple and George S. Hilliard lived. On Beacon 
street, between Spruce and Charles streets, the old- 
fishioned swell- front house No. 55 was the home 
of William H. Prescott during the last fourteen years 
of his life. Here he wrote " The Conquest of 
Peru" and " Philip II.," in that famous working- 
room above his library, reached by a winding 
staircase from a secret door hidden behind the 
books. The noctograph which the historian (for 
all purposes of work a blind man) used is 
now in the possession of the Historical Society. 
In the stately old house on Beacon-hill place, just 
off from Mt. Vernon street. Dr. T. W. Parsons, the 
poet, has for several years made his winter home. 
The larger part of this territory was at one time 
included in the estate of John Singleton Copley, the 
artist. From 1773 to 1795 he owned all the land 
on the hill bounded by Beacon, Walnut, Mt. Vernon 
streets, Louisburg square, Pinckney street, and the 
water, — eleven acres in all of upland and about nine 
of flats, the greatest private estate in town at that 
time. This embraced the six acres upon which the 
house of Blaxton, the original settler, stood, and 
which he reser\'ed from the sale of all his interests 
in the peninsula to Winthrop's colony for ^30, about 
four years after they had moved over from Charles- 
town.i Blaxton's cottage was on the slope of the 
hill, between Charles and Spruce streets ; and north- 
east of it was his garden, or "orchard," of English 
roses and fruit trees, within which, not far from the 
middle of the grass-plot in the present enclosure in 
Louisburg square, was the " excellent spring of 
water" of which he "acquainted the governor . . . 
withal inviting hmi and soliciting him hither." 
Copley married a daughter of Richard Clarke, one 
of the obnoxious tea consignees, and the year before 
the Revolution went abroad. He finally settled in 
London and never returned to his native city. 
In 1795 Gardiner Greene, his son-in-law, sold his 
estate here to Jonathan Mason and H. G. Otis for 
§18,450; and when Copley realized that the land 
had greatly increased in value during his absence, he 
endeavored to annul the bargain, sending his son 
(afterwards Lord Lyndhurst) here with a power-of- 
attorney to act for him in the matter. Subsequently 
a compromise was effected and the conveyance duly 
sanctioned by his representatives. The new owners 
and their associates, under the name of the " Mount 

' See introductory chapter. 


Vernon Proprietors," ' made additional purchases 
in the neighborhood, so that their holdings eventu- 
ally included all the land enclosed within a line 
starting, as now laid out, from the corner of Charles 
and Beacon streets, up Beacon to \Valmit, through 
Walnut to Mt. Vernon, thence to Joy (first called 
Belknap street), through Joy to Pinckney, and down 
Pinckney to the water and the flats west of the es- 
tate. The hill was partly cut down, other extensive 
improvements made, and the proprietors realized 
handsomely upon their investment. During Copley's 
ownership this part of the hill was generally called 
" Copley's hill." 

Copley's house, a two-story dwelling of comfort- 
able proportions, surrounded by fine grounds, and 
with an extensive stable, stood facing the Common, 
where the Somerset Club-house now stands. Here he 
painted some of his best pictures, " probably those 
of Hancock and Adams among the number," says 
Drake. For a while after the Revolution General 
Knox lived in it. The white granite " double-swell " 
house now occupied by the Somerset (originally 
having but one bow in the centre, and fronting 
on a yard or carriage-way), built by David Sears, 
was one of the earliest erected in this part of Bea- 
con street after the Mt. Vernon Improvement, and, 
says Drake, " was long the admiration of the 
town." And so it remains to-day, especially in early 
autumn, when its striking exterior is enriched by 
the glowing color of the mass of Japanese ivy upon 
it. The marble panels on the fagade were made 
by Solomon Willard.^ Behind the house, in 1775, 
was a barn which was converted into a temporary 
hospital for the wounded British officers, after the 
Bunker hill fight. The old-time mansion next be- 
low the Somerset, whose dignified front and classic 
portico have long been familiar to Bostonians, was 
that of Harrison Gray Otis ; and that farther up the 
hill, on the lower corner of Walnut street, has 
the distinction of being the first house of brick on 
the street. It was built in 1804 by John Phillips, 
for ten years president of the State Senate, the first 
mayor of the city, and father of Wendell Phillips. 
Afterwards Lieut.-Governor Winthrop, father of 
Robert C. Winthrop, lived here from 1825 until 
his death, in 1841. The fomous old Hancock 
house, the removal of which in 1863 good Bos- 
tonians will ever deplore, stood back from Beacon 
street, near what is now Hancock avenue, a fine 

iThe " Mount Vernon Proprietors " were Jonath;in Mason and H. 
G. Otis, each three-tenths; Benjamin Joy, two-tenths; and llepsibah 
C. Swan, wife of James Swan, by General Henry Jackson, and later 
William Sullivan, trustee, the remaining two-tenths. 

2 See chapter on Some Noteworthy Buildings for reference to 
other work by Willard. 

example of the rich mansion-house of the colo- 
nial perioil, built of stone, with a balcony projected 
over the generous entrance-door, and approached 
from the street through the gateway in the old 
stone wall, by terraces planted with ornamental 
trees. The site is now marked by a tablet on the 
fence in front of the brown-stone double house next 
but one to Hancock avenue. 

The older part of the Old West End, on the 
north-east side of Cambridge street, also contains 
a number of quaint streets with old-fashioned Bos- 
ton houses, notably those in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the Massachusetts General Hospital, 
such as McLean, Allen, and Blossom streets. The 
hospital itself (founded in 1799), or at least the 
main building, with its imposing portico of Ionic 
columns and dignified dome, is a fine example of 
Bulfinch's work. This part, first built (completed 
in 182 1 ), is constructed of Chelmsford granite, 
hammered out and fitted for use by convicts of the 
State prison. In 1846 two extensive wings were 
added, and other additions and extensions have 
from time to time been made, until now it is one 
of the largest in the country. The important 
pavilion-wards, constructed in 1873-75, bear the 
names respectively of Jackson, Warren, Bigelow, 
and Townsend, in recognition of the services of Drs. 
James Jackson, J. C. Warren, Jacob Bigelow, and S. 
D. Townsend. The operating-room of the hospital 
is distinguished as the place in which one day in 
October, 1856, the first extensive surgical operation 
upon a patient under the influence of ether was 
successfully performed. Dr. W. T. G. Morton di- 
recting. This the " Ether Monument " on the 
Public Garden (see next chapter) commemorates, 
and in the hospital hangs a large painting show- 
ing portraits of those who were present on the 
occasion. The hospital grounds are carefully 
kept, and the walls of the main building are pic- 
turesquely adorned with ivy. Among the earliest 
benefactors of the institution was John McLean, for 
whom the McLean Asylum for the Insane, in Som- 
erville, a branch of the hospital, is named, and also 
McLean street ; and prominent among its founders 
was John Lowell, of the distinguished Lowell family. 
The old Harvard Medical School building (now oc- 
cupied by the Harvard Dental School, established in 
1868, and furnishing a complete course of instruc- 
tion in the theory and practice of medicine), on 
North Grove street, adjoining the hospital grounds, 
has a ghastly fame as the scene of the murder of 
Dr. George Parkman by Prof. John White Web- 
ster, November 30, 1849, whose trial was the most 
famous criminal case here. " No similar event," 



says Drake, " ever produced so great a sensation 
in Boston. Both of the parties were of the first 
standing in society. The deadly blow might have 
been struck in a moment of passion, but the al- 
most fiendish art with which the remains were con- 
cealed and consumed was fetal to Dr. Webster. Not 
the least touching episode of the trial was the ap- 
pearance of the daughters of the prisoner on the 
witness-stand giving their evidence under the full 
conviction of their father's innocence." Dr. Park- 
man lived, at the time of the murder, on the east 
siile of Walnut street, next the house on the cor- 
ner of Beacon street. Dr. Webster was executed 
the following year in the old Leverett-street jail. 
Tiie Charles-street jail, built of Quincy granite, 
cruciform in plan, the arms radiating from the cen- 
tral octagonal building, succeeded the old Leverett- 
street in 1851. 

The churches in this quarter are now few in num- 
ber. The most noteworthy is the Church of the 
Advent, at the foot of Beacon hill, on Mt. Vernon 
and Brimmer streets, and the most interesting is the 
old West Church on Cambridge and Lynde streets, 
no longer open for services and soon to disappear. 
The latter has stood since 1806, and well represents 
the style of church architecture prevailing at the 
opening of the century. Its quaint pulpit was that 
from which Charles Lowell, father of James Russell 
Lowell, preached for sixty years, and Cyrus A. 
Bartol, first as Dr. Lowell's colleague, and after his 
death as sole pastor, for half a century and more ; 
and its stiff, old-fashioned pews have been occupied 
by the most cultivated and thoughtful of Boston 
congregations. The old meeting-house succeeds 
the wooden one used by the British as a barrack 
during the Siege, the steeple of which they pulled 
down because the " rebels " had employed it for 
signallii:ig to the camp at Cambridge. The building 
was restored after the Revolution, and was finally 
taken down to make way for the present structure. 

The Church of the Advent is an elaborate struct- 
ure of brick and stone, designed by the architects 
Sturgis & Brigham. Its construction was begun 
March, 1878, but the work moved slowly, and it was 
not until 1892 that it was completed. The plans of 
the architects embraced the main body of the 
church, 72 by 73 feet, consisting of nave, 76 feet 
high two aisles and transepts ; the chancel with 
polygonal end ; the chapel on the south side of 
the chancel ; school-rooms hexagonal in shape, and 
various other rooms corner tower and steeple the 
baptistery in the church under the tower ; and at 
the north side the clergy house, containing vestry, 
clergy and choir rooms, refectory and dormitories. 

The larger portion of the building was completed in 
1883, when the parish moved in. The steeple 
tower was completed in 1891. The interior of the 
church is richly decorated. The parish of the 
Church of the Advent was organized in 1844, and it 
is the representative free "high" church in Boston. 
It has daily morning and evening services, many ser- 
vices on Sunday, and strictly observes all holy-days. 
Charlesbank, the artistically designed public park 
along the water-front of Charles street, between the 
West Boston and Craigie's bridges, picturesquely 
marks the water boundary of the Old West End. It 
is the beginning of the Charles River Embankment, 
ultimately to extend the entire distance from Lever- 
ett street to Cottage Farms Station, about two and 
three-quarters miles in length and attractively laid 
out as a parkway. The men's and women's open- 
air gymnasium on Charlesbank are most popular 
features, large numbers of the people making use of 
the apparatus provided by the city. 




BOSTON COMMON, in the heart of the city, 
is one of its most cherished possessions. Its 
establishment is due to the wise forethought of the 
first settlers of Boston, and to those who early suc- 
ceeded them. Very soon after the purchase of the 
peninsula from Blaxton, Winthrop's people laid out 
this ground as a "trayning field and a place for the 
feeding of cattell." A " trayning field " it has been 
from that day; and the "cattell" only ceased to 
graze in 1830, when grazing here was prohibited by 
law. The original limits were somewhat larger 
than now, reaching to the site of the Tremont House 
and Mason street on the north and east, and to the 
Back Bay on the west. The Common was fenced 
in about the year 1734, and in 1836 the iron fence, 
which originally extended on every side, was put uj), 
partly by private subscription, at a of $32,159.- 
35. The enclosure now comprises forty-three and 
three-fourths acres. The low iron fence on Tre- 
mont street was placed a dozen or more years ago, 
when the sidewalk was thrown into the street to 
widen it. 

The Common in days of old was the scene of 



many more or less exciting events. On the slope 
of Flagstaff hill on a July evening in 1728 the first 
duel here in Boston was fought, the " principals " 
being two young men of social position, Benjamin 
Woodbridge and Henry Phillips, who had a dispute 
at the card-table. They fought with small-arms, 
and Woodbridge was mortally wounded by a thrust 
through the body. Woodbridge had just completed 
his twentieth year, and Phillips was but four years 
his senior. Phillips was also wounded, but slightly ; 
and by the aid of his brother and Peter Faneuil he 
made his escape on board the " Sheerness," a 
British man-of-war then lying in the harbor, which 
sailed for France at daybreak. Within a year young 
Phillips died at Rochelle, of " grief and a broken 
heart." Witches, Quakers, murderers, and pirates 
have been hanged from the limbs of the old elm 
which stood at the foot of Flagstaff hill until blown 
down in 1876, during a winter gale. The parade- 
ground bordering on the Charles-street mall has 
been the mustering-place of many warlike as well 
as peaceful gatherings. During the Siege the Com- 
mon was a fortified camp, and earthworks were 
thrown up on several of the little hills ; but all traces 
of them have long since disappeared. The British 
forces engaged in the battle of Bunker hill were 
arrayed on the Common before starting for Charles- 
town ; and it was from its south-western corner that, 
two months before, the troops embarked in boats for 
their disastrous expedition to Lexington and Con- 
cord on the night of the 18th of April. In still 
earlier times a part of the force that captured Louis- 
burg assembled on this field. Here, after the evacu- 
ation by the British, Washington reviewed the 
Continental troops ; and in our own time, during 
the Civil War, Governor Andrew reviewed the 
Massachusetts regiments, and sent them to the front 
with words of patriotism and cheer. 

The Common of to-day is a fairly well-kept park, 
the privileges which the public are permitted to 
enjoy upon it varying with the views of the munici- 
pal government in power. The five broad malls are 
shaded by graceful and rugged elms and lindens, 
some of them having been planted as far back as 
1728. The Tremont-street mall, in the vicinity of 
West street, used to be occupied by strolling Punch 
and Judy shows, lifting and lung-testing devices, 
and a big telescope ; but with the exception of the 
latter, which still occasionally points its wooden 
barrel skyward, all have been ordered off by the city 
fathers, who have no eye for the picturesque. 
Within the enclosure and bordering on Boylston 
street is the old Central Burying-Ground, estab- 
lished in 1756, where Stuart, the portrait painter. 

and M. Julien, the most noted restaurateur of the 
town in his day, who gave the name to the Julien 
soup, were buried; but the land never actually 
belonged to the Common. 

Of the two monuments on the Common, the 
Army and Navy memorial on old Flagstaff hill, 
the site of the British redoubt during the Siege, 
is the design of the late Martin Milmore, and cost 
the city §75,000. The corner-stone was laid on 
the 1 8th of September, 187 1 ; and on the occasion 
of the dedication of the completed work, the 17th 
of September, 1877, General Devens delivered the 
brilliant oration, and there was a memorable military 
and civic demonstration. The granite shaft, a dec- 
orated Doric column crowned by a bronze ideal 
statue of the " Genius of America," rises to a height 
of seventy feet. The statues supported by the four 
projecting pedestals represent the Soldier, the Sailor, 
History, and Peace. The bronze bas-reliefs be- 
tween these illustrate the Departure of the Regi- 
ment, the Sanitary Commission, a Naval Action, and 
the Return from the War and the Surrender of the 
Battle Flags to the Governor. .A.11 of these reliefs 
give portraits of well-known citizens, depicted as 
taking part in these scenes. The four figures at 
the base of the shaft itself represent North, South, 
East, and West. The " Genius of America," which 
crowns the structure, is a female figure in a flowing 
robe over which is a loose tunic bound with a gir- 
dle at the waist. On the head is a crown with 
thirteen stars, and in the right hand, resting on the 
hilt of the unsheathed sword, are two laurel wreaths. 
The left hand holds a banner draped about the 
shaft. The inscription on the monument was writ- 
ten by President Eliot, of Harvard. Judged as a 
whole, this most ambitious work we ha\-e of Mil- 
more's is unsatisfactory. While some of the statu- 
ary, particularly the figure of the Sailor, is well 
modelled and displays the skill and genius of the 
sculptor, the architecture is bad. The faults in the 
composition are the faults to be found in much of 
our monumental work. For such an undertaking 
the art of the architect and of the sculptor should be 
combined. Had this been the case in the design of 
this monument, and had the architect given to the 
outline and proportions of his part of the work the 
same care and study which the sculptor gave to 
the modelling of a portion at least of his figures, we 
should have had here a work to commend rather 
than to excuse. The other monument, popularly 
known as the " Crispus Attucks," commemorating 
the " Boston Massacre " of the 5th of March, 1770, 
is a much simpler aflair : a plain granite shaft, bear- 
ing on its front, facing the Tremont-street mall, the 



bronze figure of a woman representing Revolution, 
and a bas-relief depicting the scene of the massa- 
cre in old King's street (now State). The base and 
shaft are of one piece of granite, and are fashioned 
with little art. The shaft most resembles in its form 
an old-fashioned sugar-loaf. The sculptor was Robert 
Kraus. The monument was dedicated on the 14th 
of November, 1888, with a procession, speeches in 
Faneuil Hall, and a banquet. 

The other so-called ornaments on the Common are 
the Brewer and the Coggswell fountains. The for- 
mer is graceful in design ; the latter has rightly been 
characterized as " a reproach to the good taste of 
the citizens." Unhappily the earnest appeals for 
its removal from leading journals and such or- 
ganizations as the St. Botolph and the Paint and 
Clay clubs fell upon deaf ears. The Brewer foun- 
tain was given to the city in 1868 by the late Gard- 
ner Brewer, an opulent merchant. It was cast in 
Paris, and is a duplicate of a design by Lienard 
which received the gold medal at the Exposition of 
1855. The recumbent figures at the base are 
Neptune, Amphitrite, Acis, and Galatea, and the 
upper basin rests on graceful standing figures. 
With a generous supply of water it would be a re- 
freshing and delightful object, but unhappily water 
is permitted to flow through it at rare intervals, and 
then sparingly, so that its beauty is never fully dis- 
closed. The position selected for it, on rising 
ground near the Park-street mall, displays the work 
to the best advantage. The Coggswell, a drinking- 
fountain, is one of several given to Eastern cities 
by Dr. Coggswell, of San Francisco, and was placed 
in its present position, near the West-street gate, in 
1884. The water flows from the gaping mouths 
of two inverted dolphins, whose bodies are inter- 
twined, set up on a granite pedestal, in the middle 
of a granite edifice, the heavy canopy supported by 
four polished columns. Near each of the four cor- 
ners of the structure is a lamp with colored-glass 

The Frog pond is one of the most ancient features 
of the Common. Once it was a marshy bog, but in 
1826 the first stone edging was placed around it, 
and with the introduction of Cochituate the foun- 
tain was put in. It was here that the celebration 
took place, on October 25, 1848, commemorating 
the introduction of the public system of water- 
works. The day was made a special holiday. 
There was a long procession through the streets, its 
route ending on the Common, where, on the edge 
of the pond, the second Mayor Quincy and Nathan 
Hale, editor of the "Advertiser," as chairman of 
the water committee, made addresses, and an ode 

written by James Russell Lowell and a selection 
from " Elijah " were sung by members of the Han- 
del and Haydn Society. 

Many attempts have been made to encroach 
upon the Common by erecting buildings, pushing 
thoroughtares or elevated railroads across it, or 
tunnelling parts of it, but all have thus fiir been 
unsuccessful. It is strongly protected by a clause 
in the city charter withholding from the city council 
the power to lease or sell it ; and an order is still in 
existence, passed by the early townspeople in March, 
1640, prohibiting the granting of any ground for 
any purpose within the prescribed limits. So the 
Common remains to-day what it has been from 
the beginning, — a public ground for the use of 
the people. On holidays, and especially the Fourth 
of July, it is the Mecca for the crowds of country 
folk who then flock to the town. On that day 
the rules are relaxed, and booths and tents for the 
sale of cakes, lemonade, and all sorts of gimcracks 
line the. broad malls. The band concerts near the 
parade-groimd are regular and popular features of 
summer Sunday afternoons. 

The Public Garden, the parkway to the New 
West End, has risen from the " marshes at the 
bottom of the Common," a thing of beauty. Like 
the " Back Bay Improvement," its construction was 
a matter agitated for years ; but when once seriously 
entered upon, the work was done in accordance with 
an intelligent and tasteful plan. Originally a part of 
the Common and the property of the town, these 
marshes were in 1794 recklessly given away to the 
owners of several ropewalks burned in the great 
fire that year in Pearl and Atkinson (now Congress) 
streets, for their new buildings, — not altogether 
from motives of generosity, but to prevent the 
rebuilding of such structures in a district which they 
would endanger. Then, in 1819, when the new 
ropewalks were in turn burned, and their owners, in 
view of the enhanced value of the land, — Charles 
street had been opened in 1804 and the great Mill 
Dam project was under way, — decided not to re- 
build but to sell the territory in lots for business 
and dwelling purposes, the eyes of the citizens were 
opened, and its recovery by some means was 
earnestly urged. At length, early in 1824, during 
the elder Quincy's administration, these efforts were 
successful, and the property given away by the 
townspeople thirty years before was regained by 
the city by the payment of ^55,000. No sooner, 
however, had this been done, than a serious attempt 
was made through the city council to sell the terri- 
tory for building purposes, and this was defeated 
only through reference of the question to the legal 


voters, who by a decisive vote refused to give the 
council authority so to dispose of it. Notwith- 
standing this action efforts to sell were renewed 
from time to time during the next thirty years, with 
the greatest show of success in 1849 and 1850, and 
schemes for building here were repeatedly urged ; 
one plan, suggested in 1857 or thereabout, showing 
a city hall on the present Arlington street, opposite 
Commonwealth avenue, facing east and west. All 
these projects were happily frustrated by the formal 
vote of the citizens in April, 1859, ratifying the act 
of the Legislature devoting the territory forever to 
park purposes, and forbidding the city council to 
erect or to allow others to erect upon it any building 
" except a city hall or such structure as would be 
appropriate in a public pleasure-ground." This 
provision for a city building snugly preserved in the 
law has occasionally in later years tempted city 
councilmen to test public opinion, but, to the credit 
of the people, every movement for the establishment 
of the city hall here has been promptly crushed. 

Immediately after the popular vote of 1859 vari- 
ous designs for the Garden were suggested, and the 
artificial pond, ingeniously irregular in shape, giving 
the impression of a much larger sheet of water 
than it really is, was constructed. But it was not 
until the next year was well advanced that a definite 
plan, that of George F. Meacham, architect, was 
adopted and the work of development systemati- 
cally begun. Under the superintendence of the 
city engineer the flower-beds and paths were laid 
out and many ornamental trees and shrubs were 
planted by the city forester ; the year following the 
granite basins with fountains were placed and the 
first work of art supplied — the graceful marble 
statue of Venus which adorns the fountain near the 
Arlington-street end of the central walk, so arranged 
that a fine spray is thrown over and about the 
figure; in 1867 the ponderous iron and stone 
bridge spanning the pond was completed, and the 
same year Story's statue of Everett was set up ; the 
next year J. Q. A. Ward's monument in commemo- 
ration of the discovery of "Anaesthesia; " in 1869 
Ball's equestrian statue of Washington ; in 1878 his 
Sumner; and in 1889 the Cass statue (of Col. 
Thomas Cass, of the Ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 
a brave soldier who fell at Malvern Hill), by 
Stephen O'Kelly. Liberal appropriations for the 
care and maintenance of the Garden have annually 
been made since the beginning of the work in 
i860, and it has been developed and cultivated 
with such taste and skill that it is to-day a gem of a 
pleasure-ground the counterpart of which is to be 
found in no other city. In the season of flowers. 

when thousands of bedded plants are displayed in 
striking combinations of color, it is a mass of brill- 
iant bloom and rich verdure. 

But the sculpture adds little to the charm of the 
place. It is the art of the landscape gardener 
rather than that of the sculptor which excels. Un- 
questionably the Washington statue is the finest of 
all, and it rightly occupies the best position, at the 
junction of se\ era! paths with the central walk, near 
the Arlington-street entrance. Ball happened to be 
at home when he received the contract, and the 
model was erected in his temporary studio, in the 
rear of the Chickering pianoforte factory. His 
work was completed in four years, but in conse- 
quence of the war the casting was deferred for 
some time. Finally it was successfully accom- 
plished by the Ames Company, at Chicopee, and the 
statue placed in position and unveiled with much 
ceremony just ten years after the movement for it 
was begun. Washington is represented at the time 
of middle life, in full Continental uniform, the 
countenance and the attitude of the figure full of 
force and vigor. Horse and rider are both grace- 
ful in outline and strong in character. The head 
of the horse and the arch of its neck are espe- 
cially well modelled. The statue stands twenty- 
two feet high from the heavy granite pedestal, 
itself sixteen feet high. Facing the south a fine 
view of it is had from the Commonwealth-avenue 
parkway. The fund for its purchase was raised by 
popular subscription, an oration by Robert C. 
Winthrop, and a great fair for its benefit, an appro- 
priation of Sio,ooo from the city, and the transfer 
of §5,000 from the surplus of the fund for the 
Everett statue, left after the completion of that 
work. The Everett statue was modelled in Rome 
and cast in Munich. Placed near the Beacon- 
street path and facing the east, the orator is repre- 
sented as standing with his head thrown back, his 
right arm extended and raised, and the hand out- 
spread, in the act, we are told, of making a favorite 
gesture ; but the scoffers declare it the attitude more 
of a base-ball catcher, or, as Wendell Phillips has 
put it, of pointing to " the centre of beef and the 
races," as if he were exclaiming, "That is the road 
to Brighton '. " Good critics, however, have pro- 
nounced it to be a thoroughly studied work but badly 
executed. The popular subscription to the Everett 
statue fund was so generous that of the surplus not 
only were §5,000 transferred to the Washington 
statue fund, but Si 0,000 were given to that for the 
Governor Andrew statue (in the State House), and 
a goodly sum for the portrait of Everett in Faneuil 
Hall. The Sumner statue, also raised by popular 



subscription, is a disappointment, and in sliarp con- 
trast to the Washington from the same hand ; and 
of the Cass statue the least said the better. It is a 
little figure on a big pedestal. Carved of granite, 
it represents the soldier bareheaded, clad in the full 
dress coat of a colonel of infantry, and high top- 
boots. A sword dangles from the side unhooked. 
The arms are folded across the breast ; the face is 
exjiressionless ; the legs are bent at the knee, 
giving the figure an air of affected jauntiness. It 
recalls the crude, conventional photograi)h of the 
war period. A storm of disapproval and derision 
greeted the work when it was exposed to view, and 
unsuccessful efforts were made to have it declined, 
with thanks, by the city government. It was set up 
by the Society of the Ninth Regiment. The so- 
called Ether monument, which stands near the 
north-west corner of the Garden on the Arlington- 
street side, was the gift of Thomas Lee, the giver 
also of the Hamilton statue.' Its distinguishing 
features are the shapely shaft surmounted by two 
ideal figures illustrating the story of the Good 
Samaritan, and the marble bas-reliefs representing, 
one, a surgical operation in a civic hospital, the 
patient being under the influence of ether ; another, 
the Angel of Mercy descending to relieve suffering 
humanity; a third, the interior of a field hospital, 
showing a wounded soldier in the hands of the sur- 
geons ; and the fourth, an allegory of the Triumph of 
Science. The material used in the monument is 
granite and red marble. The sculptured decorations 
are not the least interesting features of the work. 

The origin of the Public Garden was the " Bo- 
tanic Garden," famous in its day, instituted by 
Horace Gray (the father of Mr. Justice Gray, of 
the United States Supreme Court), and a few other 
gentlemen, in 1S39, who were granted the use of 
this area by the city on condition that no building 
should be erected thereon except a greenhouse and 
tool-house. From a large circus-building, then 
standing near the corner of Charles and Beacon 
streets, they constructed an immense conservatory, 
with galleries in which were displayed many rare 
and beautiful plants, including more than a thou- 
sand camellias, properly classified, and a fine col- 
lection of tropical and European singing-birds. And 
in the small garden near by were displayed quite a 
nursery of ornamental trees, shrubbery, standard 
roses, and other plants. The Botanic Garden 
flourished for several years until the destruction of 
the building, with the entire collection, by fire. 
Mr. (iray was the leading spirit of the enterprise, 
and devoted much of his time and means to it. 

» See chapter on New West End. 



BOSTON may celebrate the centennial anniver- 
sary of the establishment of its first playhouse 
this year, — on Aug. 10, 1892. It was not much 
of a playhouse, this first one, nor did it long pros- 
jier. It was a rude structure on Board alley, now 
Hawley street, — an old stable remodelled. The law 
against " stage-plays and other theatrical entertain- 
ments," first enacted in 1750 and reenacted 1784, 
was still in force, although unpopular with many of 
the influential townspeople who had long striven 
for its repeal, and the projectors of the new ven- 
ture called it " The New Exhibition Room." The 
performances, given by a band of London come- 
dians, under the management of Joseph Harper, a 
member of the company of Hallam & Henry, who 
had successfully established playhouses in New 
York and Philadelphia, were announced as " moral 
lectures." Drake in his " Old Lanilmarks " has 
preserved the bill for the opening night. This 
offered first " Feats of Agility " by " Monsieurs " 
Placide and Martin, Mons. Placide to " dance a 
Hornpipe on a Tight- rope, play the violin in various 
attitudes, and jump over a cane backwards and for- 
wards." Then " an introductory address by Mr. 
Harper," " Singing by Mr. Wools," more " feats of 
activity," " tumbling by Mons. Placide and Martin, 
who will make somersetts backward over a table, 
chair, etc.," and " Mons. Martin will exhibit several 
feats on the Slack Rope ; " next " The Gallery 
of Portraits on the World as it Goes, delivered 
by Mr. Harper ; " and the concluding feature, " a 
dancing Ballet called The Bird Catcher, with the 
Minuet de la Cour and the Gavot." This opening 
bill, says Col. W. W. Clapp, in the " Memorial His- 
tory," " was rather a tentative performance to test 
the patience of those in favor of enforcing the pro- 
hibitory law, for it was more of the nature of a 
modern variety show than a dramatic ]:)erform- 
ance ; " and its success emboldened the manage- 
ment openly to bring out as "lectures" some of 
the best-known plays of the time. Thus, as Col. 
Clapp recalls, Otway's "Venice Preserved" was 
announced as a " moral lecture in five parts," " in 
which the dreadful effects of conspiracy will be ex- 
emplified;" Garrick's farce of "Lethe" was pro- 
duced as a " satirical lecture, by Mr. Watts and Mr. 
and Mrs. Solomon ; " Shakspere's plays announced 


in the same slight disguise were presented, and 
n •■ moral lecture in five parts," " wherein the 
pernicious tendency of libertinism will be exempli- 
fied in the tragical history of George Barnwell ; or, 
the London Merchant," by " Messrs. Harper, Mor- 
ris, Watts, Murray, Solomon, Redfield, Miss Smith, 
Mrs. Solomon, and Mrs. Grey." Governor Hancock 
was greatly annoyed by this defiance of the law, 
and referred to it in his message to the Legislature ; 
and attempts were also made to procure an indict- 
ment from the grand jury. At length a warrant 
was obtained for the arrest of Harper and others of 
the company, and on the evening of Dec. 5, 1792, 
in the midst of the performance of one of Shak- 
spere's " moral lectures," Sheriff Allen appeared 
upon the stage and arrested Harper, who was play- 
ing, or " delivering," the leading part. The audi- 
ence, in full sympathy with the " playactors," raised 
a little tumult, displayed their indignation by tear- 
ing down the portrait of Hancock, which hung in 
front of the stage-box, with the State arms, and 
trampling them under foot. At the hearing next day 
at Faneuil Hall Harper was defended by Harrison 
Gray Otis, and his discharge was secured on a 
technicality. After this, performances continued at 
"The Exhibition Room" without interruption from 
the authorities ; but they were given only at intervals 
until the spring of 1793, when, the movement for 
the erection of the Federal-street Theatre having 
advanced, the enterprise was abandoned. 

This is the brief story of the rise and fall of the 
first playhouse in Boston. But the first attempt at 
" playacting " here was more than forty years before 
the opening of " The New Exhibition Room." It 
was, to be exact, in the early part of 1750. The 
performance was by "a company of gentlemen," — 
two Englishmen and local volunteers, — and the 
play Otway's " Orphan ; or, Unhappy Marriage." It 
was given in the British Coffee House on State, 
then King, street; and it was this performance 
that led to the passage of the act prohibiting 
"stage plays and other theatrical entertainments" 
which became law in March of that year. Later, 
during the Siege, when Faneuil Hall was used as a 
playhouse by the British officers, aided by a " Society 
for Promoting Theatrical Amusement," composed 
of Tory citizens, several plays were performed by 
soldiers as actors before crowded audiences. The 
most ambitious attempt of that season was the per- 
formance by some British officers of " The Blockade 
of Boston," a play written by (leneral Burgoyne ; 
and it is related that this was suddenly interrupted 
and the audience scattered in consternation by the 
startling report brought in by a sergeant that the 

" Yankees are attacking our works in Charlestown " 
and " the officers are ordered to their posts." 

In the Federal-street Theatre enterprise some of 
the foremost citizens of the town were concerned. 
Although the repeal of the prohibitory law had not 
been secured, public sentiment in favor of the 
drama had greatly strengthened, and the opening of 
the new playhouse, on the evening of Feb. 4, 
1794, was the event of the season. It was a sub- 
stantial structure, of which the townspeople had 
every reason to be proud. Designed by Bulfinch, 
it was the finest playhouse in the country. It was 
built of brick walls, with Corinthian pilasters and 
columns decorating the front and rear, an arcade in 
front which served as a carriage entrance, a broad 
" saloon " from the main entrance, a generous 
interior, circular in form, the ceiling composed of 
elliptic arches resting on Corinthian columns, two 
rows of boxes, the second tier hung with crimson 
silk, and a roomy stage flanked by two columns. 
The interior decorations were tasteful, the walls 
painted azure and the columns straw and lilac 
color; and over the stage, with the arms of the 
State and the youthful nation, was the motto " All 
the World's a Stage." There were ample exits, 
large retiring-rooms, and also, at one end of the 
building, a large ball-room. The site of the 
theatre is now occupied by the establishment of 
Jones, McDuffee, & Stratton, on the north-east corner 
of Federal and Franklin streets. 

The Federal-street started upon its career under 
the management of Charles Stuart Powell and 
Baker, the directors of the stock company owning it 
having a supervising management. The bill of the 
opening night was the tragedy " Gustavus Vasa, the 
Deliverer of his Country," and the farce "Modern 
Antiques ; or, the Merry Mourners." The prologue 
was written by Robert Treat Paine, and delivered 
by Mr. Powell in the character of Apollo. The 
company came from England. The performances 
began generally at six o'clock in the evening, the 
house being opened a half-hour before. Ill-fortune 
attended the enterprise, partly due, evidently, to the 
fact that the management was hampered by the 
directors, and at the end of the season, June, 1795, 
it was bankrupt. Subsequently Messrs. Powell and 
Baker retired, and early in 1793, on the 2d of 
Febmary, when under the management of Barrett 
and Harper, the house was destroyed by fire, only 
the walls left standing. It was, however, immedi- 
ately rebuilt, and reopened on October 29 of the 
same year, under the management of Mr. Hodgkin- 
son, the opening bill being " Wives as They \\'ere." 
The next vear George L. Barrett was the manager. 



With many changes in the management, and witli 
varying fortunes, the house was conchu-ted until 
1833. Then, a reaction having set in against the 
drama, it was leased to a society known as " The 
F'ree Inqiurers," who converted it into a lecture- 
room. The next year it came into the possession 
of the " Academy of Music," an institution formed 
in lanuarv, 1833, by Lowell Mason and others, fur 
instructicin in vocal and instrument;! 1 music, and 
it was called " The Odeon." On Sundays, religious 
services were held in the building. Then, later on, 
in 1846, it was again reestablished as a theatre, 
under a lease to Charles R. Thorne. About four or 
five years later the property was sold and the 
building demolished to make room for the advance 
of business. 

Thus the old Federal-street Theatre, or "The 
Boston," as it was formerly called, and sometimes 
"The Old Drury," had a career briUiantly, if not 
always financially, successful, of nearly sixty years. 
Upon its boards appeared some of the most noted 
actors of the time, among them the elder Wallack, 
Thomas A. Cooper, James Fennel, Edwin Forrest, 
the elder Booth, Edmund Kean, Henry J. Finn 
(who perished in the steamer " Lexington " disaster 
in Long Island Sound, Jan. 13, 1840), the first 
Charles Matthews, McCready, and so on. Here oc- 
curred the famous Kean riot, on the second visit of 
the actor to America, in T825. Local opinion hav- 
ing been aroused because he had refused, during 
his previous engagement, to appear before a thin 
house, he was driven from the stage by a crowd in- 
side the theatre, while a little mob which had gath- 
ered outside forced their way in and smashed some 
of the furniture. No one, however, was seriously 
hurt, the riot act was read, and the demonstration 
ended. Kean hastily left the theatre, fleeing to a 
hotise in Roxbury, and the next morning went to 
New York, shaking the dust of Boston forever from 
his feet. 

The next theatre established was the Haymarket, 
on Tremont street, the site of which is covered by 
the auditorum of the present Tremont Theatre. 
It was set up as a rival to the Federal-street, and 
was opened on the evening of Dec. 26, 1796, 
under the management of Charles Powell, the Fed- 
eral-street's first manager. It was a great wooilen 
building, with unattractive exterior but admirably 
arranged interior. There were three tiers of boxes, 
a gallery, and pit, and the inevitable " saloon " 
from the entrance. The opening bill was " The 
Belle's Stratagem," with the Powells in leading 
parts. Although several actors and actresses fa- 
mous in their day appeared on its boards, its 

career was not a successful one, certanily from the 
financial point of view, and after an existence of 
seven short years it was abandoned and torn down. 
Thereafter the F"ederal- street was the only theatre 
in the town until 1823, when the City Theatre was 
0|)ened in the Washington tiardens, a jilace for 
sunniier entertainments, first opened in 18 ig, which 
occupied the land midway between Winter and 
West streets, enclosed within a high brick wall. 
The playhouse was constructed from the amphi- 
theatre here, which was in the rear of the lot now 
occupied by St. Paul's Church, and was so arranged 
that it could easily be transformed into a circus, and 
such entertainments were frequently given in it. 
lOarly in its brief and uneventful history its name 
was changed to the Washington Theatre, and again 
to Vaux-Hall. 

Four years later, in 1827, the most interesting 
of all the early playhouses of Boston was established. 
This was the first Tremont Theatre, the site of 
which is now occupied by the Tremont Temple. 
It was a small playhouse designed by Isaiah Thomas, 
the architect of the Tremont House, which was 
built the following year. From the arched entrance- 
doors in the granite front opened a wide hall, simi- 
lar to that in the old Federal-street, with staircase 
ascending to the boxes of the dress circle, ample 
lobbies for promenade, and the usual saloon, in 
which public dinners were sometimes given, — a 
notable one being on the occasion of the laying of 
the corner-stone of the Tremont House, — and the 
interior was attractive and well arranged. The 
house was opened on the evening of September 
24. The opening bill was " Wives as They W'ere, 
and Maids as They Are," and the farce of " The 
Lady and the Devil," with a prize address read 
by the flimous comedian, W. R. Blake, before 
the comedy. From the first it maintained a 
high standard. Here Charlotte Cushman made 
her d6but, on April 8, 1S35. Here also Fanny 
Kemble first appeared before a Boston audience, 
Fanny EUsler danced, and among others known to 
histrionic fame were J. Sheridan Knowles, James E. 
Murdock, John Gilbert, Ellen Tree, John \'anden- 
hoff, Buckstone, and Henry J. Finn. The old 
Tremont is also renowned as the first playhouse in 
Boston in which operas were produced. William 
Pelby was the first manager, and others who suc- 
ceeded him included Junius Brutus Booth, for a 
short time only, Richard Russell, and Thomas 
Barry. After an experience of twenty years of 
varied fortunes, sometimes prosperous but more 
frequently unprofitable, the theatre was sold to the 
Baptists for religious purposes, and on the 2jd of 



lune. 1.S4:;, the l:ist pcrlnrniance was given within 
its walls. It was then transformed into the Tre^ 
niont Temple. 

Next was established the U'arren, whirh Mr. 
Pelby, the first manager of the Tremont, opened 
on the evening of July 3, 1832. It was a small 
wooden building on Travers street, the " Ameri- 
can Amphitheatre" (built in 1831 for circus 
shows) remodelled. The enterprise proved so suc- 
cessful that four years later a new house was built, 
and this was opened on Aug. 5, 1836, as the 
National Theatre. The National was another inter- 
esting old-time playhouse, and it is often recalled 
in the pleasant reminiscences of old Bostonians 
who are yet with us. It stood on Portland street, 
near the corner of Travers, where is now an ex- 
tensive horse and carriage mart. It was destroyed 
by fire on April 22, 1852, but was rebuilt and 
opened on November i of the same year. In the 
years that followed its titles underwent several 
changes ; for a time it was called Willard's National, 
then the People's National, and in 1862, when it 
degenerated into a variety theatre. Union Concert 
Hall. On March 24, 1863, it was again burned, 
and was never rebuilt as a playhouse. Thomas 
Harry was at one time its manager, when the thea- 
tre was devoted to the " legitimate." 

The land occupied by the present Gaiety and 
Bijou Theatre on Washington street has long been 
held by playhouses, the first being the Lion Theatre, 
o|iened on Jan. 11, 1836. In the year 1839 
this was changed into a lecture hall and called the 
Mechanics' Institute. In the same year it was 
secured by the Handel and Haydn Society and 
the name again changed to the Melodeon, and in 
1 844 it was reconverted into a temporary theatre 
for the engagement of Macready and Charlotte 
Cushman. Thereafter, for many years, it was used 
as a concert and lecture hall, and also for minstrel 
shows and amateur theatricals. During the Na- 
tional Sailors' Fair, held in the Boston Theatre in 
1864, a series of brilliant amateur performances 
was given in this hall for the benefit of that enter- 
prise. Then for a time the place was occupied as 
a billiard hall, known as the Melodeon, and in 1878 
it was converted into the Gaiety Theatre, under the 
management of Mr. Jason Wentworth. On the 
Gaiety stage were first produced here in Boston 
many of the comic operas which have since become 
so popular. " The Mascot " was first given here, 
also " Billee Taylor; " and " Olivette " received one 
of its first performances in Boston at this house. 
In 1882 the theatre was entirely remodelled into 
the dainty liijou, Cleorge H. Wetherell, architect. 

The Bijou was opened on the evening of December 
1 1 , that year, with the first performance in Boston 
of Gilbert and Sullivan's " lolanthe." It was con- 
tinued with varying fortunes as a theatre for light 
opera until 1886, when it was leased by B. F. Keith, 
who subsequently enlarged it into the Gaiety and 
Bijou, conducting a museum in connection with it. 

The Eagle Theatre, on the corner of Haverhill 
and Travers streets, first opened in June, 1842, 
under the able, inanagement of Wyzeman Marshall, 
lived less than a year. Mr. Marshall secured a 
strong coinpany, and established such popular prices 
that the place proved a serious rival to the old 
National Theatre near by. Accordingly Mr. Pelby, 
the manager of the latter, having obtained a part 
interest in the Eagle, proceeded one night to make 
changes in the house, by sawing away a part of 
the roof directly over the stage, thus rendering the 
building useless. The last performance was given 
in March, 1843. 

Brougham & Bland's Boston Adelphi, on Court 
street, between Cornhill and Brattle street, opened 
in 1847, also had a brief career, closing in 1850. 
During the latter part of its existence it was known 
as the Adelphi Saloon, and was devoted to minstrel 
entertainments. Bland's I>yceum, on Sudbury street, 
near Court, struggled through five years, opening late 
in 1848 and closing early in the year of 1854. For 
a time it was called the Eagle Theatre, then the 
Odeon, and again Goodall & Olwine's American 
Theatre, and under its various managers it furnished 
almost every kind of dramatic and variety enter- 
tainment. The Dramatic Museum, on Beach street, 
near the United States Hotel, opened in 1848, with 
Joseph Proctor as manager. Then in 1849 Charles 
R. Thorne, Sr., took the house and called it Thome's 
American Museum; but this dignified title it re- 
tained only a few weeks, when it became the Beach- 
street Museum. In its last days it was known as 
the Olympic, and it expired in 1850. 

The Aquarial Gardens, on Central court, off 
Washington street, opened in i860 by James A. 
Cutting, had an interesting career. The house was 
early secured by P. T. Barnum, who gave animal 
exhibitions and dramatic performances here until 
1863. Then it was called Andrew's Hall, and used 
for balls and fairs. Subsequendy, in October, 1865, 
Jason Wentworth reopened it as the Theatre Co- 
mique, having as his stars James S. Maffit and W. 
H. Bartholomew, the famous clown and pantaloon. 
I'our prosperous seasons of variety performances, 
pantomiine, and light spectacular shows followed. 
It was hero that Mile. Morlachi created such a 
furore ; often in the e\enings when she appeared 



Washington street was lined with private carriages, 
and her audiences included the fashionable folk of 
the city, charmed by her graceful dancing. Next, 
in 1869, John Stetson leased the little theatre, 
and named it the New Adelphi. Burlesques and 
variety shows were the principal attractions under 
his management. Finally the house was destroyed 
by fire on a bitter cold Saturday night, Feb. 4, 
i87i,the fire starting soon after the audience had 
left the building. The site has since been used for 
business purposes. 

The old Continental Theatre stood at the corner 
of Washington and Har\-ard streets, on the site of 
the old Apollo Gardens. It opened on Jan. r, 
1866, under the management of " Lon " Morris. 
During its second season the late E. L. Davenport 
was the manager, and it was during his regime that 
the famous " Black Crook" was first produced with 
extraordinary success. It was at this house, on 
April 13, 1868, that Fanny Janauschek made her 
first appearance in Boston. Subsequently the name 
was changed to Willard's Theatre, and later, on 
Oct. 21, 1868, the playhouse was opened as the 
Olympic, by Madam Janauschek, on the occasion of 
her second engagement in Boston. From this time 
on its career was checkered, its fortunes rising and 
falling under its many managers. On Aug. 14, 
1 87 1, it was opened as the St. James Theatre, and 
in November of the following year its career ended. 

Morris Brothers' Opera House, which stood on 
Washington street, opposite Milk, on the site of the 
old Province House, was once a fashionable place of 
amusement. It opened in 1852 as Ordway's Hall, 
under the management of Dr. John P. Ordway. 
" Lon " Morris, " Billy " Morris, and other famous 
minstrels of the day were in the company, and here 
it was that P. S. (iilmore, the well-known band-mas- 
ter, began his professional career by playing on the 
tambourine as an end-man. Some misunderstand- 
ing between Dr. Ordway and the Morris Brothers 
resulted in the opening by the latter of the School- 
street Opera House, near Niles' Block, in 1858. 
The new house proving a dangerous rival to Dr. 
Ordway, an arrangement was effected between the 
disputants, and the Washington-street establishment 
thereafter was known as the Morris Brothers, Pell & 
Trowbridge's Opera House. In 1869 it was sold, 
and the next season reopened as the Lyceum ; then, 
after a short life, it was abandoned as a theatre and 
remodelled for business purposes. 

The new 'Fremont Theatre, in the Studio Building, 
on Treniont street, was remodelled from Allston 
Hall, and opened as a theatre on Feb. 9, 1863, 
under the management of Mrs. Jane English, with 

a ballet and pantomime troupe. The excellent 
performances of Guignet's French company subse- 
quently given here will be recalled by many Bosto- 
nians. For a brief period E. L. Davenport and J. W. 
Wallack were managers of the house, but notwith- 
standing the high character of the dramatic work 
done here, it was not a prosperous theatre. It was 
finally converted into a hall for pedestrian matches, 
and is now used for a retail carpet-store. 

These were the leading theatres of the past, but 
there were a host of minor places that flourished for 
a brief while and then dropped out of sight : such 
as the Vaudeville Saloon, opened in 1 840 ; the 
Olympic Saloon, 1841 ; New School-street Opera 
House, afterwards Bovvdoin Theatre, 1858; Buck- 
ley's Minstrel Hall, 1863; Germania Theatre, 1876; 
Palais Royal, 1878; Gray's Opera House, 1878; 
Alhambra, 1878; Forest Garden, 1879; Park Gar- 
den, 1879; Siege of Paris Opera House, 1879: 
LInion's Opera House, 1879 ; Ocean Garden, 18S0 ; 
and Halleck's Alhambra, 1880. 

The theatres of the Boston of To-day equal 
those of any city in the country, and while some of 
them first opened their doors many years ago, they 
are yet thoroughly modern playhouses. The oldest 
theatre-building is the Howard Athenseum, on the 
south side of Howard street. On the site was once 
a fashionable boarding-house, in which (Jovernor 
Eustis died in 1825. Later there was erected here 
an ill-shaped wooden building for the use of the 
Second Adventists, known as the Millerites, and it 
was called Miller's Tabernacle. Subsequently this 
was purchased and remodelled ; and here the first 
Howard Athena5uni was opened on Oct. 13, 1845. 
In February, 1846, the structure was burned, and in 
its place the present theatre was built, and opened in 
October of the same year. It has always been a 
successful house, and in its earlier days, when chiefly 
devoted to the legitimate drama, it was patronized 
by the best people of the town. Among its mana- 
gers have been John Brougham, Charles R. Thome, 
Wyzeman Marshall, Henry Willard, J. M. Field, John 
Gilbert, E. L. Davenport, Isaac B. Rich, J. C. Trow- 
bridge, Josh Hart, John Stetson, Benjamin F. Tryon, 
and Fred Stinson and William Harris. Since 1868 
variety entertainments have been its chief attrac- 
tions, but dramas, generally of the lurid type, have 
occasionally been presented on its boards. Its pres- 
ent manager, William Harris, has successfully con- 
ducted the house since 1879. The Howard will 
seat about fifteen hundred in its well-arranged 
orchestra, orchestra circle, and two balconies, the 
upper one devoted to the gallery gods. The stage, 
although somewhat compact, is admirably ajipointed. 


The Boston i\[usenm is in one sense the oldest 
theatre in the city. The enterprise was originally 
started in 1841 by Moses Kimball, in a building 
which occupied the site of the present Horticult- 
ural Hall on the same street. It was for some 
years called the Boston Museum and Gallery of 
Fine Arts, but theatrical performances in the " lect- 
ure-room " formed the chief attraction. Here the 
late Adelaide Phillips made her first appearance 
on the stage, as a dancer; and here, in 1843, the 
first regular dramatic company was established. 
The present Museum — built of granite, with three 
stories of round arched windows, and its front still 
" adorned by elegant balconies and rows of ground- 
glass globes like enormous pearls, which, at night, 
are luminous with gas," as described by a local 
historian thirty years ago — dates from 1846. It 
opened on November 2 of that year, so that while 
as a dramatic institution it is senior in age, as a 
playhouse it is second to the Howard Athensum. 
Probably no stage in the country has produced 
such an array of famous actors and actresses as 
this. Such names as William Warren, Edwin Booth, 
Miss Kate Reignolds, Mrs. J. R. Vincent, Miss 
Helen Weston, the Mestayer Sisters, Miss Annie 
Clarke, Miss Marie Wainwright, the senior E. I.. 
Davenport and Mrs. Davenport, L. R. Shewell, 
W. J. LeMoyne, Eben Plympton, Charles Baron, 
with a host of others as well known, appear in its 
list of stock-company members ; and many brill- 
iant stars have shone upon its boards. E. F. 
Keach, the favorite leading-man for several seasons, 
was the stage manager from 1859 until his death, 
Jan. 31, 1864. Mr. R. M. Field, the present man- 
ager, assumed control of the business Feb. 15, 
1864. The building covers twenty thousand square 
feet of land. The auditorium has four times been 
remodelled, the last time in 1880, when the interior 
was practically rebuilt, and it is now one of the 
finest playhouses in the city. It is supplied with 
all the modern apparatus for the comfort and 
safety of its patrons, and the decorations of the 
ceiling and proscenium arch, the work of the Boston 
artist, I. M. Gaugengigl, are gratifying to the artis- 
tic sense. The house has a double balcony and 
six stage-boxes, and will seat fifteen hundred per- 
sons. The Museum hall yet contains its collec- 
tion of time-honored curiosities, somewhat ancient, 
it is true, but still attractive to country visitors ; but 
the real attraction is the stage, where the best of 
dramatic performances are given. Two memorable 
events at the Museum within recent years were 
the celebrations of the fiftieth anniversaries of the 
first appearances on the stage of William \\'arren 

and of Mrs. J. R. Vincent. The former occurred on 
Saturday, Oct. 28, 1882, when the cherished come- 
dian was seventy years old. The two performances 
were attended by audiences of marked distinction. 
A feature was the first public exhibition of the por- 
trait of Warren, painted by F. P. Vinton, which is 
now in the Art Museum. Mr. Warren also received 
a " loving cup," the gift of a number of his profes- 
sional friends. The testimonial to Mrs. Vincent, on 
April 25, 1885, was an equally notable occasion, 
and a fitting tribute to the genius and worth of 
the favorite actress. 

The Boston Theatre is one of the largest play- 
houses in the country. Although its exterior is not 
in keeping with the showy business stractures in the 
vicinity, its interior is grand in proportions and fin- 
ish. Its career dates from the nth of September, 
1854, when it was owned by a stock company and 
placed under the management of the late Thomas 
Barry. Mr. Wyzeman Marshall succeeded Mr. Barry, 
and was manager for about a year and a half. The 
house then passed into the control ot B. W. Thayer 
and Orlando Tompkins, and the management was 
in the hands of Henry C. Jarrett for two years ; 
then J. B. Booth had the direction of affairs for a 
term of five years. In 1878 Eugene Tompkins (son 
uf Orlando) assumed the duties of acting manager, 
and on the death of his father, in 1885, became 
joint proprietor with Noble H. Hill, who had suc- 
ceeded Mr. Thayer (1875). The following year 
the entire control of the theatre passed to Mr. 
Tompkins, and he has ably maintained it as a play- 
house of the first class. His elaborate productions, 
enjoying long runs, have been notable. " The Ex- 
iles," " Michael Strogoff," " The World," " Jalma," 
" Zanita," " Run of Luck," " The Soudan," and " The 
Old Homestead " will live in our dramatic annals as 
evidences of his prescience, liberality, and capacity 
to provide entertainment for the New England pub- 
lic. The construction of the Boston is more elabo- 
rate in every detail than any modern theatre, for the 
reason that it was erected at a time when the cost 
of building was much less than at the present day, 
and the promoters of the enterprise, having suf- 
ficient funds at their disposal, spared no expense in 
any department of the work. As a result it is, from 
pit to dome, commodious and substantial, with spa- 
cious lobbies, broad staircases, large retiring-rooms, 
and every comfort for its patrons. Extending from 
AVashington street through to Mason street, it affords 
a convenient rear-entrance for those using carriages, 
as well as ample access to the stage. The audi- 
torium is 90 feet in diameter, and reaches a 
height of 54 feet, and the house will seat over 



three thousand persons. It is ilhiminated with the 
electric light, which displays to the best advantage 
the tasteful coloring of the walls. There are three 
balconies and six proscenium boxes. Behind the 
curtain is found the same completeness of detail. 
The stage has a depth of about 75 feet, from 
the footlights, and a height of 66 feet to the 
fly floor, and the curtain-opening is 48 by 41 
feet. Every precaution against fire has been 
taken in the provision of thick brick partitions, 
an iron curtain, and a complete system of sprinklers, 
stand-pipes, and fire-hose. Ample accommodations 
in the way of dressing-rooms are provided, and below 
the stage, where there is an apartment 30 feet high, 
are the rooms for the members of the orchestra, 
supernumeraries, dressing-rooms, and stage machin- 
ery. The architect of the building was E. C. Cabot. 
Besides the special productions of the management, 
grand opera is given here, and on its ample 
stage during the past quarter of a century the most 
famous singers have appeared. A number of grand 
balls and fairs have also been held in this theatre, 
notable among the former being those in honor of 
the Prince of Wales and of the Russian Duke Alexis, 
and among the latter that in aid of the Sanitary 
Commission, the National Sailors' Fair, and the 
French fair. Mr. Tompkins has associated with him 
on the managerial staff H. A. McGlenen and other 
able men who have done much towards making the 
house the success it is. 

The Globe Theatre, first known as Sehvyn's 
Theatre, was built in 1867 by Dexter H. Follet and 
the late Arthur Cheney. It is one of the most at- 
tractive playhouses in Boston. John H. Selwyn, who 
gave it its first name, was its first manager. In 
i86g Mr. Follet retired and Mr. Cheney assumed 
the sole management. It was at the beginning of 
the season of 1871-72 that the name was changed 
to "The Globe." The late Charles Fechter was at 
the same time made manager. He continued in 
this position, however, but a few months, when he 
was succeeded by the late W. R. Floyd. On May 
30, 1873, Decoration Day, the theatre was burned 
in the serious fire which then raged in this section 
of the city, destroying several squares of buildings. 
A new house on a larger scale — the present one 
— was immediately built by Mr. Cheney and one 
hundred and fifty associates, and this was brilliantly 
opened Dec. 3, 1874, with D. W. Waller as the 
manager. The following season the famous stock- 
company, including among its members George 
Honey, John Cowper, Harry Murdock, Owen Mar- 
lowe, Katherine Rogers, Lillian Conway, Mrs. Clara 
F. Maeder, and others, was organized, and a suc- 

cession of brilliant English comedies was given, 
among them being "Our Boys," and other produc- 
tions from the pen of Henry Byron. All of the brill- 
iant men and most of the women in that comi)any 
have passed away, and of the entire band not one is 
upon the stage to-day. From Dec. 30, 1S76, to 
March 12, 1877, the theatre was remodelled under 
the direction of the city building-inspectors, and in 
the autumn of that year it was opened by John Stet- 
son. In 1880 Mr. Stetson made satisfactory ar- 
rangements with the stockholders and reconstructed 
the interior of the house, bringing it more into 
keeping with the modern style of playhouses. He 
has an able corps of assistants, and under his direc- 
tion it has had a prosperous career. During his 
regime there have been many brilliant engagements 
here, among them those of the late Adelaide Neilson, 
Sarah Bernhardt, Salvini, and seasons of English 
and Italian opera. The Globe has a seating 
capacity of two thousand two hundred. It has an 
unusually deep first balcony and large and small pri- 
vate boxes luxuriously upholstered. The stage is fur- 
nished with all modern appliances, and the front of 
the house has every convenience in the way of spa- 
cious lobbies, broad staircases, smoking and retiring 
rooms. There are three entrances, one on \\ash- 
ington street, another on Essex street, and the third 
on Hayward place. The interior decorations are es- 
pecially rich, and show to advantage under the elec- 
tric light by which the house is illuminated. The 
architect of the Globe was B. F. Dwight. 

The Park Theatre, opposite the Globe, was opened 
April 14, 1879. It ocoipies the site of the old Beet- 
hoven Hall. Though compact, it will seat about twelve 
hundred persons, and it is thoroughly equipped, be- 
fore and behind the curtain, as a first-class playhouse. 
The auditorium is provided with orchestra, two bal- 
conies, and four boxes, and every seat commands a 
good view of the stage. The interior decorations 
are quiet and tasteful. Three broad doors afiford 
ample means of exit. The opening bill was " La 
Cigale," with -Lotta in the title role. The house 
was conducted by Henry E. Abbey and John B. 
Schoeffel from the opening until the season of 1889. 
Then the management was assumed by J. A. Crab- 
tree, a brother of Lotta, who owns the theatre. 

The Hollis-street Theatre, one of the later addi- 
tions to the playhouses of Boston, is built upon the 
site of the old Hollis-street Church. It was opened 
on the 9th of November, 1885, with the first pres- 
entation here of Gilbert and Sullivan's " Mikado," 
which was given with a brilliant caste. The theatre 
covers about thirteen thousand square feet, and 
with its two balconies, six stage boxes, and broad 


orchestra, will seat about sixteen hundred and fifty ],ondon company in "David Clarrick." It is 
persons. The interior is finished in ivory and gold, one of the largest playhouses in the city, covering 
producing a handsome and striking effect under the an area of 18,017 square feet. The auditorium is 


electric light, and the upholstering, both of the 
auditorium and of the different parlors and retiring- 
rooms, is especially rich and tasteful. The prosce- 
nium arch is 41 by 38 feet, and the stage has 
a depth of 40 by 74 feet, affording ample facilities 
for almost any class of stage production. A hand- 
somely decorated foyer gives entrance to the 
orchestra and first balcony. The building is the 
property of R. B. Brigham, and the theatre 
has been under the management of Isaac B. Rich 
since its establishment. John R. Hall was the 

A yet younger theatre is the Tremont, on Tre- 
mont street, opposite the Common, which, as has 
already been recalled, stands on the site of the old 
Haymarket Theatre. It was brilliantly opened on 
the night of Oct. 14, 1889, under the management 
of Henry E. Abbey and John B. Schoefifel, the 
former lessees of the Park, for whom it was built, 
the attraction being Charles \\'yndham's excellent 

75 feet high, of the same width, and So feet 
deep from the stage front to the back wall ; 
the stage is 73 by 45 feet, with a height of 69 
feet to the rigging-loft; and the lobby with the 
vestibule is no feet long, 27 wide, and 18 high. 
The auditorium is fashioned on the plan of a 
mammoth shell, the lines of vision radiating, 
so to speak, from the inner surface to the stage 
centre. There are no absolutely flat surfaces of 
any length on the main floor. The hearing as 
well as the sight gains by this arrangement. There 
is a graceful sweep to the first balcony, and the ten 
private boxes, — four on the first floor, four on the 
second, and two on the third, — richly ornamented 
with brasswork and trimmed with sage-green silk- 
plush draperies relieved by white lace, add a novel 
effect to the interior. The decoration of the main 
ceiling is modernized Renaissance treated in Gobe- 
lin-tapestry effect ; the coloring of the walls grows 
deeper and deeper until the lowest wall forms the 



foundation, of which the ascent is in harmonizing 
shades. The coloring of the woodwork and papier- 
mache of the proscenium arch, of the bo.xes and 
cohimns, is in antique ivory, and this is supple- 
mented by the effect of metal upon the wainscoting 
and the doors leading from the auditorium. The 
foyer, lobby, and vestibule are also highly deco- 
rated with an artistic blending of colors. The 
work of construction has been thorough through- 
out, and every precaution against fire has been 
taken. A newly invented fire-proof material has 
been applied to every part of the woodwork, and to 
all curtains and portieres. Stand-pipes are beneath 
the stage and in the proscenium arch, so arranged 
that a water-curtain, or sheet of water, can be 
quickly thrown, completely separating the stage and 
auditorium. There is also a system of electric door- 
openers, by means of which the auditorium can be 
quickly cleared. The architects of the Tremont 
were J. B. McElfatrick & Sons, of New York. Of 
the two proprietors Mr. Schoeffel is the resident 
manager, and he has an exceptionally able staff, 
with William Seymour as acting and stage manager, 
and Nathaniel Childs as business manager. 

The (irand Opera House is the farthest up- town 
theatre. In point of seating capacity it is one of 
the largest, seating two thousand six hundred per- 
sons. It was built in the fall of 1887, in part from a 
skating-rink which had occupied the site, and from 
basement to roof great care was taken in its con- 
struction to make it practically fire-proof The 
arrangement of the house also is such that in 
case of a sudden emergency the auditorium can be 
cleared in unusually quick time. It is large and 
roomy, and the seats in the orchestra and the t\M> 
balconies are so skilfully arranged that a good 
view of the stage is obtained from each one. 
The stage is 80 by 50 feet, and the prosce- 
nium arch 36 by 40 feet. The space behiml 
the curtain contains ample dressing-rooms and 
all the appliances necessary for any kind of 
])roduction. The house is lighted by electricity, 
which shows the interior decorations to the besi 
advantage. The ornamented lobby is the large>i 
of any theatre in the country. The Cirand Opera 
was opened for the first time on the evening 
of the 9th of Januar)', 1888, with a gorgeous pro- 
duction of " The Arabian Nights." Messrs. Proctor 
and Mansfield, who conduct theatrical enterprises 
in various cities, are the proprietors and managers. 

The Columbia, completed in 1891, presents the 
most ambitious facade. Occupying an ample lot 
on the corner of \\"ashington and Mott streets, it 
rises mnjesticnlly above its neit,'hl)ors and attracts 

attention by its uncommon design. It follows the 
Moorish style, with stately arches and heavy towers. 
The material used is pressed brick and terra-cotta, 
supported by cast-iron columns and arches, and the 
towers and cornices are of copper. The auditorium, 
reached through the lobby extending entirely across 
the front and decorated with stereo-relief work, 
combines the elements of spaciousness and cosi- 
ness. The dainty loges for theatre parties, four 
on the main floor and two in the first balcony, 
heighten the effect of the interior arrangement, 
and the two balconies are well designed. In the 
decorations, buffs, creams, and salmon are the pre- 



vailing tints, with gold brtin/e. The proscenium, 
with its lofty arch and the pairs of tasselled col- 
umns on either side, is not the least effective 
feature of the interior. The stage is 50 feet 
deep ; width from wall to wall, ] 1 feet ; the 


first fly gallery, 30 feet ; second fly gallery, 7 1 
feet; and the gridiron is 75 feet above the 
stage. It is thoroughly equipped with every 
contrivance for producing modern plays and pre- 
senting stage effects. In an annex to the main 
structure are scene-rooms and dressing-rooms. 
The house is lighted by electricity, the lights ar- 
ranged in brilliant groups in which a great chan- 
delier is made up of Maltese crosses. There are 
abundant exits. Leon H. Lampert & Son, of 
Rochester, N.Y., were the architects of the theatre. 
The building is owned by J. J. Grace, and the 
managers of the theatre are \\'illiam Harris and 
Charles F. Atkinson. It opened on the evening 
of Oct. 5, 1 89 1, with the performance of " Men 
and Women," by Charles Frohman's New York 
Comedy Company. 

The newest theatre, the Bowdoin Sijuare, is 
striking in plan and decoration. From the main 
entrance, under a handsomely curved arch with 
borderings of rosettes, an electric light glowing 
from the middle of each, the auditorium is reached 
through the long vestibule, richly panelled and wain- 
scoted, and the highly ornamented lobby, with 
elliptic arched ceiling, heavily panelled, the floors 
of mosaic, and the decorations in old ivory and 
gold, the prevailing tints of the interior. From 
the lobby- at each end handsome staircases rise to 
the balcony floor, and doors open to extra exits, and 
to the cloak and toilet rooms and the ladies' parlor, 
the latter a daintily designed and furnished apart- 
ment. The arrangement of the auditorium re- 
sembles that of its sister theatre, the Columbia; 
the style of boxes is the same, and the series of 
loges u])on the level of the balcony are provided. 
Upon either side of the box are pilasters, and 
around the bases groups of figures. The chairs, 
upholstered in salmon mohair plush, are roomy 
and comfortable, and behind the rail in the rear is 
unusual accommodation for "standees." The richly 
gilded proscenium arch gives space for curtain- 
opening, 36 feet wide and 32 deep, and the ample 
stage, in size only second to that of the Boston 
Theatre, is furnished with the most approved 
modern devices for setting scenes and producing 
effects. From the middle of the arched ceiling of 
the auditorium, the chandelier of novel design — a 
huge expanding flower of electric lights — depends. 
Behind the scenes the work is thorough and 
complete. There are twenty-one large dressing- 
rooms for the players, and an unusually large 
scene-loft. The house is most thoroughly built, 
and is provided with stand-pipes, an abundance 
of hose, automatic sprinklers on each side of 

the stage and under the rigging-loft, and perfo- 
rated pipes, which frame the curtain-opening. 
Charles H. Blackall was the architect of the 
theatre, and its proprietors are Messrs. Harris and 
Atkinson. The Bowdoin Square was first opened 
on the evening of Feb. 15, 1892, with the per- 
formance of " A Night at the Circus," by Nellie 
McHenry and company. 

The dime museum, with its variety-show attach- 
ment, flourishes in cultivated Boston as in no other 
city. Since the opening of the first show place of 
this class here, so recently as 1881, a half-dozen have 
been successfully established, and their popularity 
does not appear to wane. At the present time there 
are Austin & Stone's Museum, the Palace Theatre, 
the Gaiety and Bijou, the World's Theatre, and the 
Grand Museum, each driving a thriving trade. The 
Italians have their own theatre on North street, 
in the heart of the Italian quarter, and the Chinese 
Theatre on Harrison avenue is opened semi-occa- 




THE Boston of To-day is preeminently a club 
town. It has clubs of every sort known in 
modern club life. There are the great social clubs 
the hos|iitalities of which are enjoyed by men of 
distinction in various walks ; professional and Inisi- 
ness clubs ; literary, art, and musical clubs ; dining 
clubs ; political clubs ; women's clubs ; athletic, 
bicycle, tennis, whist, and chess clubs ; yacht clubs ; 
rowing clubs ; riding clubs ; and clubs devoted to 
special interests or to feds. The best type of the 
modern club man is to be found here in Boston. 

Of those clubs possessing houses of their own 
most noticeable are the Somerset, the Union, the 
Algonquin, the St. Botolph, the Art, the Puritan, the 
Athletic, the Century, the Elysium, the Massachu- 
setts Yacht, the L^nion Boat, the Press, the Tavern, 
and the Roxbury and Dorchester clubs. In this 
list also should be classed the Temple, a club little 
known to the newer Boston, but one of the oldest in 
the city. Its house of sober exterior, on West 
street opposite Mason, within a few steps of the 
Boston Theatre, used to be, on fashionable opera- 
nights, a fovorite meeting-place between the acts for 



the nabobs of the time. When the Temple was es- 
tablished here this was a favored section of the city, 
and hard by its best residence-quarters. The Tem- 
ple dates from 1829, and has always maintained 
an excellent reputation for good-fellowship. To- 
day its membership is small and composed of con- 
genial souls. It is one of the few clubs in the town 
in which the English habit of invariably wearing the 
hat is punctiliously followed. One of its earliest 
presidents was George T. Bigelow, afterwards chief 
justice, and of those succeeding him have been such 
well-known Bostonians as Patrick Grant, John T. 
Coolidge, Frederic W. Lincoln, and Peter Buder. 
Among the club's treasures is a small collection of 
paintings, which include " The Greek Girl," pre- 
sented by the late William M. Hunt, " An Interior 
of a Dutch Kitchen," given by the late Colonel 
William P. Winchester, "The Dutch Singing- 
school," and a " Bull's Head," by Hinckley. One 
of its relics is a pitcher of colossal dimensions orig- 
inally the property of the old "Tiger" Hand- 
engine No. 7, whose house used to be on School 
street in front of the old City Hall. The entrance- 
fee to the Temple is 550, and the annual assessment 
5 1 00. A candidate for membership is required to 
have three instead of two proposers — the rule gen- 
erally in Boston clubs. The Suffolk, in rooms on 
Beacon street a few doors above Tremont, is another 
mellow old club, organized in 1845. It also is a 
small and choice organization composed of solid 
Bostonians, most of whom are connected w'ith other 

The Somerset is par excellence the aristocratic 
club of the town, and cultivates the " flower of the 
best families." It was formed in 1852, and was an 
outgrowth of the Tremont club, long since dissolved. 
It has occupied its present most agreeable quarters 
in the old stone mansion-house of David Sears on 
Beacon street since 1872, when it removed from its 
first quarters in the buildmg nearer " down town," 
now the Congregational House. Its rooms of gener- 
ous size are admirably arranged for club purposes, 
and an air of elegant comfort pervades the house. 
A much-enjoyed feature is the ladies' restaurant, open 
to guests of members and to non-members accom- 
panying ladies on club orders. To other dainty 
dining and supper rooms, one of which is resplen- 
dent in yellow satin and mirrors of quaint pattern, 
ladies and non-members may also be invited by 
members as guests. The club has a good library, 
and on its walls are hung several valuable paintings. 
The membership is limited to six hundred. Candi- 
dates for membership are scrutinized by a committee 
on elections consisting of fifteen members, and its 

Moo, ar 

action is final. The admission fee 
the annual assessment the same. 

The Union Club, on Park street, occupying the 
old mansion-house of Abbott Lawrence, which has 
been considerably enlarged and extended in recent 
years, was established during the Civil War (on the 
9th of April, 1863), for "the encouragement and 
dissemination of patriotic sentiment and opinion," 
and the condition of membership was "unqualified 
loyalty to the Constitution of the L^nited States, and 
unswerving support of the federal government in 
efforts for the suppression of the Rebellion." Its 
first president was Edward Everett, and in his ad- 
dress on the occasion of the opening of the club- 
house he sketched in his inimitable way the beauty 
of its position, which with all the changes of later 
years is yet undimmed : " Its proximity to our 
noble Common is a feature of extreme beauty ; 
the views from every story of the house are cheer- 
ful and attractive ; those from the upper windows 
and the observatory on the roof are of unsurpassed 
loveliness. As I contemplated them the other day, 
gazing, under the dreamy light of an Indian sum- 
mer, on the waters in the centre of the Common, 
sparkling through the tinted maples and elms ; the 
line of surrounding hills, Brighton, Brookline, Rox- 
bury, and Dorchester; the islands that gem the 
harbor ; the city stretched like a panorama around 
and beneath, — I thought my eye had never rested 
on a more delightful prospect." Soon after the war 
the political conditions of membership were re- 
moved, and the club was made an entirely un- 
partisan social organization. It is to the Union 
that many of the most prominent members of the 
Suffolk bar belong ; but other professions, letters 
and art notably, are worthily represented in its 
membership. Applications for membership must 
be reported upon favorably by a committee, and 
then be voted upon by the club. The entrance-fee is 
$100, and the annual assessment $75. The club- 
house has ample rooms, a valuable library, and 
some excellent paintings. There are a number of 
private dining-rooms, and at its table d'hote din- 
ners in the large dining-room are daily gathered, 
through the active seasons, groups of representa- 
tive Bostonians, judges of the courts, prominent 
attorneys, and well-known men of affairs. Colonel 
Henry Lee is now i)resident of the Union (1892). 

The Puritan, on the corner of Beacon and Spruce 
streets, in a private dwelling remodelled for club 
purposes, is sometimes called the Junior Somerset. 
It is largely composed of younger clubable men, 
and among its elder club-seasoned members are 
a number of Somerset and L'nion men. Already 


in its short lite (it was born in 1884) it has occu- 
pied three different houses : its first, that on Spruce 
street directly behind its present one, and its 
second on Mt. ^■ernon street at the corner of Joy, 
formerly the home of the late Joseph lasigi. In 
the constitution of the club it is provided that no 
person under the age of twenty-one, and no college 
undergraduate, shall be eligible to membership. 
Applications for admission must be approved by 
the committee on elections, and then be voted 
upon by the club. One black ball in five excludes. 
The entrance-fee is $25 ; the annual assessment 
the same. The club has e.xcellent table d'hote 
dinners. A number of lodging-rooms in the house 
are let to members for a year at a time. The pres- 
ident of the Puritan is George von L. Meyer. 

In the line of Back Bay club-houses, the first, the 
St. Botolph, at No. 2 Newbury street, is distinctively 
the leading professional club of the city. In its 
membership, more generally than in that of any 
other, is represented the best in art, literature, the 
law, music, journalism, and the other professions. 
It has a rich artistic and literary flavor, and its 
members are in touch with the best work of the 
day in the various professional fields. It is in the 
St. Botolph that visiting men of letters and distin- 
guished artists from other cities in our own country 
and abroad are most frequently met, and its recep- 
tions to men of distinction in professional life the 
world over are notable events. In its large art 
gallery are exhibited during each season collections 
of work of its own members and of other painters ; 
and some of the finest treasures in Boston, nota- 
bly the rare specimens of Japanese art now in the 
Art Museum, have first been displayed here. In- 
teresting features of the winter seasons are its regu- 
lar Sunday afternoon concerts, to which its own 
members contribute, and the delightfully informal 
" smoke talks " on literary, artistic, scientific, and 
lighter topics, opened by an essayist and followed 
by general discussion. The club-house, formerly 
the dwelling of the late Henry P. Kidder, has a 
small restaurant, an enticing grill, agreeable reading- 
rooms well provided with current home and foreign 
literature, and every feature of the comfortable club 
of to-day. In the small reception-room is displayed 
the silver-gilt loving cup formerly belonging to the 
corporation of old Boston, in Lincolnshire, Eng. 
It was the gift of the Rev. George E. Ellis, himself 
a member of the club, made on the condition that 
" if ever the club shall be disbanded or its assets 
disperse, the cup shall revert to the Massachusetts 
Historical Society," of which Dr. EUis is the presi- 
dent. Names of candidates for admission to the 

St. Botolph must have two proposers and be posted. 
After this they are passed upon by a special com- 
mittee, who alone elect. The entrance-fee is S30, 
and the annual assessment is $36. From the estab- 
lishment of the club in 1880 until 1885, Francis 
Parkman, the historian, was president ; then, declin- 
ing longer to serve, a most worthy successor was 
chosen in the unanimous election of Gen. Frani:is 
A. Walker. 

The sumptuous Algonquin, on Commonwealth 
avenue, is the leading business men's club of the 
town ; among its members are bankers, brokers, 
merchants, railroad magnates, and a sprinkling of 
lawyers. It is patterned after the Union League of 
New York, but without the political tinge which that 
club has. Organized in the autumn of 1885 with a 
large membership, it immediately proceeded to build 
its fine and costly club-house ' and to secure luxuri- 
ous surroundings. Among its active or resident 
members are many who have been connected with 
the older Boston clubs, notably the Temple and the 
Somerset, and its non-resident members are largely 
composed of New Yorkers. Candidates for admis- 
sion as active members must have two proposers, 
and their names, after being posted on the bulletin 
for at least ten days, must pass the committee on 
admissions, and then be voted upon ; fifty votes are 
necessary to elect, and one negative vote in ten of 
those cast is fatal. The admission fee is $100, and 
the annual assessment the same. Non-resident 
members are required to pay one-half these sums. 
A non-resident is defined as one not residing or 
having a place of business within forty-five miles of 
Boston. The direction of the entire affairs of the 
club is in the hands of an executive committee. 
The Hon. John F. Andrew has been the president of 
the Algonquin from its establishment. 

The Art Club, which now includes men interested 
remotely as well as directly in art, with a minority of 
actual workers in art, sprang from a purely profes- 
sional club, formed in 1854, of twenty members. 
The meetings were for years held in the studios of 
its artist members, and until 1870 it had neither a 
settled abode nor a fixed place for its exhibitions. 
In that year a new organization was effected, the 
membership was largely increased by the admission 
of many non-professional men, and a club-house 
with a large exhibition gallery was established on 
Boylston street opposite the Common. The follow- 
ing year the club was incorporated, and enlarged 
powers and privileges were thus secured. From 
Boylston street the club moved into its present Back 
Bay house," the cost of which, and the land on 

' and 2. Described in tlie chapter on the New West End. 



which it stands, was met by a fund subscribed by its 
members. The Art Club's monthly "Saturday 
evenings " are events of the busy seasons. Every 
winter a large exhibition of new work of American 
artists is given. The club possesses an admirable 
library containing important works on art and books 
of reference, and its walls are hung with paintings 
which it has purchased from time to time from the 
collections exhibited in its gallery. Names of can- 
didates for membership, after passing before the 
committee on membership, are posted and then 
voted on at regular meetings of the club. One 
negative vote in ten rejects. The entrance-fee is 
§50, and annual assessments $1^ for professional 
artists and $30 for other members. Stephen M. 
Crosby is president of the club. 

The Paint and Clay Club is composed mostly of 
painters, with a sprinkling of architects, sculptors, 
and journalists. Its rooms, at the top of a business 
building on Washington street at No. 419, originally 
a loft with a high skylight and low alcoves at each 
end, are artistically and comfortably arranged ; and 
fresh works of its members are often first shown on 
their walls. For a number of years the club gave 
annual exhibitions in down-town galleries, and re- 
ceptions in its rooms. But these, unhappily, are 
no longer regular features of the season. It is a 
small and choice organization. One of the condi- 
tions of membership is that the candidate must 
be either an artist practising his profession or one 
closely connected with art interests. The fees are 
light and the organization simple, consisting of a 
chairman, a secretary and treasurer, and club com- 
mittees. During the winter season social reunions 
are held each Wednesday evening, and often on 
these occasions a rare company is gathered around 
the ample lunch-table. The Paint and Clay dates 
from 18S0. 

The Camera Club, organized in 1S89, is an or- 
ganization of one hundred and fifty members, which 
includes some of the most notable amateurs in the 
country. It has well-arranged exhibition, develop- 
ing, and enlarging rooms, on the upper floor of 
No. 50 Bromfield street, furnished with the best 
and most modern appliances of the art of photog- 
raphy. Each season the club gives an exhibition of 
the work of its members. It also unites with the 
societies in New York and Philadelphia in exhibi- 
tions held progressively in the several cities. That 
of the spring of 1892, an exceptionally fine one, 
was held here in the gallery of the Art Club. Ad- 
mission to the Camera is by ballot of the club, and 
the annual dues are not exceeding Si 5. Henry W. 
Sweet is the president. 

The .Athletic Club, officially known as the 15oston 
Athletic Association, one of the largest organizations 
of its class in the country, having fully two thousand 
members, began its vigorous life in its own Back Bay 
club-house in 1888.' Candidates for admission, 
after their names have been posted in the club, are 
voted upon by the governing committee of twenty, 
who alone elect. One negative vote in six excludes. 
The entrance-fee is S50, and the annual assessment 

The New Riding Club, organized in the autumn 
of 1 89 1, is devoted to good horsemanship. Among 
its incorporators are some of the best-known Bos- 
tonians, all thoroughly trained to the saddle, and 
its establishment has greatly stimulated the riding 
habit to which Bostonians, young and old, men and 
women, have of late years, happily, become ad- 
dicted. The club-house, on Parker street, within a 
few paces of the Back Bay park and the superb 
new driveways, was built especially for the club. Its 
main arena, 165 by 100 feet, and the smaller one, 
are the principal features of the interior. The club 
has experienced riding-masters and all the ficilities 
of the complete riding-school. 

The Massachusetts Yacht Club is an outgrowth of 
the old Dorchester Yacht Club, which was established 
in 1870. Under the direction of Commodore John 
C. Soley, lieutenant of the navy, retired, it took on 
more importance and lofty ambitions. In 1890 an 
old warehouse on Rowe's wharf was leased and 
remodelled for club uses, and here is one of the 
most unique club-houses in town. The lower floor 
is devoted to stores, lockers, lavatories, and yachts- 
crews' rooms. On the second story are the business 
room and a dainty ladies' suite finished in colonial 
style ; next is the billiard room ; and the floor 
above, showing the rough rafters, is that of the res- 
taurant. The whole house is rich in treasures of the 
yachtsman's sport. This is the summer club-house. 
The winter quarters of the club are in Hayward 
place near the side entrance to the Globe Theatre, 
where a modest grill is established. A noteworthy 
feature of this club, in connection with Commodore 
Soley's work as lieutenant commander of the State 
Naval Battalion, consists of lectures and classes in 
various maritime subjects. 

The Union Boat Club, whose picturesque club- 
house is on Charles river at the foot of Chestnut 
street, is with one exception the oldest boating-club 
in the country. It dates from 1851. It is exclu- 
sively an association of amateurs, no member l)eing 
allowed to enter into negotiations to row a race for 
a stated sum of money. The club-house, built in 

1 Described in the chapter on the New West End. 



1870, contains parlors, smoking, bath, and meeting 
rooms, a gymnasium, a locker for e\ery member, 
and two large rooms for the storage of boats. 'I'he 
balcony, extending the entire front of the building, 
commands a full view of the Charles-river course, 
so that in a race the boats at the two-mile turn can 
be seen as they round the stake-boat ; and the roof- 
seats accommodate six himdred persons. Candi- 
dates for membership are voted on by the club ; two 
negative votes reject. The entrance-fee is $25 and 
the annual assessment the same. The club uniform 
is navy-blue and white, and the ensign is a dark- 
blue field with the letters " U.B.C." in white. 

The .Appalachian Mountain Club, established in 
the Ticknor Building on Park street, is devoted to 
the exploration of the New England hills and moun- 
tains and to the cultivation of an interest in geo- 
graphical studies. Since its organization in 1876 its 
members have struck out new paths, especially in 
the White Hills, published accurate maps, and col- 
lected much new information concerning the moun- 
tain regions. During the summer season the club 
has field-meetings, and outings to interesting points 
are features of the spring and autumn months. It 
has about one thousand members. Candidates for 
admission must receive the affirmative vote of two- 
thirds of the members present and voting. 

The Tavern Club is an organization of good fel- 
lows, mostly artists, musicians, and lawyers, who 
breakfast and dine together with more or less 
regularity in their snug and artistically fashioned 
club-house on Boylston place, just off the busy thor- 
oughfare of Boylston street by the Common. It 
employs an Italian caterer, and its frequent club din- 
ner-parties are choice affairs. Among other nota- 
ble guests it has entertained at different times 
Henry Irving, George Augustus Sila, Edwin Arnold, 
Edwin Booth, Lawrence Barrett, and Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes. Although its good table is its leading 
attraction, it has all the other features of the 
modern club. It has been in existence since the 
autumn of 1884, and it first occupied the second 
floor of the little old building formerly on the corner 
of Park square and Boylston street, in the upper 
story of which William M. Hunt has his studio. 
Candidates for admittance to the club are passed 
upon by a small committee on elections, and then 
balloted for by the members. One black ball in 
five excludes. The entrance-fee is §50, and annual 
assessment §35. Charles Eliot Norton is the presi- 
dent of the Tavern. 

The Press Club, on Bosworth street, is the news- 
paper men's club. To membership are admitted 
not only men connected with the editorial deijart- 

ments of the newspapers of the city, but those in 
the business departments. The club-house is an 
old-fashioned, low-studded dwelling, well arranged 
for the comfort and convenience of the members. 
There is a small restaurant which is open through- 
out the day and night. Candidates for member- 
ship are voted upon by the club ; an affirmative vote 
of two-thirds of the active members present and 
voting when a ballot is taken, is necessary to elect. 
The club was organized in March, 1886. The pres- 
ident is E. B. Haskell. There is also a Woman's 
Press Club here in Boston, which meets from time 
to time at dinners or teas, and occasionally gives 
notable receptions. 

The New England Woman's Club, whose rooms 
are at No. 5 Park street, was the second of its kind 
established in the country. It is not merely a 
social club : it engages in much philanthropic and 
other work for the advancement of woman. Organ- 
ized in 1868 at the house of Dr. Harriot K. Hunt, 
by some of the best known of the women of that day 
in public life, it grew rapidly in numbers, and early 
in its career its present pleasant quarters were se- 
cured. It has frequent meetings, entertains guests 
from other cities at receptions and dinners, and cel- 
ebrates high tea once a month. Mrs. Julia Ward 
Howe has been president of the club for many 

The Century, formerly the Central, originally a 
South End business men's club, established in that 
quarter in 1868, has a pleasant club-house on Boyl- 
ston street opposite the Common, generously fur- 
nished with every club comfort. Of its several 
game-rooms the large whist-room is the most popu- 
lar. It is a prosperous club of business and pro- 
fessional men. The entrance-fee is S50, and the 
annual assessment the same. Col. Charles H. 
Taylor, manager of the " Daily Olobe, " is the 

The Elysium Club occupies a handsome new 
house on Huntington avenue, not far from Chester 
Park, into which it moved from its first club-rooms 
at the South End in September, 1890. The cost 
of the new house and furnishings was $135,000. It 
is thoroughly equipped with all the conveniences 
and features of the best class of modern clubs. The 
Elysium was organized in 187 1, and its object is 
" literary pursuits and sociability." Applications for 
membership are referred to the election committee 
of nine members, who alone elect. The initiation fee 
is S50, and the annual assessment S60. Theodore 
P. Spitz is the present president. The club has 
one hundred and twenty-five active and resident 
members, and twenty-five non-resident members. 


The Roxbury Club is the representative business 
men's ckib of the Roxbury district. It was estab- 
lished ill October, 1885. Its inviting club-house is 
on Warren street, a fine dwelling remodelled for its 
use. The election of members is by the member- 
shiji committee of fifteen. One adverse vote in 
three excludes. The entrance fee is Sio, and the 
annual assessment $30. 

The newest club is the University, modelled after 
the University Club of New York. It was organized 
in January, 1892, with William C. Endicott as 
president. A candidate for admission must show 
a degree received from a university or college ap- 
proved by the election committee, or from the In- 
stitute of Technology, and the United States Mili- 
tary or Naval Academy. Those who have received 
honorary degrees, and are distingurshed in literature, 
art, science, or the public service, are also eligible 
to membership. The entrance-fee for resident 
members is S40, and the annual assessment $36 ; 
for non-resident members, $30 and $18. 

The number of dining-clubs which flourish here 
in Boston is legion. A few are composed of men of 
letters and of other professions, many more of poli- 
ticians or would-be politicians, of business men, of 
philanthropic or religious groups, of reformers of 
various classes. There are the Literary, the Papy- 
rus, the Schoolmasters', the Merchants', the Com- 
mercial, the Beacon, the Paint and Oil, the 
Agricultural, the Cereal, the Clover, the Pendennis, 
the Round Table, the Saturday, the Sheepskin, the 
Trade, the Twiffler ; of purely political clubs : the 
Massachusetts (Republican), the Bird (Indepen- 
dent), the Bay State (Democratic), the Boston (Re- 
publican), the Essex (Republican), the Middlesex 
(Republican), the Middlesex County (Democratic), 
the Sixth District (Democratic), the Massachusetts 
Reform (Independent), and the Norfolk (Repub- 
lican) ; and of religious and miscellaneous dining- 
clubs : the Unitarian, the Universalist, the Congre- 
gational, the Episcopal, the Liberal Union, the New 
Hampshire and the Pine Tree State (composed, the 
former of New Hampshire and the latter of Maine 
men resident in Boston), the New England Railroad, 
and so on. 

Best known beyond the limits of the town is the 
Papyrus, the organization of clever men in the 
\arious professions, notably journalism, art, music, 
and the law, which most resembles the famous Sav- 
age of London. From the original organization of 
a dozen or twenty men, mostly journalists, effected 
one frosty evening in the autumn of 1870, it has 
grown to its present extensive proportions. The 
earliest members met around a generously loaded 

table at "Billy Park's," but now the club gathers the 
first Saturday evening of every month — barring the 
summer months — in one of the large dining-rooms 
of the Revere. The president, with the secretary 
and the club's guests, sits at the main table, and at 
the long tables extending down the hall are the 
members' seats. After dinner the " loving cup " 
passes from the president to the guests and then 
from member to member, and the literary festivities 
follow. At these Papyrus dinners some of the gay- 
est work of its literary members and the poems of 
its poets have been tried on the free critics who sit 
at its board, before their appearance in enduring 
print. The object of the club, " to promote good- 
fellowship and literary and artistic tastes among its 
members," is fully attained. According to its con- 
stitution, at least two-thirds of its members must be 
literary men, and with such it classes journalists, 
artists, and publishers. Candidates for membership 
are first proposed to the club at a regular meeting, 
then are referred to the committee on membership, 
and finally, if approved by that committee, are voted 
upon by the members. Five black balls exclude. 
The admission-fee is $10 for literary members and 
S25 for non-literary, and the assessment is S5. 
Members pay the dinner-fee at each meeting. 
The pohtical dining-clubs meet frequently dur- 
ing the active seasons, some of them once a 
week, and always on Saturdays : and the business 
men's and other clubs generally once a month. 
These meetings and dinners are at the hotels, sev- 
eral of which have special club dining-rooms. 

The musical club is another peculiar Boston feat- 
ure. The pioneer of the modern singing-club was 
the Liedertafel, a German singing-society, organized 
in 1848, which in course of time was absorbed in 
the Orpheus Musical Society, established five years 
after. This was originally composed exclusively of 
Germans residing in Boston, but early in its career 
Americans were admitted as associate members, and 
now about half its members are Americans, although 
its tone remains German. It is a social as well as a 
musical organization, and its club-rooms on Boyl- 
ston street are the meeting-place of well-known mu- 
sicians and good fellows. During each season it 
gives several concerts, to which admission is ob- 
tained only through members. The Apollo, of 
about eighty singing members and five hundred as- 
sociate or subscribing members, was organized in 
187 1 ; it is devoted to the singing of part-songs 
and choruses composed for male voices. B. J. 
Lang has been its conductor from the beginning. 
The Cecilia, first formed within the long-established 
Harvard Musical Association, for mixed voices, 



to take jiart in the Harvard symiihony concerts, 
was in 1.S76 estaljlished as an independent club, 
with one hundred and twenty-five singing mem- 
bers ; later, associate members were added, the 
limit being fixed at two hundred and fifty. It 
performs the larger works of the best composers, 
generally with orchestra accompaniment. B. J. 
Lang has been the conductor since its independent 
organization. The Philharmonic Society was organ- 
ized in 1880, with active and associate members, for 
the presentation of orchestral music, primarily to 
sustain the Philharmonic Orchestra, but subsequently, 
owing to divisions in the organization, the orchestra 
withdrew and continued as an independent organ- 
ization. The (ilea Club was organized in 1881, for 
the singing of English glees. The Boylston, the 
Euterpe, the Boston Orchestral, the Clefs and the 
Singers, notable clubs in their day, are no longer in 
existence. Of all the musical organizations in the 
city the famous Handel and Haydn Society is the 
oldest, dating from 1815. 

Besides the bewildering variety of clubs above 
enumerated there is the " Turnverein," numbering 
several hundred German-.^merican members, with 
its thoroughly equipped building on Middlesex 
street: the Caledonian Club, the local organization 
of Scotchmen, dating from 1853, with rooms on 
Essex street, corner of Chauncy ; the English and 
American Club, established in 1886, "to promote 
and encourage friendly relations between the Ignited 
States antl Great Britain," and including in its 
membership Englishmen, Welshmen, Scotchmen, 
and Irishmen ; the St. Jean Baptiste Society, at No. 
12 Kneeland street; the French-Canadian Club; 
numerous rowing-clubs, among them the West End, 
the Dolphin, and the Crescent, with boat-houses on 
the Charles river, and the Shawmut and the Central, 
with boat-houses in the South bay ; yacht-club houses 
at South Boston and on Dorchester bay; the Bos- 
ton Lodge of the Elks on Hayward place ; bicycle 
clubs, tennis clubs, and the Chess Club, the latter 
the oldest of its kind in the countrv, established in 

Classed with Boston clubs should also be the 
Country Club. Though its house and grounds are 
situated without the city limits (in Clyde Park, 
Brookline), it is composed of Bostonians almost ex- 
clusively, members of several of the leading clubs in 
town. It maintains one of the best racing-courses in 
the neighborhood of the city, and its club-house is a 
most picturesque and hospitable country mansion. 
It afifords a pleasant rendezvous for members and 
their families and friends in the course of afternoon 
drives, and coaching-parties frequently bring up 

here for dinner or supper. The club-house is open 
to members and their friends throughout the year, 
and the club has excei>tionally good cuisine and 




r^V what are termed the "Outlying Districts" 
^-^ of the Jioston of To-day, all but East Boston 
and South Boston have been acquired by annexa- 
tion within a quarter of a century. Although these 
towns and cities had developed independently, their 
absorption by the metropolis was natural and fit- 
ting, for they were closely related. Roxbury, or 
" Rocksberry " as it was earliest called, recognized 
by the " Court of Assistants " as a town less than a 
month after Boston was named, had among its prin- 
cipal settlers some of those who had come out with 
\Vinthrop on the " Arabella ; " in the order of the 
court declaring that " Trimountaine shalbe called 
Boston " Dorchester also was named, and here too 
some of Winthrop's associates " planted them- 
selves ; " the governor's or the " Great House," at 
which the Court of Assistants had their first sittings, 
was in Charlestown; Brighton, set off from Cam- 
bridge in 1806, was included in the original ter- 
ritory of Charlestown; and West Roxbury was 
originally a part of Roxbury. The annexation of 
these " Outlying Districts " added to the area of 
the city founded on the "pear-shaped peninsula" 
22,692 acres of valuable territory, and greatly in- 
creased its prosperity. 

East Boston was " layd to Boston " as early as 
1636, but it remained an island farm until 1833. 
Its development, then begun, was the enterprise of a 
local land company composed of a "syndicate," as 
we would say in these days, of about a dozen capi- 
talists, chartered as the East Boston Company. 
There was at that time but one dwelling-house on 
the island— the hospitable Williams flmiihouse, 
then occupied by Thomas Williams, who, like his 
father before him, Henry Howell Williams, had 
made a tidy fortune here as a tenant farmer. The 
place had been generally called " Noddle's Island," 



after one William Xodille, who had settled on it as 
early as 1629. But sometimes it was called 
" Maverick's," after Samuel Maverick, Gent., its 
most important settler, whom Winthrop's people 
found comfortably quartered here ; and again " Will- 
iams," after the Williamses, father and son, whose 
occupation of it covered seventy years. Of Noddle 
or whence he came little is know. Winthrop alludes 
to him as "an honest man of Salem," but he was 
]irobably one of the colonists sent out by Sir William 
Brereton, who obtained a grant of this island and its 
neighbor. Breed's (or Susanna, as it was first called, 
in honor of his daughter), from John Gorges in 
1628. Finding Maverick in possession and indif- 
ferent to the orders of the Court of Assistants re- 
straining persons from " jnitting on cattell " and 
felling wood or shooting " att fowle " here, the 
island was formally granted to him in April, 1633, 
the conditions being that he should pay yearly " att 
the General Court, to the Governor for the time 
being, either a fatt weather, a fatt hogg, or xh in 
money," and " give leave to Boston and Charles 
Towne to fetch wood contynually as their needs re- 
quire from the southerne pte of s*ileland." Maver- 
ick constructed a rude fort, mounting " four great 
guns," for protection against the Indians, and within 
the enclosure built his castle. Here he lived for 
twenty-five years, not always at peace with his Puri- 
tan neighbors upon their peninsula, or free from 
petty persecutions, but well and generously. He 
was one of the earliest negro slaveholders in Massa- 
chusetts, and at times worked several on his farm 
and in his household. A dozen years after he had 
moved from the island it was the place of refuge of 
the " First Baptist Church of Boston," while under 
the interdict of the colonial government from 1665 
to 1675. 

Nearly a century later " the comfortable Williams 
mansion," says Sweetser, " was the pride of the 
island. . . . The house was graced by six 
comely daughters, whose harpsichord was the fore- 
runner of musical Boston ; and the hills on the island 
gave pasturage to forty-three horses and 223 cattle." 
Then the horses and cattle were run off during the 
lively " Fight on Noddle's Island," of a May day 
and night in 1775, when the .Americans under Put- 
nam worsted the British marines ; and a day or two 
after the mansion was burned. This skirmish, says 
Frothingham, " was dwelt upon with great exultation 
throughout the colonies," and " the news of it ar- 
riving in Congress just as it was choosing general 
officers, influenced the vote of Putnam for major 
general which was unanimous." And yet the fight 
was a petty affair as " fights" go. It was over the 

live-stock on the island. A small detachment had 
been ordered to drix'e the stock off to Chelsea at 
low tide, out of reach of the British, and their move- 
ments being observed from the war-ships in the 
harbor, a schooner, a sloop, and a party of marines 
were despatched to stop them. The Americans 
fell back to a ditch and lay in ambush, from which 
they picked off several of the marines and then re- 
treated to Hogg (or Breed's) island, having suc- 
ceeded, however, in running off three or four 
hundred sheep, lambs, cows, and horses. Late in the 
evening reinforcements of about three hundred men 
arrived with two pieces of cannon, and the fighting 
was renewed, the British firing from the vessels, 
from the barges fixed with swivels, and from a hill 
on the island. Finally the schooner was aban- 
doned, and, grounding towards morning, a party from 
the Americans, after coolly taking out her guns and 
sails, burned her at daybreak under a fire from the 
sloop. Then later in the forenoon the sloop was 
disabled and towed off by the boats. After a few 
more shots the firing ceased and the ."Americans 
were victorious. They captured twelve swivels and 
four four-pound cannon. They didn't lose a man 
anil had only four wounded, while the British loss 
was said to be twenty killed and fifty wounded. 
Dr. Joseph Warren was with the Americans serving 
as a volunteer. In compensation for his loss Wash- 
ington gave farmer Williams one of the Continental 
barracks at Cambridge, which he moved to the island 
and subsequently remodelled into a new mansion. 

For what Maverick was annually required to pay 
either a " fatt weather, a fatt hogg, or \\s in money," 
the East Boston Company two centuries after paid 
$80,000. It purchased for this sum the entire 
island, embracing six hundred and sixty-six acres of 
upland and marsh and several hundred acres of flats, 
with the exception of four acres set apart, according 
to the terms of its charter, for public purposes. The 
territory was at once laid out in substantial streets 
and squares and house and building lots, and sales 
of lands begun. The success of the speculation 
was speedily assured. Within three years the tax- 
able valuation had increased from S6o,ooo to $806,- 
000, and the population from a half-dozen persons 
to six hundred. The ne,\t year, in 1837, the ter- 
minus of the Eastern Railroad was fixed here, and 
the Maverick House built ; three years later the Cu- 
nard Steamship line was established, and its docks 
on the island built. Meanwhile, large manufactories 
were set up, the pioneer being the East Boston 
Sugar Refinery, and ship-building was begun. This 
soon developed into a great industry. Between 
1848 and 1858 more than 170 vessels were built 



in East Boston yards, of which 99 exceeded 1,000 
tons each, and 9 were above 2,000 tons. Among 
them were the famous packet-ships, remarkable for 
their fine sailing-qualities. The " Great Republic," 
the largest wooden sailing-ship ever built, a three- 
decker with four masts, 4,556 tons, was turned out 
here in 1853, and she proved one of the swiftest 
vessels on the seas. Among other splendid East 
Boston built clipper-ships, mostly for the California 
service, were the " Flying Cloud," 1,700 tons, which 
made the quickest trips between New York and San 
Francisco, the " Flying Fish," 1,600 tons, which 
made her first passage from Boston to San Fran- 
cisco in 92 days, the " Empress of the Seas," 
2,250 tons, and the "Staffordshire," 1,950 tons. 
Clippers were also built here for English houses — 
one of the finest, the " Lightning," which made the 
voyage beween Liverpool and Melbourne in 63 

Then iron ship-building in its turn became an 
important industry, and in its turn also declined. 
But during the past four years the ship-building 
industry here has been undergoing a gradual and 
steady revival, while the dry docks and marine 
railway.s, seven in all, keep busy a small army 
of shipwrights and caulkers the year round. Several 
transadantic lines of steamships discharge and 
load their cargoes at the Grand Junction wharves, 
where the IJoston & Albany and the Boston 
& Maine and New York & New England rail- 
roads have freight terminals and sheds. The 
Cunard and the Warren are the principal steam- 
ship lines, the Beaver-line steamships landing only 
in winter. Several hundred skilled machinists find 
employment at the Atlantic works on Border street, 
where iron and steel vessels and marine and land 
engines are built. The Lockwood Manufacturing 
Company on Sumner street, and Webb & Watson 
also on Border street, makers of marine engines 
and propellers, are other large concerns. Boiler- 
makers and iron-workers are engaged at the Rob- 
inson Boiler Works on New street, the E. Hodge & 
Company Boiler Works on Liverpool street, and at 
the works of the Boston Forge Company on Mav- 
erick street, where steel shafts, anchors, etc., are 
made. Dyestuffs are manufactured in large quan- 
tities at the mills of the Boston Dyewood Company 
and of the Atlantic Dyewood Company, the one on 
Border street and the other on New street. These 
concerns receive their dj'ewoods at their own 
wharves direct from South American ports. Among 
minor manufacturing establishments are several 
planing and turning and wood-w^orking mills, all 
on Border street. In the " fourth section " is the 

receiving station of the Standard Oil Company, 
under the name of the ^Laverick Oil Works, where 
oil in bulk from Philadelphia is received and re- 
fined. At Jeffrey's Point are several fish curing and 
smoking establishments. The Bagnall & Loud Com- 
pany have a great block and pulley manufacturing 
place on Condor street. The Boston Tow Boat 
Company has immense coal pockets and coaling 
station on Border street near the Chelsea end. 
There is an e.\tensive whiting manufactory on Mav- 
erick street. The population of the East Boston 
district in 1890 was thirty-six thousand. 


South Boston, formerly part of Dorchester, was 
originally separated from the main peninsula by an 
arm of the harbor reaching to Ro.xbury, and con- 
nection was made by a primitive ferry, or by the 
roundabout journey through Roxbury and over 
the Neck. When it was annexed it had an 
area of about five hundred and seventy acres of 
lowlands and bluffs, including the historic Dor- 
chester Heights, and its entire population con- 
sisted of but ten families. Its annexation was 
part of a real-estate speculation originated by 
Joseph Woodward, who had moved here from Tewks- 
bury and bought a large tract of land. He saw the 
advantages of its location w'hen brought into closer 
comnmnication with Boston by bridges and im- 
proved, and he interested William Tudor, Gardiner 
Greene, Jonathan Mason, and Harrison Gray Otis, 
several of whom had engaged in the successful Mt. 
Vernon Improvement on Beacon Hill.' These gen- 
tlemen also made large land purchases on Dorches- 
ter Neck, and then the movement for annexation 
was energetically pushed. The town of Dorchester 
vigorously opposed the project, but it was finally 
carried through the Legislature, the act being passed 
March 6, 1804. At the same time the construction 
of a bridge by the South Boston Bridge Corporation, 
Messrs. Tudor, Greene, Mason, and Otis incorpora- 
tors, was authorized, and after some contention over 
the question of location, it was built and opened 
with a grand military display on the first of October 
the following year. This was the first Dover-street 
bridge. Immediately after the passage of the an- 
nexation act the value of land rose enormously in 
the new district, but its growth did not meet the an- 
ticipations of its projectors. Agitation for a second 
bridge was begun immediately upon the completion 
of the first, but it was not until twenty years after 
that it was secured. This was the Federal-street 
bridge, the charter for which was granted in 1826. 

1 See chapter on North and Old West Ends. 



It was opened in 1828 as a free bridge. Four years 
after, the old bridge was sold to the city for §3,500, 
and made free. It had originally cost its projectors 
$56,000, and had earned no dividends. In 1825, 
when the city began locating its reformatory institu- 
tions here, the population of the district was but 
1,986. The opening of the second bridge, however, 
gave the place a new impulse, and in 1830 its popu- 
lation had increased to 2,860. Ten years later it 
had reached 5,590. During this period many fine 

influences of wealth." With the introduction of 
the horse-railway system in 1856, population in- 
creased rapidly, new industries were established, 
and building became brisk ; but the prediction re- 
specting the "court end" was never fulfilled. Fash- 
ion had set strongly in the direction of the South 
End, and was already interested in the plans then 
developing for the finer Boston on the " New 
Lands " yet to be created. The pleasantest resi- 
dence-quarters are now on the hills and their slopes 


lUvellings were built and parks and streets embel- 
lished. In 1837 the great Mount Washington 
House (now occupied by the School for the Blind), 
with its broad entrance from a high flight of steps 
and its generous piazzas affording a superb harbor- 
view, was opened. The prediction that the district 
would ultimately be the " court end of Boston " was 
confidently made and long clung to. In the Boston 
Almanac for 1853, Dr. J. V. C. Smith, afterwards 
Mayor Smith (1854-56), in urging the filling of the 
flats, expressed his belief that it was destined to be- 
come " the magnificent portion of the city in respect 
to costly residences, fashionable society, and the 

and towards the Point, the most easterly part of the 

On the Point the water-front esplanade is one 
of the most interesting parts of the new park 
system of the city now developing, and the long iron 
pier extending far into the harbor towards Castle 
Island is a popular feature. Off the Point several 
yacht-clubs have their moorings, and in the summer 
time the water sparkles with this joyous craft. The 
attractive club-houses on the shore add to the 
picturesqueness of the place. It is a great yacht- 
ing-station, and here the crack " Burgess " and other 
racers have been built in recent years. Of other 


])arks in the district the most important are Thomas 
park on Telegraph Hill, once Dorchester Heights, 
and Independence square on upper Broadway. The 
famous redoubt the sudden appearance of which, 
looming up threateningly on the morning of March 
5, 1776, so astonished the British in Boston and 
precipitated the evacuation of the town, is unmarked 
saved by a granite tablet in the park on the crest of 
the heights. The most noteworthy institutions 
within the district, besides those of the city, are in 
this neighborhood, — the great Carney Hospital 
(Catholic, established in 1865, founded on a gift 
of land and a fund of §56,700 from the late Andrew 
Carney) and the noble Perkins Institution for the 
Blind, organized in 1832 by the devoted Dr. 
Samuel G. Howe, and first established in the Pearl- 
street (old Boston) mansion-house of Col. Thomas 
^^'. Perkins, removing to South Boston, having se- 
cured the Mount Washington House, in 1839. The 
School for Idiotic and Feeble-minded Children, an 
outgrowth of the Perkins Institution, and now a 
State institution, is in the rear of its buildings. 

South Boston now is a great industrial centre. 
The foundry business was begun here as early as 
1809, and one of the pioneers was Cyrus Alger, in 
later years of the great Alger Iron Works. In 181 1 
flint-glass manufacture was begun here, the first 
successful attempt in this part of the country. Ship- 
building was begun the next year ; Noah Brooks's 
ship-yard was established in 1822 ; and twenty-five 
years later, in E. & H. O. Briggs's yard, the ship 
"Northern Light" was built, which scored the 
quickest time ever made by a clipper ship from 
San Francisco to Boston — in seventy-five days. In 
1835 the Fulton Iron Works were established. 
Then followed other great foundries, locomotive 
works, and lead works. The great establishment of 
Harrison Loring, the City Point Iron Works, from 
which much important government work, including 
naval cruisers and tugs, has been turned out, dates 
from 1847. Other great concerns are the Walworth 
Works, where heavy iron and brass castings are 
made ; the Washburn Car-wheel Company ; the 
South Boston Iron Works, where heavy ordnance is 
made ; the steel works of Billings Brothers, formerly 
the Norway Iron Works ; the Howard Foundry 
Company ; the South Carlton Iron Company ; the 
Ingols Brass Foundry; the Whittier Machine 
Company, the makers of elevators ; the S. A. Woods 
Machine Company, manufacturers of wood-working 
machines ; the Boston Button Company ; the Boston 
Cooperage Company ; great boiler-works ; the im- 
mense works of the Boston Cordage Company ; fire- 
brick works; the great Standard and Continental 

Sugar Refineries ; the plant of the Jenney Oil Com- 
pany. Here also are the excellent terminal piers of 
the New York & New England Railroad and for- 
eign steamship docks. The population of South 
Boston in 1890 was 66,790. 


The Roxbury district is a city of homes. Until 
well within the present century it was a charming 
rural place of hills and vales, having but a single 
bustling " main " street, local shops, a few manu- 
factories, clusters of houses about the centres, many 
of them with fine gardens and orchards, and rich 
outlying farms. It was yet a " faire and handsome 
towne, having a cleare fresh brooke running through " 
it, and "up westward . . . something rocky 
whence it hath the name of Roxberry," as William 
Wood quaintly described it in his " New England 
Prospects," only three years after its settlement. 
Originally its territory included not only the present 
West Roxbury district with Jamaica Plain, but the 
present town of Brookline, known in the early days 
as " Punch Bowl Village." During the Revolu- 
tionary period it had scarcely 2,000 inhabitants, 
about 200 dwellings, 3 meeting-houses, and 5 
schools ; in 1 800 its population had increased but 
700, and twenty years after it had reached but 
4,100. During the next ten years more of the airs 
of a modern town were assumed, and the place was 
brought into closer connection with Boston. In 
1824 Roxbury street, now a continuation of Wash- 
ington street, then the one thoroughfare through the 
town, was paved and brick sidewalks laid ; the same 
year the Norfolk House was completed and opened ; 
the first newspaper, the " Norfolk Gazette," was 
started ; and three years after hourly coaches, the 
first in this part of the country, began regular trips 
to and from Boston. But the population increased 
slowly, in 1830 numbering less than 5,300. Im- 
provements and changes continued, new streets 
were laid out, new business blocks, shops, and 
dwellings built ; and at length the tide was turned 
in this direction. The growth thereafter was rapid 
and substantial. In 1840 the population was given 
as 9,089, and six years after the town government 
was abandoned and Roxbury became a city. In 
1 860, four years after the street-railway system was 
established, it had 25,000; in 1867, when it was 
annexed to Boston and became the Roxbury district, it 
had 28,400; in 1870,34,700; in 1880, 57,000; and 
in 1890, 78,400. When it was annexed to Boston it 
had a number of fine old mansion-houses left over 
from the Provincial and the Revolutionary periods, 
but before very long these were nearly all swept 

? fe 


away to make room for more contracted and less 
picturesque modern dwellings. There yet remains, 
however, the historic old church in Eliot square oc- 
(uining the site of the first meeting-house, " a rude 
unbeautified structure " built soon after the formation 
of the " First Parish " in 1632. It is the fifth meet- 
ing-house of the society and was built in 1804, re- 
placing that which was used as a signal station by 
the Continentals during the siege of Boston town. 
.Although it has been from time to time extensively 

death in 1833, that the church became Unitarian. 
Dr. George Putnam, who succeeded Dr. Porter, hav- 
ing first been associate pastor for three years, also 
served a long period, his pastorate also closing with 
his death, which occurred in 1876. James de Nor- 
mandie is the present pastor. 

On Highland street, which extends from Eliot 
square, are a number of the few old-time houses 
yet standing in the district. In one of these Will- 
iam Lloyd Garrison lived during his later years; 


repaired and renovated, the old architecture and 
the impressive simplicity of the interior finish have 
been carefully preserved. John Eliot, the great 
apostle to the Indians, was the minister of the First 
Church for nearly sixty years, laboring unremit- 
tingly in good works until his death in 1690, at the 
age of eighty-six. He was buried in the ancient 
burying-ground marking the corner of Washington 
and Eustis streets, where also are the tombs of 
other ministers of this church, and of the famous 
Dudley family — Thomas and Joseph Dudley, the 
first a governor of Massachusetts under the first 
charter and the second under the second charter, 
and Paul, the chief justice and son of Gen. Joseph 
Dudley. It was under the pastorate of Eliphalet 
Porter, minister for over half a century, until his 

another is the homestead of the Putnams, where 
Rev. Dr. Putnam lived for a long period ; and 
another is the home of Edward Everett Hale. On 
the hill in this neighborhood, between Beach, Glen, 
and Fort avenues, from which the ornate stand- 
pipe of the Boston Water-works rises, was the 
" Ro.xbury High Fort," built in June, 1775, under 
the direction of General Thomas, which crowned 
the Roxbury lines of investment at the Siege. It 
was the strongest of the several Roxbury forts, 
others of which guarded the single land-passage 
to Boston over the Neck. The outer earthworks 
at the Neck were just below the George's Tavern, 
which stood a short distance south of Washington 
Market, in the neighborhood of Lenox street, and 
were in musket-range of the British outpost. The 


tavern was early burned by the British ; and soon 
after the latter's outpost, Brown's farmhouse, a httle 
south of the present Blackstone square, was burned 
by a raiding party of Americans. The part Rox- 
bury took in the Revolution was conspicuous. 
It was the native place of the lamented Warren, 
and of Heath and Greaton, generals in the 
Continental army. Heath signed the first " gen- 
eral order " for the army. He was at Lexington 
and Bunker Hill, and during the Siege commanded 

ishes, a valued institution. John Eliot was chief 
among its founders. Warren, when a lad of nine- 
teen, was master of the school, in 1760. Roxbury 
when annexed added to Boston 2,700 acres of ter- 
ritory, and taxable property valued at ^26,551,700. 


The first settlers of the Dorchester District came 
in the " Mary and John," a vessel of Winthrop's fleet. 
Before setting sail from Plymouth, Eng., a church 


a part of the right wing. Later, he was appointed 
by Washington to the command of West Point. 
Moses Whiting and William Draper commanded 
companies at Lexington, and one hundred and forty 
Roxbury men were there. Major-general Dearborn, 
on the staff of Washington, was a Roxbury man ; 
and Robert Williams, master of the Latin School, 
" changed his ferule for a sword," taking a commis- 
sion in the army. Roxbury's part in the Civil War 
was as honorable. The site of the birthplace of 
Joseph Warren, on Warren street, is marked by a 
tablet. That of Thomas Dudley's house is occu- 
pied by the Universalist Church on Dudley street. 
The Roxbury Latin School, established in 1645, but 
ten vears after the Boston Latin School, still tlour- 

was organized, and John Maverick and John War- 
ham were chosen pastors. Dorchester, therefore, 
like Plymouth, launched its church from foreign 
shores. Why the new settlement was called Dor- 
chester is uncertain ; but James Blake, an early his- 
torian, referred it to the gratitude of the colonists 
to Rev. John White, of Dorchester, Eng., who was 
an active promoter of Puritan emigration, or to the 
fact that some of the settlers were from Dorset- 
shire. In 1633, Dorchester was the largest and 
wealthiest town in Massachusetts. It is said that 
it had the first special town-government in New 
I'.ngland. The first Dorchester record-book is the 
oldest town record-book in Massachusetts. The 
honor is also claimed for Dorchester of having 



made, in May, 1639, the first public provision in 
America for a free school to be supported by direct 
tax or assessment of the inhabitants of the town. 
The two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of this 
event was duly celebrated. In 1635-36, a large 
number of the inhabitants of Dorchester emigrated 
to Connecticut. Richard Mather, the founder of 
the Mather family in this country, arrived in 1635, 
and became pastor of the reorganized church in 
1636. He was one of the fathers of New England 
Congregationalism and assisted John Eliot in the 
making of that unique paraphrase of the Psalter, 

to within a few rods of the Providence line. Mil- 
ton, Canton, and Stoughton were afterward set off 
by themselves. Dorchester Neck and Washington 
Village became South Boston, and finally what re- 
mained of the old town was annexed to the city. 
Since the annexation here, as in Roxbury, many of 
the old colonial estates have been cut up. New 
streets have been introduced, and a vast number 
of houses have been built. Dorchester still re- 
mains principally a place of residence. The old 
burying-ground at Upham's Corner (Dudley and 
Boston streets) is one of the oldest burying-grounds 

11 (JL 



the Bay State Psalm Book. Another distinguished 
son of Dorchester was Lieutenant-Governor Stough- 
ton, who was chief justice of the commission on the 
witchcraft trials. Stoughton Hall at Harvard Col- 
lege is named after him, in recognition of a gift to 
that institution. The townspeople of Dorchester 
have been distinguished for their patriotism. They 
joined with Boston in the days preceding the Revo- 
lution in resisting English oppression. The town 
indorsed by resolution the action of the Boston 
Tea Party, and a stray chest of tea which had sur- 
vived the ordeal of water, and floated on the Dor- 
chester marshes, was effectually destroyed by fire. 
Dorchester men were active in fortifying Dorches- 
ter Heights in the closing days of the Siege. Dor- 
chester originally covered a great deal of territory. 
It was nearly thirty-five miles in length, extending 

in the State, and is still used for interments. Rich- 
ard Mather, Stoughton, and other celebrities were 
buried here. When annexed to Boston in 1870, 
the population of Dorchester was 12,200. In 1880 
it had grown to 17,800, and in 1890 to 29,600. 
The area added to Boston by its annexation was 
5,614 acres, and the taxable property 1120,315,700. 


The Charlestown district, the oldest jwrt of the 
Boston of To-day, having been settled on the 4th 
of July, 1629, more than a year before Winthrop's 
company moved over to the peninsula, has changed 
less than any of the outlying districts since annexa- 
tion. When annexed in 1872 it had 31,000 inhabi- 
tants ; in 1880,33,700; and in 1890, but 38,300. 
Nor has its valuation greatly increased. It is a 


quiet (luarter of Boston, still possessing a few old 
estates, several pleasant streets, and Bunker Hill 
Monument. In its old burying-ground on the 
shore, with those of other worthies, are the graves 
of John Harvard, founder of Harvard College, and 

Thomas Beecher, founder of the famous Beecher 
family in America. Before the Revolution it was a 
flourishing town. In 1775 it contained about four 
hundred houses, built about the hills ; and when 
the battle was fought, we are told, " Breed's Hill 



and the higher I'uiiker Hill beyond were covered 
by i)astures or mowing-lots, and without biuldings of 
any sort." Its destruction by the British was com- 
plete. The portion about the square was set on 
fire by the shells thrown from Copp's Hill, and the 
easterly part by the marines landed from the " Som- 
erset " in the river. The property loss was set at 
$500,000. Fortunately, the townspeople had aban- 
doned their houses, stores, and workshops and re- 
moved many valuables before the battle. The 
fullest of all the newspaper reports of the burning 
was this brief but vigorous jjaragraph in the " Essex 
Gazette," then published in Cambridge, which has 
been preserved in Hunnewell's " A Century of Town 
Life : " 

" The Town of Charlestown, supposed 
to contain about three hundred dwel- 
ling houses, a great number of which 
were large and elegant, besides one 
hundred and fifty or two hundred other 
buildings, are almost all laid in Ashes by 
the I'.nrliarity and wanton Cruelty of 
that infernal Villain, Thomas Gage." 

And General Burgoyne wrote of the scene from 
Copp's Hill : " Strait before us was a large & noble 
Towne in one great Blaze ; the Chh. Steeples being 
of Timber were great Pyramids of Fire above the 
rest." The recovery of the town from the blow was 
slow, but by the opening of the present century it 
had again become well built up with important 
industries established within its limits. In 1786 
the first bridge to Boston was built, supplanting the 
old ferry. In 1800 the Navy Yard, at Moulton's 
Point, where the British troops had landed for the 
Bunker Hill fight, was established. In 1804-5 the 
State Prison was built. At that time we are told the 
town contained 349 buildings and 2,251 inhabi- 
tants. By 1 8 1 2 the population had about doubled. 
In 1834 it was 10,000, and two years after the 
question of annexation to Boston was first agitated. 
In 1847 the town government was abandoned, and 
Charlestown became a city. 

The movement for the Bunker Hill Momnnenl 
was begun in 1823, when the Monument Association 
was formed. Two years later the corner-stone was 
laid by Lafayette with great ceremony, under the 
direction of the Massachusetts Grand Lodge of 
Masons, and Webster delivered the oration ; but for 
nearly twenty years the work lay unfinished for lack 
of funds. Finally, in 1840, a determined effort was 
made, and through the proceeds of a great fair in 
Faneuil Hall and generous subscriptions, one of the 
last that of Fanny Ellsier, the dancer who had turned 

the heads of all Boston, a sufficient sum was secured ; 
and in 1842 Solomon Willard, the architect, saw the 
completion of his great work. The last stone on 
the apex was raised on July 23 that year, and one 
Edward Carnes, jr., accompanied its ascent, tri- 
umphantly waving an American flag. At the dedi- 
cation there was a vast concourse of people, and 
Webster was again the orator. The obelisk, built of 
courses of granite, is thirty feet square at the base and, 
rising two hundred and twenty feet, is capped by a 
high observatory, the fine view from which is worth 
the cost of the ascent. It is reached from the base 
by a spiral flight of stone steps — somebody who 
has counted them says there are two hundred and 
ninety-five in all — winding around the hollow cone 
within the shaft. The monument marks the lines 
of the old redoubt. A stone standing in the 
grounds near by marks the spot where Warren fell, 
and Story's statue of Prescott, placed in the main 
path, is supposed to be on the spot where he stood 
when encouraging his men at the opening of the 
battle. The marble statue of Warren in the build- 
ing at the base of the monument, with various 
memorials of the battle, is the work of Henry Dex- 
ter, a native artist, and was dedicated on the 
17th of June, 1857. The marble Tuscan pil- 
lar within the monument is an exact reproduc- 
tion of the first memorial to Warren, placed by the 
King Solomon Lodge of Masons of Charlestown, 
on the 2d of December, 1794. 

The Prescott statue was placed in 1881, on the 
17th of June, when Robert C. Winthrop was the 
orator. It is one of the best of our few good portrait 
statues. The pose is spirited and dramatic. The 
night preceding the battle was very hot, and Pres- 
cott, who worked at the digging as hard as his men, 
had thrown off the outside uniform-coat and put 
on a loose seersucker coat and a broad-brimmed 
farmer's hat. It is in this easy and picturesque 
costume, the big hat giving an effective sombrero 
shadow to the face, and the skirts of the loose coat 
almost' sweeping the ground, that the hero is repre- 
sented. " His eager gaze is riveted with intense 
energy on the close approaching foe. With his left 
hand he is hushing and holding back the impetuous 
soldiers under his command who await his word. 
With his right hand he is just ready to lift the sword 
which is to be their signal for action." ' It is the 
moment when he has uttered the memorable words : 
" Don't fire until I tell you. Don't fire until you 
Sir the itihites of their eyes/'' The Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Monument, in Winthrop Square, a short 
walk from Breed's Hill, was placed on June 17, 

1 Winthrop's oration. 



1872, the oration on that occasion delivered by 
Richard Frothingham, the historian of Charlestovvn. 
It stands on the old training-ground of colonial 
days. This is another of Martin Milmore's works, 
and presents a group of three figures on a high 
pedestal — the " tlenius of America " holding 
laurel wreaths above the soldier and sailcjr stand- 
ing on each side. 

The part of Charlestown occupied by the first 

house erected after the "burning of 1775," and 
a remnant of it still stands on Main street. Bunker 
Hill is now crowned by a Catholic church, and at 
the Neck beyond, which was raked by the hot fire 
of the British vessels in the river during the battle 
on Breed's Hill and the American retreat, is now a 
pleasant park. Charlestovvn added to Boston when 
annexed only 586 acres of territory, but it brought 
taxable property valued at $35,289,682. 


settlers is the sijuare and "Town Hill," which rises 
behind the old City Hall, which itself stands on the 
site of the " Great House " of the governor, in 
which the Court of Assistants named Boston. On 
the slope of the hill behind it was the First Church. 
Charlestown is distinguished as having been the 
birthplace of Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of 
the electric telegraph, whose father, Rev. Jedediah 
Morse, was minister of the First Church in the 
town, from 1789 to 1820. The son was born 
April 27, 1 791, in the mansion-house of Thomas 
Edes, whose hospitality Parson Morse's family had 
accepted while the new parsonage on Town Hill 
was building. The Edes mansion was the first 

The Brighton district, until 1805, was a part of 
Cambridge. Then it was a place of farms, with a 
modest cattle-trade. Subsequently it developed into 
the great cattle-mart of New P^ngland, for which it 
became widely known. In 1832 the great Cattle 
Fair Hotel was opened, and on market days the 
scenes within and round about it were animated 
and i)icturesque. For many years the natural 
attractions of the place for dwellings were injured 
by the various slaughtering and rendering houses 
scattered about it. The establishment of the great 
Abattoir on the banks of the Charles in 1873, and 
the proliibition of [irivate slaughtering, changetl all 

1 8 


this, and also revolutionized the cattle trade. The 
Abattoir is subject to regular inspection by officers 
of the Board of Health. It is directly connected 
with the tracks of the Boston & Albany Railroad, 
and the Fitchburg. Brighton also early became 
famous for its fine nurseries and gardens. In 
recent years the district has been greatly improved 
and developed, and to-day some of the finest road- 
ways within the city limits, and many beautiful and 
costly dwellings, are here found. In the region 

Washington AUston, whose home and studio were 
at one time in the near neighborhood — on Maga- 
zine street, Cambridgeport. Brighton added to 
Boston 5,978 people, 2,277 acres of land, and 
taxable property valued at $14,548,531. 


West Roxbury, when annexed, was the most rural 
part of the enlarged city, abounding in charming 
scenery. It had pleasant country roadways and 


about the Chestnut-hill Reservoir, especially, are 
fine estates and charming drives. Not far from 
the Reservoir, on Lake street, is the picturesque 
estate formerly known as " the old Stanwood place," 
which the Catholic authorities of the diocese pur- 
chased in 1880 for their newly organized "St. 
John's Theological Seminary." The present build- 
ing, within the beautiful grounds, was completed in 
1885. A massive structure of stone with brick 
trimmings, rising from a slight eminence, built 
in the Norman style of architecture, with towers 
at the corners, it forms a striking feature of the land- 
scape. The village of Allston, the part of Brighton 
nearest the city proper, has grown with great rapid- 
ity within the last dozen years. It was named for 

grassy bypaths, spacious coimtry-seats with fruit 
and flower gardens, and picturesque villas set in 
well-cultivated grounds. It is yet semi-rural, and 
much of its beauty and charm still remains ; but, 
like its neighbor, old Roxbury, and Dorchester 
beyond, it is growing with great rapidity. Fine 
old estates have been cut up into house lots, 
byways have been transformed into streets, and 
houses are springing up in every direction. Good 
taste, however, is displayed in much of the new 
work, and the district, embracing as it does charm- 
int,' laiii:u( ;i Plain, the grounds of the Bussey Insti- 
tution anil the Arnold Arboretum, Franklin Park 
and many natural attractions, will long continue to 
be one of the fairest parts of picturesque Boston. 



When it was separated from Roxbury, in 1851, five 
years after the old town had become a city, — of 
which change the western section disapproved, — it 
took away about four-fifths of the territory of the 
new municipality. Efforts for the establishment of 
an independent town, however, were begun more 
than a century and a quarter before it was effected : 
immediately after this section was made the Second 
or "Upper" Parish of Roxbury, in 17 12. Of the 
First Church in West Roxbury (now on Centre 
street), which was one of the earliest to fall into 
the Unitarian fold, Theodore Parker was pastor for 
nine years — from 1837 to 1846. His parishioners 
here are described by O. B. Frothingham ' as " a 
small but choice circle of elegant, graceful, culti- 
vated people, used to wealth, accomplished in the 
arts of life, of open hearts, and, better still, of 
human instincts, who lived in such near neighbor- 
hood that a path from Mr. Parker's gate led di- 
rectly to their gardens and welcoming doors." In 
Jamaica Plain used to be the country-seats of 
Governors Bernard, Hancock, and Bowdoin. Gov- 
ernor Bernard's mansion was for a time during the 
early days of the Revolution used as a camp hos- 
pital. The sparkling Jamaica Pond was the first 
piece of water drawn upon for the supply of the 
town of Boston ; pipes of pitch-pine logs were em- 
ployed, and the service was by a private corpora- 
tion chartered in 1795. 

The Bussey Institution, the school of agriculture, 
horticulture, and veterinary science attached to 
Harvard University, is on the noble estate of the 
late Benjamin Bussey, bequeathed by him to the 
university in 1842, together with funds in trust for 
the support of the institution. Being subject to 
life interests, it was not until 1870 that the estate 
passed into the possession of the university. Then 
the picturesque main building was erected and the 
school was opened. Two years after, the Arnold 

• Frothingli.lm's I,ife of Theodore P.irker. 

Arboretum was established in accordance with the 
will of James Arnold, of New Bedford, who left 
one hundred thousand dollars to the university to 
establish here a professorship of tree culture, and 
to create " an arboretum ultimately to contain all 
trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants that can grow 
here in the open air." The entire estate embraces 
360 acres, of which 137 comprise the arboretum, 
and are tastefully laid out with roadways and walks. 
Of the latter portion, the city of Boston in 1881 
acquired 120 acres, and this territory, with about 
44 acres contiguous, is now part of the great chain 
of public parks. 

Within the West Roxbury district was also the 
famous Brook Farm, where early in the forties the 
effort was made by a group of cultivated people, 
led by the late George Ripley, to establish a social- 
istic community. It comprised about two hundred 
acres, part of which was meadow land reaching 
to the Charles River, the brook, which gave it its 
name, coursing through it, and passing near the 
roomy mansion-house pleasantly set upon a knoll. 
For a while Hawthorne was a member of the com- 
munity, and, at one time and another, Margaret 
Fuller, Channing, Charles A. Dana, and John S. 
Dwight were connected with it. The products of 
the farm were in common, the labor was divided 
among the members, and the system of coopera- 
tion was closely followed. But it did not flourish, 
and after a brief existence of half a dozen years it 
quietly expired. Brook Farm is now the " Martin 
Luther Orphan Home." The Forest Hills Ceme- 
tery, just within the limits of the district, embraces 
225 acres of upland and lowland, with thick groves, 
peaceful lakes, and avenues and footpaths over the 
hills and through the glades, its natural beauty en- 
hanced by the skill of the landscape gardener. West 
Roxbury, when it became a part of Boston, brought 
9,000 inhabitants, 7,848 square acres of territory, 
and taxaV)le property valued at $22,148,600. 





ABBOTT, JosiAH Gardner, was. born in Chelms- 
ford, four miles from Lowell, Nov. i, 1814, and 
was a descendant in the seventh generation from 
George Abbott, an English Puritan, who migrated 
to Massachusetts in 1640, and settled in Andover. 
His father, Caleb Abbott, settled in Chelmsford, 
and married Mercy Fletcher, a descendant from 
William Fletcher, an English Puritan, and one of 
the first settlers of Chelmsford in 1653. Both 
of his grandfathers fought under Prescott at the 
battle of Bunker Hill, and held commissions in 
the Continental army. The influences under 
which he was brought up were as good as the 
blood which he inherited. Three excellent teachers 
fitted him for college — Ralph Waldo Emerson, 
Rev. Abiel Abbott, D.D., and Cranmore Wallace. 
He entered Harvard in 1828, and graduated with 
distinction in 1832, being the youngest of his class. 
He studied law first under Joel Adams of Chelms- 
ford, and under Nathaniel Wright, afterwards mayor 
of Lowell, and began practice at Lowell in 1836 
as the copartner of Amos Spaulding. In 1837 he 
served in the House of Representatives, the young- 
est member of that body. In 1838 he married 
Miss Caroline Livermore, one of the daughters of 
Judge Edward St. L. Livermore. In 1840 he edited 
the " Lowell Advertiser, " a Democratic tri-weekly 
journal, which he conducted with ability and good 
taste, never descending to personalities. In 1842 
he formed a copartnership with Samuel A. Brown, 
which lasted until 1855. In 1842 and 1843 he was 
a State senator from Middlesex, in the latter year 
chairman of the committee on the judiciary and also 
of the railroad committee. In 1853 he served as 
a delegate from Lowell in the constitutional con- 
vention, where he advocated making the judiciary 
elective, and making juries judges of law as well 
as of fact in criminal cases. In 1855 he was 
appointed a justice of the Superior Court for the 
County of Suffolk, but in 1858 the larger emolu- 
ments which he knew he could obtain at the bar 
induced him to resign this office and to decline. 

two years later, a place on the supreme bench. 
His salary as judge was only $3,000 a year, but 
during the first year after he left the bench his 
professional income was more than $29,000, and 
at a later period amounted to $36,000. From 
1834 to 1 86 1 Judge Abbott resided in Lowell; 
but in the latter year he removed to Boston, and 
afterwards supplemented his "city home by an 
elegant summer residence at Wellesley Hills. In 
1862 Williams College conferred upon him the 
degree of Doctor of Laws. During the Civil 
War, from the first shot at Sumter to the last 
at Appomattox, he gave his voice, his purse, his 
pen, to the cause of the Union. Three of his ' 
sons rendered distinguished services as officers of 
the Union army, and the memorial window in the 
Memorial Hall of Lowell will remind the Lowell- 
ians of the future that two of them perished in 
the struggle. Captain and Brevet-Major Edward 
G. Abbott fell at Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, 1862 ; 
Major and Brevet-Brigadier Gen. Henry L. Abbott, 
in the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. In 1874 Judge 
Abbott was elected a representative in Congress. 
He served on the special committee which was 
sent to South Carolina to inquire into the alleged 
irregularities attending the presidential election of 
1876 in that State, and prepared that committee's 
report. The bill creating the electoral com- 
mission was introduced without his knowledge and 
during his absence from Washington, and was not 
approved by him. But after it had been proposed 
by the Democrats, accepted by the Republicans, 
and enacted as a law, he felt bound in honor to 
see that its provisions were carried out. The plan 
originally was to give one place on the commission 
to one of the Democratic representatives from 
New York who had been longest in congressional 
life, — Fernando Wood or Samuel S. Cox. Judge 
Abbott was a new member. Friends of his, how- 
ever, without his knowledge, and with the warm 
approval of Speaker Randall, proposed his name 
to the Democratic congressional caucus, and 


carried it through. He was accorded the leader- 
ship of the minority of that commission, and 
opposed the decisions of the majority in the four 
contested States, — Florida, Louisiana, Oregon, and 
South Carolina. The proposed address of the 
minority to the people of the United States, pub- 
lished in the " Magazine of American History," 
February, 1892, was prepared by him at their re- 
quest, and submitted to and approved by them ; 
but, in consequence of doubts being started as to 
the publication of any address at that time, it was 
never signed. Judge Abbott was a delegate to 
seven national Democratic conventions, and in si.\ 
of them was chairman of the Massachusetts delega- 
tion. Outside of the law and of politics he 
participated in many large enterprises, and was 
president or director of various manufacturing, 
railroad, water-power, and other companies. He 
died July 2, 1891. His wife's death occurred in 
1887 ; but six of his children survive him, two of 
whom — Samuel A. B. Abbott and Franklin P. 
Abbott — continue in the practice of law in Boston. 
The focmer of these is also chairman of the board 
of trustees of the Public Library. 

the present time holds, he has gained a wide reputa- 
tion. When he first entered the Newburyport post- 
office, stamps had not been introduced, and route 
agents and the free-delivery system were unknown. 
During his career in the service he has seen all of 
the many improvements that have been made in the 
post-office system. When he came to the Boston 
post-office the entire force consisted of 14 carriers 
and 53 clerks. Some idea of the magnitude of the 
business done at the present time may be gained 
when it is stated that there are now required the 
services of 577 clerks and 518 carriers successfully 
to carry out the work of this department. While 
taking an interest in politics he has studiously 
avoided active participation in political affair^ 
There are but five officials in the Boston post-office^ 
who now outrank Mr. Adams in term of continuous 
service. Mr. Adams was married Aug. 19, 1853, 
to Miss Hannah M. Little. 

Adams, Melvin O., son of Joseph and Dolly 
(Whitney) Adams, both natives of Ashburnham 
and members of old Massachusetts families, was 
born in Ashburnham Nov. 7, 1850. He pre- 

.■\dams, Charles Dav, son of George and Ange- 
lina (Day) Adams, was born in Worcester, Mass., 
July 28, 1850. His ancestry on both sides were 
from L'xbridge and Mendon. His great grand- 
father was Benjamin Adams, a prominent lawyer of 
Worcester county, and member of Congress for sev- 
eral terms. Benjamin, grandson of Josiah of Brain- 
tree, who settled in Mendon in 1735, was sixth in 
descent from Henry .^dams, who came from Eng- 
land in 1634. On the maternal side the Days were 
woollen manufacturers in Uxbridge, and among the 
earliest in the country. Charles D. graduated from 
Harvard in 1873. He studied law with the late 
Oren S. Knapp, and was associated with him in 
practice until his death. He is Republican in poli- 
tics. He resides in Woburn, Mass., where he has 
served on the school committee, is special justice of 
the district court, and the present city solicitor. 

Adams, Henry S., son of Sewall and Sarah 
(Ilsley) Adams, was born in Derry, N.H. His 
education was obtained in the public schools. At 
an early age he entered the post-office in Newbury- 
port, Mass., and there began his long and success- 
ful career in this branch of public service. He 
remained in Newburyport until 1853, when he was 


pared for college in the public schools and at 
Appleton .Academy, New Ipswich, N.H. He 
appointed to a position in the Boston post-office, entered Dartmouth College, and graduated in the 
with which he has since been connected. .As cashier class of 187 i. Then he taught school at Fitchburg, 
of the Boston post-office, the position which he at where he also studied law with the Hon. Aniasa 



Norcross, ex-Congressman from that district. He 
came to Boston in 1874, and continued his law 
studies in the Law School of Boston University, 
from which he graduated in the class of 1875. 
The same year he was admitted to practice. He 
was assistant district attorney for ten years, until 
1886, since which time he has been associated with 
Augustus Russ in the practice of his profession, at 
No. 20 Pemberton square. He is Republican in 
politics, and was on the staff of Governor Brackett, 
with the rank of colonel. He is a member of the 
Union and Unitarian clubs. 

Adams, Waldo, son of Alvin Adams, the founder 
of the Adams Express Company, was born in Boston 
May 23, 1836, and died in this city March 9, 1892. 
He was a descendant of Henry Adams, the ancestor 
of the presidents John and John Quincy Adams, 
who settled in Braintree about the year 1641. His 
mother was a lineal descendant of John Bridge, who 
came to Cambridge in 1632. Mr. Adams was edu- 
cated in Boston public and private schools, leaving 
school at an early age. Between that time and his 
majority he travelled extensively in foreign countries. 
On his return he took a position in his father's office, 
with his elder brother, Alvin Adams, jr. Here he 
learned the business, and after the death of his brother 
he became agent, and subsequently superintendent, 
of the business in Boston. Upon the death of his 
father he had general charge of the business. A few 
years later he was elected a member of the board of 
managers of the company, and was assigned to the 
charge of the New England division, with the title 
of general manager, which position he filled to the 
time of his death. During the Civil War Mr. 
Adams rendered most efficient service, doing hard, 
honest w^ork for his country. After the second bat- 
tle of Bull Run he made up a special train on the 
old Boston & Albany, and accepted all the freight 
for the soldiers in the field, going out himself in 
charge of the train. On the staff of Governor An- 
drew he held the rank of lieutenant-colonel. With 
William P. Lee and Charles H. Dalton, he was 
appointed assistant quartermaster-general, serving 
gratuitously in that position. He made it his busi- 
ness to see that the stores and materials which he 
carried South reached the hands for which they 
were intended. One of his chief characteristics was 
his benevolence. He did much good, and strove 
to help the poor in unostentatious ways. The an- 
nual Thanksgiving dinners in Faneuil Hall were 
given in large part through his generosity. He was 
a member of the Algonquin and Country clubs, of 
the Boston Athletic Association, and of the Ancient 

and Honorable Artillery Company. Mr. Adams 
was married on June 2, 1S57, to Miss Isabella H. 
Burnham, daughter of the late Walter Burnham, 
M.D., of Lowell, Mass., who survives him. 

Aldrich, Henry O., the senior surviving partner 
of the extensive grocery house of Cobb, Aldrich, & 
Co., son of Lyman and Dorothy (Baker) Aldrich, 
was born in Guilford, Vt., in the vear 18^2. 



His parents were both honored residents of that 
town. When he was a little more than six years of 
age his father died, leaving his mother with a family 
of young children, the farm, and other property to 
look after. With that independent spirit so charac- 
teristic of him, he resolved that he would take care 
of himself, and to that extent relieve his mother's 
burdens. He spent his boyhood in his native town, 
and was a diligent student in the local schools, in 
which he gained his education. When about twenty 
years of age he left .the high school where he was 
then studying, and, coming to Boston, entered the 
employ of C. D. Cobb & Bros. Here he remained 
for about five years, when he left to engage in busi- 
ness for himself. Eight or nine years after he sold 
out, and, returning to Boston, entered into an equal 
partnership with his former employers, being associ- 
ated directly with the late Henry E. Cobb in two 
stores in the city. At the end of three years, at the 


request of C. D. Cobb, Mr. Aldrich, with H. E. 
Cobb, came to the Washington-street store, and took 
an equal interest in that and all its branches. He 
has remained with the house ever since, and has 
been a most important factor in bringing the busi- 
ness to its present proportions. Mr. Aldrich is a 
valued member of the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce. He is connected with the Masonic order, 
the Knights of Honor, and other societies. He is a 
man of strictly temperate habits, of keen business 
foresight, tireless energy and perseverance. In 
1855 Mr. Aldrich was married to Miss Betsey A. 
Phelps ; they have had four sons, of whom three 
are now living and occupying positions of honor 
and trust. 

Aldrich, Samuel Nelson, son of Sylvanus Bucklin 
and Lucy Jane (Stoddard) Aldrich, was born in 
Upton, Mass., Feb. 3, 1838. He was educated in 
the Worcester and Southington, Conn., academies, 
and at Brown University. After graduation he 
taught school for a while in Upton, Holliston, and 
Worcester, and then began the study of law with 
Isaac Davis and E. B. Stoddard, of Worcester, fin- 
ishing in the Harvard Law School. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1863, and opened his first office 
in Marlborough. In 1874 he moved his business 
to Boston, retaining his residence in Marlborough, 
however, living in the city during the winter 
months. In Marlborough he was for nine years a 
member of the school committee, and four years 
chairman of the board of selectmen ; he has been a 
director of the People's National Bank, president of 
the Marlborough board of trade, and president of 
the old Framingham & Lowell Railroad ; and he is 
now president of the Massachusetts Central Rail- 
road. He was a member of the State senate of 
1879 and 1880, serving the first term on the com- 
mittees on taxation (chairman), on constitutional 
amendments, and on bills in the third reading ; and 
second term on the committee on the judiciary ; 
and in 1883 he was a member of the House, serving 
again on the committee on the judiciary. In 1880 
he was the Democratic candidate for Congress in 
the old Seventh District. In March, 1887, he was 
appointed by President Cleveland assistant treasurer 
of the United States in Boston, which position he 
held until Jan. 15, 1891, when he was succeeded 
by M. P. Kennard, appointed by President Harri- 
son. On Dec. 15, 1890, he was elected president 
of the State National Bank. Mr. Aldrich was 
married in 1865, at Upton, to Miss Mary J., 
daughter of J. T. Macfarland. They have one son : 
Harry M. Aldrich. 

Alger, Alpheus B., son of Edwin A. and 
Amanda (Buswell) Alger, was born in Lowell, 
Mass., Oct. 8, 1854. He was educated in the 
Lowell public schools and at Harvard, from which 
he graduated in the class of 1875. I'he same year 
he entered the Harvard Law School, and a year 
later continued his law studies in the Boston office 
of Judge Josiah G. Abbott. In 1877 he was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and began practice vnth his 
father's firm, Brown & Alger, in Boston, making his 
residence in Cambridge. He early became promi- 
nent in politics, and has held the positions of chair- 
man and secretary of the Democratic city commit- 
tee, serving also on the congressional committee. 
In 1884 he was a member of the Cambridge board 
of aldermen; in 1886 and 1887 a member of the 
State senate, serving on the committees on mer- 
cantile affairs (chairman), public service, the judi- 
ciary, liquor law, rules, expediting legislative 
business, and bills in the third reading ; and he is 
now (1892) mayor of Cambridge, serving his 
second term. He is secretary and treasurer of the 
Bay State Club (Democratic dining-club), a mem- 
ber of the Middlesex County Democratic Club, and 
of the Newtowne and Central Clubs of Cambridge. 
He is also a prominent Mason, a member of the 
Amicable Lodge, Cambridge Chapter, and of the 
Boston Commandery, and he has held offices in 
the St. Omer Lodge, Knights of Pythias, and Pone- 
mah Tribe of the Improved Order of Red Men. 

Alger, Edwin Alden, son of David -Mger, of 
Milton, Vt., and Sarah (Morse) Alger, of Methuen, 
Mass., was born in Cornish, N.H., June 20, 1820. 
He traces his ancestry on the paternal side to 
Thomas Alger, who settled in Bridgewater, Mass., 
in 1665, to which common ancestor Cyrus Alger, the 
noted iron-founder of South Boston, the Rev. Wm. 
R. Alger and Horatio Alger, literary men of note, 
trace their descent ; and on the maternal side to 
Anthony Morse, who settled in Newbury, Mass., in 
1632, one of seven brothers of that name. His 
education was pursued in the public schools at Can- 
ton, Mass., and the Dracut, Mass., academy. For 
several years he was connected with the " Vox Pop- 
uli," of Lowell. He studied law in the office of 
Alpheus R. Brown at Lowell, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1845. Shortly after he formed a part- 
nership with Mr. Brown, under the firm name of 
Brown & Alger. The firm continued to practise 
law in Lowell and Boston until 1872, when they 
discontinued their Lowell office, and confined their 
business to their Boston office. The firm of Brown 
i& Alger existed for more than forty years, one of 



the best-known in Boston, continuing until the re- 
tirement from active practice of the senior mem- 
ber, Mr. Brown, two years prior to his death, which 
occurred in November, 1889. Mr. .-Mger is now 


engaged in the practice of his profession at No. 23 
Court street, Boston. During his residence in 
Lowell he served for three years as an alderman of 
the city. He removed from Lowell with his family 
in the spring of 1872, to Cambridge, Mass., where 
he now resides. He has been an active and life- 
long Democrat, and has been interested in advanc- 
ing the interests of the Universalist denomination, 
to which religious faith he has been strongly at- 
tached. He is a member of the Boston Bar Asso- 
ciation and of the Law Library. Mr. Alger was 
married to Miss Amanda M. Buswell, at Hartland, 
Vt., in 1844. Of their nine children, eight are 
now living. 

Allen, Fr.ank Dewey, son of Charles Francis 
and Olive Ely (Dewey) Allen, was born in Wor- 
cester, Mass., Aug. 16, 1850. He was educated 
in the Worcester schools and at Yale College, from 
which he graduated in 1873. Then he studied in 
the Boston University Law School, graduating in 
1875, and in the law offices of Hillard, Hyde, & 
Dickinson. There he was managing clerk until 
1878, when he was admitted to the Suffolk bar, 
and, opening an office for himself in Boston, began 

practice. In April, 1890, he was appointed United 
States district attorney, which position he still 
holds. Becoming a resident of Lynn when in the 
office of Hillard, Hyde, & Dickinson, he was 
elected from that city to the lower house of the 
Legislature in 1881 and 1882, in which he took 
a leading position, serving on the committees on 
the judiciary, banks and banking, and congressional 
redistricting, and on the special committee on the 
removal of Judge Day. In 1884, 1885, and 1886 
he was a member of the Republican State com- 
mittee from the First Essex Senatorial District, serv- 
ing on its executive committee ; and in 1886, 1887, 
and 1888 he was a member of the governor's 
council. He organized the Lynn Electric-lighting 
Company and is one of its directors. Mr. Allen 


was married in Lynn, on Jan. 9, 1878, to Miss 
Lucy, daughter of Trevett M. Rhodes. 

Allen, Gardner Weld, M.D., was born in Bangor, 
Me., Jan. 19, 1856. He was educated in the 
common schools, and graduated from Harvard in 
the class of 1877, with the degree of A.B. He 
entered the Harvard Medical School two years 
later, receiving the degree of M.D. in 1882. He 
was house officer at the Rhode Island Hospital 
one year, and then went abroad, studying his pro- 
fession in Germany. In 1884 he returned to 


\W ^1 

(_yVC4^''~^<r- ^-%'> 




Boston and began the practice of his profession. 
He is surgeon in the genito-urinary department 
of the Boston Dispensary, a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, the Boston Society for 
Medical Improvement, and the Medical Library 

Allen, Stillman Boyd, son of Horace O. and 
Elizabeth Allen, was born in Waterboroiigh, Me., 
Sept. 8, 1830; died in Boston June 9, 1891. He 
received his early education in the academies at 
North Yarmouth, Kennebunk, and Alfred, Me. 
In September, 1853, he was admitted to the bar, 
and practised law in Maine tmtil May, 1861, when 
he removed to Boston, and two years later became 
associated with John 1). Long, who subsequently 
retired from the firm, upon his election as governor 
of the State. At the time of his death, Mr. Allen 
was senior member of the law firm of Allen, Long, 
& Hemmenway (Governor Long since his retire- 
ment from congressional life having resumed his 
former relations). Mr. Allen was largely engaged 
in jury trials, and had the reputation of winning 
for his clients the largest verdicts against railroads 
and other corporations ever rendered in this coun- 
try. Mr. Allen was married at Kittery, Me., Sept. 
7, 1854, to Harriet S., daughter of Joseph and 
Mary Seaward. Their children are : Willis Boyd 
Allen, who was a partner in his father's firm for 
six years and has since been engaged in literary 
pursuits, and Marion Boyd Allen. In 1876-77 
Mr. Allen represented Boston in the House of 
Representatives, serving the first year upon the 
committee on the judiciary. The next year he was 
chairman of the committee on probate and chan- 
cery. In 1877 he conducted an examination made 
by the Legislature into alleged abuses existing in 
the State Reform School, which resulted in an 
entire change in the management of that institu- 
tion. During the last year of his life he was a 
member of the school committee of Boston. 
For three years he was president of the Mercan- 
tile Library Association of Boston. He was prom- 
inent in Odd Fellowship and Masonry. Up to the 
date of his last illness he was engaged in a most 
successful practice of law, where he attained dis- 
tinction among the foremost men of the profession 
in the State. The cause of his client he made his 
own, espousing it with all the energy of his nature ; 
and it has been said of him that " he swayed the 
minds of juries by his earnestness, his sincerity, 
and his power to enlist their sympathies. But in 
all his strifes and successes he preser\ed his native 
simplicity and genuineness of character." 

Allen, Walter B., was born in Worcester, Mass., 
Sc])t. 8, 1 86 1. He was educated there in the 
grammar and high schools, and then spent two 
years in the Worcester Technical School. After 
this he served two years in an architect's office, 
and, coming to Boston in 1880, went under the 
instruction of Arthur Noble in complete house- 
decorating and frescoing. While with Mr. Noble 
he learned all manner of designing, glass-work, 
and the interior finishing of fine residences. He 
began buNincss for hiniNclf in 1886, with his brother. 
After the <Kath nf tlic latter, in 1888, he formed 
a partnership with i:verctt H. Hall, Oct. i, 1888, 
starting with small capital and one boy, at $2.50 per 
week, as helper. The business prospered, and in 
1 89 1 the firm of Allen, Hall, & Co., had seven show- 
rooms at No. 88 Boylston street, and three work- 
rooms outside, and employed forty to sixty expert 
workmen and artists. The thorough training which 
Mr. Allen received when with Mr. Noble, in con- 
nection with Mr. Hall's drapery and furniture work, 
has so developed the business that the making of 
contracts for complete interiors is now the specialty 
of the firm. Much of their work is to be seen in 
the Back Bay district and throughout New Eng- 
land — among other notable examples of it, in a 
fine house completed in 1891 for Manchester 
Haynes in Augusta, Me., and in Mrs. Ole 
Bull's house in Cambridge, the decoration of 
the noted music-room of which is entirely their 
work. Mr. Allen was married April 30, 1889, to 
Miss Helen P., daughter of Re\-. Theron Brown, of 
Norwood, and resides in Newtonville. 

Amerige, C. Wardwell, son of Francis and Be- 
linda (Burrill) Amerige, was born in Cliftondale, 
Mass., May 27, 1855. His early education was 
obtained in the schools of SaugiLS. In 1883 he 
entered the medical college in Buffalo, N.Y., and 
pursued the four years' course, graduating with 
honors, taking the degree of Ph.G., M.D., in 
1887. He has since steadily practised his pro- 
fession, the larger part of the time in Boston. His 
specialty is the treatment of ner\-ous diseases and 
the cure of the insane, and ho was the originator of 
the " Massasoit Remedies." 

Ames, Oliver, son of Oakes and Eveline (Gil- 
more) Ames, was born in Easton,, Feb. 4, 
1 83 1. He was educated in the public schools of 
his native town, and, fitted for college in the acad- 
emies of North Attleborough and Leicester, took 
a special course at Brown I'nivcrsity. He began 
business life as an employee in the shovel works of 



Oliver Ames & Sons, and, after a thorough training 
there, went on the road as travelling agent of the 
concern. Subsequently he became an active mem- 
ber of the firm. In his town he has served on the 
school board twelve years ; he has served in the 
State senate two terms (1880 and 1881); four 
years he was lieutenant-governor of the Common- 
wealth (1883-86), and three years governor (1887- 
89). He has also served in the Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia, as second lieutenant, adjutant, 
major, and lieutenant-colonel. For many years he 
has been president and director of various railroad, 
manufacturing, and mining corporations and bank- 
ing institutions. He is a member of a number of 
benevolent societies and of the leading Boston 
clubs. On March 14, i860, he was married, in 
Nantucket, to Miss Anna Coffin, daughter of 
Obed and Anna W. Ray, and adopted daughter 
of William Hadwen, of the island town. They 
have six children : William Ha'dwen, Evelyn, Anna 
Lee, Susan Evelyn, Lilian, and Oakes Ames. 
Governor Ames's summer seat is in Easton 
and his winter residence on Commonwealth 

Anderson, Elbridge Roberts, son of Galusha 
and Mary E. (Roberts) Anderson, was born in 
St. Louis, Mo., Sept. 12, 1864. His father was 
president of the Chicago University, afterwards 
senior professor of the Newton (Mass.) Theo- 
logical Seminary, and is now connected with the 
theological department of the new university of 
Chicago. Elbridge R. was educated in schools of 
Newton and Chicago, and the University of the 
City of Chicago, where he took a course in the 
law department, graduating from the institution in 
1885. At seventeen he left home, and has made 
his own way since ; and at nineteen tried his first 
law-case. In 1881, when he started out for him- 
self, he went to New Mexico and " roughed it " 
for a while. Then he returned to Chicago, and 
further pursued his studies. Then he attended the 
Colorado State School of Mines at Golden City, 
and received commission as assayer in the State. 
Then he began the practice of law in Chicago. 
That was in 1883. Two years later he came East, 
and was admitted to the Massachusetts bar. He 
was first connected with Ives & Brigham in Salem, 
and then with Stearns & Butler in Boston. Here 
he remained about sixteen months, after which he 
practised alone until November, 1889, when he 
formed a partnership with Charles W. Buder and 
Clinton Gage. Mr. Gage retired from the firm 
in January, 1891, and it has since been Butler 

& Anderson. On May 15, 1889, Mr. Anderson 
married Miss Elizabeth Dodge Harris, daughter 
of Israel Putnam Harris, of Salem ; they have 
one child : Mary Frances. 

Andrews, Augustus, son of William A. and Maria 
B. (Brown), both natives of New Hampshire, 
was born in Freedom, N.H., June 19, 1852. Early 
moving to Boston, he was educated in the public 
schools here and the Boston College. In 1873 
he was admitted to the Suffolk bar, and has been 
engaged in general law-practice ever since. He 
was a member of the Boston school board in 1875. 
In politics Mr. Andrews is a Democrat. He is a 
member of the First Corps of Cadets, the Royal Ar- 
canum, and the Knights of Honor. He was married 
in 1878, and has three children. 

Andrews, Robert Robbins, of Cambridge, was 
born in Boston Aug. 7, 1844, and received his 
early education in the public schools of this city. 
He studied dentistry with the late Dr. R. L. Rob- 
bins, of Boston, and graduated from the Boston 
Dental College in 1875, receiving the degree of 
D.D.S. For seven years he was professor of dental 
histology and microscopy in the Boston Dental Col- 
lege, and at present is one of its board of directors. 
During the Civil War he served as private in the 
Forty-second Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, 
as sergeant in the Forty-seventh Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers, later in the Sixtieth Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers as lieutenant, acting first as 
quartermaster of the regiment and then as 
its adjutant. Dr. Andrews is a member of 
many societies, among them being the Massa- 
chusetts Dental Society, the New England Dental 
Society, the Connecticut Valley Dental Society, 
the American Academy of Dental Science, the 
Boston Society of Dental Improvement, and the 
New York First District and the New York Odonto- 
logical Society. He has been president of the 
New England and the Connecticut Valley Dental 
Societies, and is now president of the Massachusetts 
Dental Society. He is also a member of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association; was honorary secretary 
of his section from America to the Tenth Interna- 
tional Medical Congress, held at Berlin in 1890; 
and is corresponding member of many societies in 
Europe. Dr. Andrews is an eminent microscopist, 
and has written valuable essays on dental histology, 
read before the ninth and tenth International 
Medical Congresses, the American Medical Associa- 
tion, and before various State dental and other 


Andrews, William H. H., son of Charles, native of Quincy, Mass. He was a member of John A. 
of Essex, and Dolly (Bradstreet) Andrews, native Andrew Post 15, G.A.R., also of the Massachusetts 
of Rockport, Mass., was born at Pleasant Ridge, Commandery Military Order Loyal Legion. Mr. 

.Andrews married Elizabeth Wood, of Philadelphia, 
Oct. 22, 1873, and three of their children are 
now living, — Thomas W., Isabella J., and Elizabeth 
A. Andrews. 

Angell, George Thorndvke, was born in South- 
bridge, Mass., in 1823. He was an only child, and 
his father. Rev. George Angell, a Baptist clergyman, 
died when he was but three years old. His mother, 
the youngest daughter of Paul Thorndyke, of Tewks- 
bury, supported her little family by teaching school. 
For some years she was teacher of a girls' seminary 
in Salem. Mr. Angell first came to Boston when a 
lad of fourteen, and went to work in a dry-goods shop 
in Hanover street. Here he remained for two or 
three years, and was then sent to an academy in 
Meriden, N.H., to be fitted for college. He first 
entered Brown LTniversity, in the autumn of 1842 ; 
but finding the expenses there higher than he could 
afford, after a year's study he left Providence and 
went up to Hanover, N.H., entering Dartmouth. 
There he graduated in 1846. He then returned to 
Boston, and for three years taught school and studied 
law. The first year he read in the office of Judge 

Me., May 10, 1839 ; died in Philadelphia .\pril 
20, 1892. Fitted for college at Hampden .'\cad- 
emy and the Maine State Seminary, he entered 
Bowdoin in 1861. The following year, on August 8, 
he joined the army as a private in the Eleventh In- 
fantry Maine Volunteers. On the ist of March, 1864, 
he was commissioned first lieutenant and regimen- 
tal quartermaster. .Afterwards he served as act- 
ing adjutant-quartermaster on Gen. R. S. Foster's 
staff, as acting adjutant of his regiment, as post quar- 
termaster at Fredericksburg, Va., as post quarter- 
master, commissary of subsistence, and ordnance 
officer at Warrenton, Va., and was commissioned 
captain Company A, Eleventh Regiment Maine 
Volunteers, Oct. 30, 1865. In 1867 Mr. Andrews 
came to Boston and entered the law office of Charles 
Levi Woodbury and M. E. Ingalls. In 1868 he 
was admitted to the Suffolk bar and succeeded M. 
E. Ingalls (now president of the Big " 4 " railroad 
system) in the practice of the law, associated with 
Mr. Woodbury until 1890. In politics Mr. Andrews 
was a Republican. He has been a member and the 
secretary of the school committee of Hyde Park 
for six years. From 1885 to 1886 he was manager of 
the " Boston Post." He was subsequently president 
and treasurer of the O. T. Rogers Granite ("omiianv 


Richard Fletcher, who was a cousin o 
and thereafter in the office of Charle 

his mother, 
Ci. Loring 


studying also at the Han'ard Law School. In 1851 
he was admitted to the bar, and entered the office 
of Samuel E. Sewall, with whom he subsequently 
formed a copartnership which continued for fourteen 
years. Mr. Angell early became interested in the 
cause of animals, and in 1864 he provided, by will, 
for the use of a considerable portion of his property, 
after his death, in " circulating in schools, Sunday- 
schools, and elsewhere " information calculated 
to prevent cruelty to them. But his attention was 
most sharply directed to the subject of the need of 
organization for their protection by the beginning 
of Henry Bergh's work in New York, and by several 
cases of cruelty which had come under his own ob- 
servation; and early in 1868 he led actively in the 
formation of the Massachusetts Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Animals. At that time he was 
enjoying a large and lucrative practice, but he sub- 
stantially abandoned his profession and devoted his 
energies and the greater part of his time to his phil- 
anthropic work. The society was incorporated in 
March, 1868, and among its most active founders 
was Mrs. William G. Appleton, who ardently sup- 
ported Mr. Angell's work from the beginning. 
Through his energetic efforts from one thousand two 
hundred to one thousand six hundred members and 
patrons were secured for the society within a few 
months after its incorporation ; a new law was 
enacted ; the monthly publication, " Our Dumb 
Animals," the first paper of its kind in the world, 
was started, its first edition of two hundred thousand 
copies ; and prosecuting agents set to work in town 
and city. In 1869 Mr. Angell went abroad and 
further advanced the cause in the old country. In 
London he addressed the Royal Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cruelty to Animals, urging them to start 
a paper similar to " Our Dumb Animals " (which 
they subsequently did), and to spend their money 
widely in humane education ; and he also enlisted 
the warm sympathies of Madam — afterwards the 
Baroness — Burdett-Coutts in this work. Late in the 
season he attended — the only delegate from America 
— the World's International Congress of S.P.C.A. 
Societies at Zurich. Soon after his return from his 
European travels in 1870, Mr. Angell went to Chi- 
cago and took a leading hand in the formation of 
the Illinois Humane Society. During the next 
ten years he lectured in many cities, assisted in the 
formation of other societies, and instituted many 
reforms. In 1882 the first "American Band of 
Mercy " was formed in his Boston office, and in 
1884 three thousand four hundred and three bands 
established in different parts of the country were 
reported. In 18S9 he organized a continental 

society for the definite purpose of forming humane 
societies, bands of mercy, and spreading humane 
instruction over the continent. In 1872 Mr. Angell 
was married to Eliza A. Martin, of Nahant. 

Apollonio, Nicholas Aless.^ndro, was born in 
Stonington, Conn., March 10, 1815 ; died in Bos- 
ton Oct. 30, 1 89 1. When he was a boy his parents 
moved to New York city, where at the age of fifteen 
he entered the office of the "New York .Albion," 
and later, under the cognomen of " Seebright," he 
contributed to the " Spirit of the Times." In 1845 
he came to Boston and edited the " Youth's 
Guide." He became identified with the Free Soil 
party, and was a member of its city committee from 
1848 to 1854. In the latter year he was a candi- 
date for the office of city registrar, and was elected 
by the concurrent vote of the city council, and this 
position he retained until his death, a period of 
nearly forty years. During that time by persistent 
efforts he succeeded in securing what is now recog- 
nized as one of the most efficient registration sys- 
tems in this country. His administration of the 
duties of his office stands as a monument to his 
memory ; and if other proof were wanted the fact 
that he retained his office during the many political 
changes would be sufficient guarantee of his effi- 
ciency. He was prominently identified with the 
Masonic orders, and was a member of the following 
lodges : St. John's, St. Paul's, Adelphi, and St. 
Matthew's Chapter. He had taken the thirty-second 
degree, was junior warden of De Molay Com- 
mandery, and past grand commander of St. Omei 
Commandery. Mr. Apollonio was a man of pro- 
nounced character, and his genial qualities made 
him many friends. He took a broad view of hu- 
manity, and his position afforded frequent opportu- 
nities of doing kindly acts which he loved to do. 
He was married first to Miss Sarah Gibbs, Oct. 29, 
1840; and second, on May 20, 1869, to Caroline 
A. Drowne, daughter of the Hon. Daniel P. Drowne, 
of Portsmouth, N.H. His children were : Lydia A., 
Nicholas T., S.imuel T., Spencer M., and Thornton 
D. .\pollonio. 

Armstrong, George W., born in Boston Aug. 11, 
1836, is a direct descendant of Charles Robert 
Armstrong, one of the original Scotch settlers of 
Londonderry, N.H., whose ancestors were of the 
Scottish lowland clan ."Armstrong, dwelling near the 
English border on the " Debatable Land ; " his fore- 
fothers emigrated from Scotland to the north of 
Ireland, whence he came to America. The father 
of George W. was David Armstrong, born in Wind- 

C/ C^^/7^y77-}t)^ ^^^ 



ham, N.H., and his mother was Mahalia (Lovering) 
Armstrong, a descendant of Governor Edward Wins- 
low. He was educated in the Boston public schools, 
and is one of the old " Hawes School bovs." In 
his fourteenth year he was obliged, by the severe 
illness of his father, to leave school, and was soon 
thrown upon his own resources. His first work was 
that of a penny-postman, and his district was the 
whole of South Boston. He was next employed on 
the " South Boston Gazette," the " Sunday News," 
and as a newsboy in State street. In the autumn of 
185 I his father died. In March the fallowing year 
he became a newsboy on the Boston & Albany Rail- 
road, and at this work he was employed for nine 
years. Afterwards, for several months, he was en- 
gaged on the railroad in various positions, as brake- 
man, as baggage-master, as sleeping-car conductor, 
and as conductor on tlie regular trains. Then he- 
left the employ of the company and became man- 
ager of the news business on the road. Three years 
later he became half-owner of the restaurant and 
newsroom in the Boston & Albany ^station, and in 
187 1 the sole proprietor. In 1865 he purchased 
King's baggage-express and organized the " Arm- 
strong Transfer," adding passenger carriages. In 
1882, with the cooperation of Edward .A. Taft, he 
organized the "Armstrong Transfer Company," be- 
coming its president, with Mr. Taft as general man 
ager. In 1869 he purchased the news business of 
the Fitchburg Railroad, and in 1877 extended it 
over the entire Hoosac Tunnel line. In 1875 he- 
extended his restaurant anil news business over the 
Eastern Railroad, and became owner of the restau- 
rants and newsrooms in the Boston station and 
along the line at Portsmouth, Wolfborough Junction, 
and Portland, .^t the same time he owned the res- 
taurants and newsrooms on the Boston & Albany 
line at South Framingham, Palmer, Springfield, and 
Pittsfield. His newsboys are upon all the trains. 
At present (1892) he is the proprietor of the dining 
and news rooms on the Boston & Albany, the Bos- 
ton & Maine, the Fitchburg, and the Old Colony 
systems. Mr. Armstrong was married Dec. 10, 1868, 
to Miss Louise Marston, of Bridgewater, N.H., who 
died on Feb. 17, 1880. His present wife is Flora 
E., daughter of Dr. Reuben (jreene, of Boston, to 
whom he was married on June 7, 1884. His chil- 
dren are Mabelle, Ethel, and George Robert Arm- 
strong. His home is in Hrookline. 

AspiNWALL, WiLLUM, only son of Colonel Thomas 
Aspinwall, who was United States consul at London, 
Eng., from 1815 to 1853, was born in London 
Feb. 16, 1S19. His grandfather was Dr. Wil- 

liam .Aspinwall, of Brookline, a patriot of Revolu- 
tionary days, who took a part with the Brookline 
minute-men in attacking the British troops on 
their retreat from Concord on the memorable 19th 
of April, 1775. His great-grandfather was Isaac 
Gardner, the only Brookline minute-man who was 
killed on that day. He is a direct descendant 
of Peter Aspinwall, of Toxteth Park, near Liver- 


pool, who came to America in 1630, settled in 
Dorchester, and in 1650 removed to Muddy River 
(Brookline). Here ten years later he built the 
house which stood on Aspinwall avenue opposite 
St. Paul's Church until 1891, when it was taken 
down, as it had become uninhabitable and in a 
dangerous condition. William Aspinwall was edu- 
cated in a private boarding-school at Hammersmith, 
near London, until he was fourteen, and then com- 
inj; to the Lnited States with his father and family, 
entered Harvard in 1834 and graduated in 183S. 
He began the study of law in Cambridge, imder 
Professors Joseph Story and Simon Greenleaf, in 
1840, receiving the degree of LL.B., and continued 
his studies another year in the office of Franklin 
Dexter and George W. Phillips, when he was ad- 
mitted to the bar. From that time to the jjresent 
he has been engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession. Since 1847 he has been a legal resident 
of Brookline, and has taken an active jiart in its 
affairs as well as in State and national riolitics. I'Vom 



1850 to 1852 he was town clerk ; in 1851 and 1852 
he represented the town in the lower house of the 
Legislature: in 1853 in the constitutional conven- 
tion; in 1854 he was a State senator from Norfolk 
county; and from 1857 to i860 he was trial 
justice for Brookline, finally resigning this position. 
He has also held the offices of selectman, assessor, 
water commissioner, and trustee of the Public 
Library (now chairman of the latter board). In 
national politics he was a Whig of the Webster 
order until 1861. From 1852 to 1856 he was a 
member of the Whig State committee: in 1856, 
in the Fremont campaign, its chairman, with Fred- 
erick O. Prince as secretary and Peter Butler as 
treasurer. From 1861 to the present time he has 
acted with the Democratic party, serving for many 
years (until 1888, when he resigned) upon its State 
central committee, and as chairman from 1872 to 
the election of Governor Gaston in 1874. In 
1866 he receixed the nomination of his party 
for Congress. He was an ardent supporter of the 
government during the Civil War, and called the 
first meeting in Brookline to urge its vigorous pros- 
ecution. He served two years on the military 
committee of the town, and was at the same time 
secretary of the Massachusetts Rifle Club, at whose 
headquarters in the old Boylston Hall in Boston 
several regiments were recruited and drilled. In 
January, 1848, Mr. Aspinwall was married to Miss 
Arixene Southgate, daughter of Richard King 
Porter, of Portland, Me., a nephew of Senator Ru- 
fus King ; they have three children living ; a 
daughter, now the wife of Dr. W. B. Trull, and two 
sons, Thomas and William Henry Aspinwall, both 
in business in Boston. 

Atkin.son, Byron A., was born in Sackville, N.B., 
Sept. 18, 1852. He attended Mt. Allison Wes- 
leyan Academy, and when fourteen years of age 
went to sea, following that vocation for five years, 
visiting all parts of the world and meeting with 
many startling adventures. In 1870 he came to 
Boston and entered the employment of S. A. 
Woods, machinist. Here he remained two years 
and then established the firm of Miller & Atkin- 
son, repairers of furniture. In June, 1873, he 
established the firm of B. A. Atkinson, which has 
grown to be the largest enterprise of its kind in 
New England. This has been brought about solely 
through the perseverance and ability of Mr Atkin- 
son. His warerooras to-day cover an area of over 
ten acres, and the volume of business is over one 
million five hundred thousand dollars per annum. 
Mr. Atkinson was married Nov. 13, 1878, to Miss 

.Annie N., daughter of Robert Farnsworth : they 
have four children, and at present reside in 

Atwoou, Harrison Henry, architect, son of 
Peter Clark and Helen Marion (Aldrich) Atwood, 
was born in North Londonderry, Vt., Aug. 

26, 1863. He obtained his school training in the 
public schools of the Charlestown district and Bos- 
ton proper. For some time after leaving school 
he was in the law office of Godfrey Morse and 
John R. BuUard. Then he studied architecture 
with S. J. F. Thayer for four years, and for a year 
or more was with George A. Clough, formerly city 
architect. After practising his profession in the 
city for some time, in May, 1889, he was appointed 
city architect, and -served in this position during 
Mayor Hart's administration of two years. While 
city architect he completed the legacies in the' way 
of unfinished public buildings left by former admin- 
istrations, namely, the Horace Mann School for 
Deaf Mutes, the South Boston G<-ammar School, 
the Roxbury High School, and several minor build- 
ings : and the new work laid out, completed, or 
under contract during his term of office comprises 
four of the finest public schools in New England, 
namely, the Henry L. Pierce Grammar School, 
Dorchester, the Prince Primary School, Cumber- 
land and St. Botolph streets, the Bowditch Grammar 



School, Jamaica Plain, and the Adams Primary 
School, East Boston. All of these were placed in 
one single contract — a method of doing the public 
u(irk never before adopted by the Architect De- 
partment. Beside these beautiful school-buildings, 
there should be mentioned the four or five engine- 
houses erected for the Fire Department in East 
Boston, Jamaica Plain, South Boston, Brighton, and 
the city proper. Much work was also accomplished 
during these two years for the Police, Water, Sewer, 
and Park Departments, the sum total reaching over 
a million dollars. Mr. Atwood was a member of 
the lower house of the Legislature from the 
Eighth Suffolk District for three years, from 1887 
to 1889 inclusive, and during his service he was 
on the committees on State House, liquor law, 
mercantile affairs, and cities. He was first alter- 
nite delegate from the Fourth Congressional Dis- 
trict to the National Republican Convention at 
Chicago in 1888. He has been a member of the 
Republican ward and city committee since 1884, 
serving as its secretary for four years, and was for 
two years a member of the Republican State central 
committee. He is a member of St. John's Lodge, 
F. and A.M., St. Paul Chapter, Boston Commandery, 
and is also a prominent Odd Fellow. Mr. Atwood 
was married in Boston Sept. 11, 1889, to Clara, 
eldest daughter of John August and Sophie Jo- 
hann (Kupfer) Stein; they have one son, Harrison 
Henry, jr. 

AvERV, Edward, son of General Samuel and 
Mary A. W. (Candler) Avery, was born in Marble- 
head, Mass., March 12, 1828. His father was a 
native of \'ermont, and ser\ed in the War of 
181 2; subsequently settling in Marblehead, he 
commanded the local brigade of militia for fifteen 
years, served many years as a selectman of the 
town, and represented it in the General Court. 
His mother was a daughter of Captain John 
Candler, of English descent. The branch of the 
family with which Edward Avery is connected is 
descended from Samuel .■Xvery, a civil engineer, who 
received a grant of land in Vermont embracing the 
tracts known as Avery's (iores. Edward Avery ob- 
tained his early education in the Marblehead schools, 
finishing in Brooks's classical school in Boston. 
He studied law in the office of F. W. Choate and 
in the Harvard Law School. Admitted to the bar 
in April, 1849, he began practice in the town of 
Barre, Mass. There he remained only until the 
winter of 1S50-51, when he removed to Boston. 
He has since practised continually in this city, 
the 'greater i)art of the time in association with 

George M. Hobbs, under the firm name of Avery 
& Hobbs, and has attained a leading position in his 
profession. In politics Mr. Avery has always been 
a Democrat, and for years has held a prominent 
position in his party. Since 1851, with the excep- 
tion of a few years, he has been a member of the 
Democratic State committee, several terms its chair- 
man ; once he was the party candidate for attorney- 
general of the State, and several times for Congress. 
He was a member of the national Democratic con- 
ventions of 1868 and 1876, and at both represented 
his State on the committee on platform. In 1867 
he was a member of the lower house of the Legis- 
lature, one of the eight Democrats who constituted 
the full strength of that party in the House of that 
year, and served on the committee on probate and 
chancery. In the autumn of 1867 he was a candi- 
date for the Senate, and on the night before the 
election he was also renominated as representative 
in the House. Elected to both positions, he took 
his seat in the Senate. He served as chairman of 
the committee on parishes, and on other important 
committees. Mr. Avery is an active Mason. He 
is a permanent member of the Grand Lodge of 
Massachusetts ; for four years he was district dep- 
uty grand master of the Sixteenth Massachusetts 


district, and for so 
grand warden of 
was first married i 

H- time he 
the (Irand 
1852, to 'Miss Su: 

the office of junior 
odge. Mr. Avery 



daughter of Caleb Stetson, of Boston. For his 
second wife he married Margaret, daughter of David 
Greene, of the well-known old Boston family which 
numbers (lardiner Oreene, Thomas Greene, the 
donor of the fund which bears his name to 'Trinity 
church, and David Greene, sr., a man of wealth 
and mark in his tiiiif, among its membtTs. Her 
grandmother was .\nn 'Temple Nicholson, of dis- 
tinguished English descent, daughter of Commodore 
Samuel Nicholson, the first commodore of the infant 
American navy, and the first commander of the 
frigate " Constitution." iVIrs. Avery's mother was 
Anna Sumner, of Brookline, daughter of 'Thomas W. 
Sumner, a well-known resident of that town, sister 
of the distinguished disco\erer of the Sumner 
method of navigation in use by all nations of the 
civilized world, and cdusin of Charles Sumner, the 
well-known statesman. 

Avers, (Ikorck I)., son u\ l)a\ id and .Martha K. 
(Huckins) .\yers, was born m Boston -Vug. 2(>, 
1857. He fitted for college in the public schools 
of Maiden, and attended Harvard, class of 1S79. 
Then he entered the Harvard Law School, and 
graduated therefrom in 1 88 2. He continued his 
studies in the office of Gaston & Whitney, of this 
city, aiid was admitted to the bar in February, 
1883. 'Two years later he associated himself with 
George Clarendon Hodges. He is a resident 
of Maiden, and has taken an active interest in 
the affairs of that growing city, but he has many 
times declined political preferment. He is an ar- 
dent advocate of the principles laid down by the 
Nationalist jsarty, and is a prominent member of 
that body. He is a forcible and brilliant speaker. 
Mr. Ayers was married Jan. 7, 1885, to Charlotte 
E. Carder, of Milford, Conn. 

BABBFT'T, George Fr.anklin, was born in Barre, 
Mass., Nov. 25, 1848. During his early years 
he lived on a farm and attejided the district school, 
.^t the age of sixteen he went to Phillips (Andover) 
Academy, where he |)repared for college. Entering 
Harvard, he was graduated in the class of 1872. 
Adopting journalism as his profession, he obtained 
a position as a reporter on the staff" of the " Boston 
Post," from which he was soon advanced to the 
editorial deinirtment, in which he did brilliant work. 
He remained with the " Post" until 1877, when he 
was appointed private secretary to Mayor Prince. 
At the close of this service he returned to the 
" Post," and during 1878-79 represented the paper in 
Washington, as its regular correspondent. In 1879 

he was appointed by Mayor Prince a member 
of the board of health, and this ]3osition he still 

Bakcock, J.AMES Fr-ANcis, son of Archibald D. and 
Fanny F. (Richards) Babcock, was born in Boston 
Feb. 23, 1844. His early education was accom- 
plished in the public schools of the city. He 
graduated from the Quincy Grammar School in 
1857, and from the F2nglish High School in i860. 
Flntering the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard 
University, he devoted himself exclusively to the 
study of chemistry under Prof. E. N. Horsford. 
Completing the course of study in 1862, he entered 
upon the practice of his profession as an analytical 
chemist and chemical expert in Boston, where he 
still continues, being at the present time the senior 
chemist (in years of service) in the city. In 1869 
he was elected by the trustees of the Massachusetts 
College of Pharmacy to the professorship of chemis- 
try in that institution. In 1874 he resigned and 
became professor of chemistry in the Boston Uni- 
versity. In 1875 he was appointed by Governor Gas- 
ton to the office of State assayer and inspector of 
liquors, and he was reappointed by (Governors 
Rice, Talbot, Long, Buder, and Robinson until 
1885, when he declined further service anil accepted 
the appointment of inspector of milk, tendered 
to him by Mayor O'Brien, and continuing as such 
until 1889. As assayer of liquors, he suggested 
and advocated legislation defining the term " in- 
toxicating liquor," known as the three per cent, 
limit (since reduced to one per cent.), which was 
incorporated into the statute in 1880. As inspector 
of milk, he originated and introduced new methods 
in the carrying out of the details of the work of the 
office, thereby adding greatly to its efficiency. The 
use of annotta and other coloring matter in milk, 
which had been universal, was almost wholly sup- 
pressed. This was accomplished by the discovery 
and application of new methods for the detection 
of coloring matters, which were original with Prof. 
Babcock and which have now been adopted by milk 
analysts in other cities. During his term of office 
he suggested much new legislation in regard to the 
so-called milk laws, which was adopted and has 
proved to be of great service in preventing the 
general and extensive adulteration of milk, which 
before his administration had been practised. Prof. 
Babcock has given scientific testimony as a chemi- 
cal expert in many important capital cases and 
patent suits in this and other States. He is well 
known as a popular lecturer upon scientific subjects, 
and is the inventor of the Babcock Fire Extinguisher. 



Babson", Thomas M., was born in VViscasset, Me., 
May 28, 1847. He received his early education in 
the schools of Maine and the Highland Military 
School in Worcester. He came to Boston in 1863, 
and finished his training in the Chainicy Hall 
School. He studied law in the Harvard Law 
School, receiving his degree in 1868, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1870, when he began at once 
the practice of law. He was in St. Louis for two 
years, and then, returning home, resumed his law 
practice here, continuing until 1879, when he re- 
ceived from Mayor Prince the appointment of 
fourth assistant city solicitor, under John P. Healy. 
He was appointed second assistant solicitor in 
1 88 1, and first assistant in 1885, which position he 
held until May, i8gi, when he was appointed cor- 
poration counsel of the city of Boston by Mayor 
Matthews. He was nominated by Mayor O'Brien 
city solicitor in 1888, in the last week of that 
mayor's administration, but was not confirmed. In 
1876-77 Mr. Babson represented Ward 16 in the 
lower house of the Legislature, but with that e.\ce|)- 
tion has held no jjolitical office. 

ISacon, Edwin Munroe, son of Henry and Eliza 
Ann (Munroe) Bacon, was born in Providence, R.L, 
Oct. 20, 1844. His father, born in Boston, son 
of Robert Bacon, formerly of Barnstable, was a 
L'niversalist clergyman and editor, who died in 
Philadelphia \vhen the son was a lad of twelve years. 
His mother was a native of Lexington, and two of 
her ancestors fought in the fight on Lexington 
(Ireen. His early education was mainly attained 
in private schools in Providence, Philadelphia, and 
Boston. He finished his studies in an academy at 
Foxborough, a private and boarding school, which 
flourished for many years under Lmies L. Stone as 
principal, and which fitted many boys for college. 
Prepared for college, he determined not to enter, 
but at once to engage in the work of his chosen 
profession. \t the age of nineteen he became 
connected with the " Boston Daily Advertiser " as a 
reporter, Charles Hale at the time being editor of 
the paper. Here he remained for several years, and 
then resigned to take the editorship of the " Illus- 
trated Chicago News " in Chicago, 111., an enterprise 
which enjoyed a very brief but reputable career. 
From Chicago he returned East, and in the spring 
of 1868 became connected with the "New \'ork 
Times," first as assistant night-editor, subsequently 
becoming night editor, and later managing, or news 
editor, as the position was then called. He was 
most fortunate in securing employment on the 
"Times" (luring the life of Henry J. Raymond, its 

founder. Under him and the late Stillman S. 
Conant, general news-editor during Mr. Raymond's 
later years and subseciuently managing editor of 
" Harper's Weekly," he thoroughly learned the 
journalist's trade. It was during the editorship of 
John Bigelow, who immediately succeeded Mr. 
Raymond, that Mr. Bacon became general news- 
editor. In 1872 Mr. Bacon resigned this position 
on account of ill health produced by overwork, and 
returned to Boston, where he established himself as 
the New England correspondent of the " Times." 
Subsequently he returned to the staff of the " Adver- 
tiser," first serving the paper for several months as its 
special correspondent in New York city and then 
becoming general news-editor. In 1873 he was 
chosen chief editor of the " Boston (ilobe," and for 
five years conducted that paper as an independent 
journal, resigning in 1878 upon a change of policy. 
He again returned to the " Daily .Advertiser," and 
assumed the duties of managing editor. In the 
winter of 1883, upon the retirement of Edward 
Stanwood, then chief editor, Mr. Bacon came into 
full editorial ( harge of the paper, and in the sum- 
mer of 1S84 was made associate editor with Prof. 
Charles !•'. Dunliar, of Harvard College, formerly 
its editor-m-rhief. In January, 1886, when the 
"Advertiser" passed into control of new hands 
and its policy was changed, Mr. Bacon retired, and 
in May, that year, was made chief editor of the 
" Boston Post," when that paper was purchased by 
a number of gentlemen known in politics as Inde- 
pendents. I'nder his editorship the "Post" ad- 
dressed itself to the best citizens in the couununit\- 
as a journal of the first class — independent in 
politics, and fair and candid in its discussion of 
public questions. In the autumn of 1891, when 
the control of the property was sold, Mr. Bacon 
retired. For many years he was the writer of the 
Boston letter to the " Springfield Republican," and 
earlier in his career a special correspondent for 
several Western journals and for the " New \'ork 
Evening Post." He has compiled several books 
on Boston, and written more or less for the press 
upon local historical tojjics. He is the author of 
" Bacon's Dictionary of Boston" (Houghton, Mif- 
flin, & Co., 1886), and is also the editor of " Boston 
Illustrated " (Houghton, Mififlin, & Co.). Mr. Bacon 
was married on Oct. 24, 1867, at Somerville, to 
Miss Ciusta E., daughter of Ira and Hannah Hiil. 
They have one child, Madeleine L. Bacon. 

Bacon, Lewis H., was born in \\'ellsl)orough, Pa., 
.Aug. 7, 1857. After graduating from the high 
school, he learned the carpenter's trade of his 



fother, who was one of the princiiial huiklers in 
northern Ohio at that time. In 1S77 he entered 
the ofifice of Samuel Lane, an architect, in Cleve- 
land, O., to prepare for the practice of architecture, 
and in 1880 removed to Boston. Here he was en- 
gaged for six years in the office of Messrs. Sturgis 
& Brigham, architects, as draughtsman. Then he 
established himself in the carpentering business, in 
connection with Whidden, Hill, & Co., builders, re- 
maining with them until 1888, when he entered 
into partnership with George W. Morrison, the firm 
of Morrison & Bacon succeeding to the business of 
J. W. Morrison, who had been established for some 
twenty-five years as a master builder. The firm do 
a heavy business in woodwork of every description, 
making a specialty of the interior finish of build- 
ings and offices, and the better class of city resi- 
dences, in hard woods. They contracted for the 
entire interior woodwork of the northerly ])ortion 
of the new Court House, 'i'he Niles Building, a 
large number of houses in the Back Bay district, 
St. Andrew's Church, a number of stations on the 
old Boston & Providence Railroad, and other prom- 
inent buildings, were their contracts. Mr. Bacon is 
a member of the Master Builders' Association and 
the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. 

Senate in 1874. While in the House, he served on 
the committee on probate and chancery, and was 
chairman of the committees on elections and on 
mercantile affairs, and in the Senate was a member 
of the committee on the Hoosac Tunnel Railroad, 
being prominently identified with the legislation 

Baii.ev, Andrew Jackson, city solicitor of Boston, 
son of Barker Bailey, of the Hanover, Mass., family 
of that name, and Alice, daughter of David and 
Alice Ayers, of Portsmouth, N.H., was born in 
Charlestown, Mass., July 18, 1840. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Charlestown and at 
Harvard College, a member of the class of '63. 
Upon the breaking out of the Civil War he enlisted, 
on April 16, 1861, in the Charlestown City Guards, 
Company K, Fifth Regiment Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, and served with that regiment in the first 
battle of Bull Run. At the end of his term of ser- 
vice he returned to Harvard. In 1864 he again 
enlisted, this time in the City Guards, and was 
commissioned second lieutenant. Company H, Fifth 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers. Mr. Bailey 
studied law with John W. Pettingill and Hutchins 
& Wheeler of this city. In 1866 he was elected 
clerk of the police court in Charlestown, which 
office he held until his resignation thereof in 1S71. 
In 1867 he was admitted to the bar. During the 
years 1868 and 1869 he was a member of the 
common council of Charlestown, president of that 
body the latter year, and from 1869 to 1872 he was 
a member of the Charlestown school committee. 
He was a member of the lower house of the Legisla- 
ture during the years 187 1, 1872, 1873, and of the 


which finally resulted in the State's acquisition of 
the tunnel. He was also, in the Senate, chairman 
of the committee on labor matters, and reported 
and secured the passage through that body of the 
first bill passed by this Commonwealth regulating 
the employment of women and children in manu- 
facturing establishments. He was a member of the 
common council of Boston for the years 1880 and 
1 88 1, and served as president of that body in 1881 
until November, when he resigned and was elected 
city solicitor of the city of Boston, which office he 
has ever since held by continuous elections or ap- 
pointments. Mr. Bailey was one of the promoters 
of the Soldiers' Home in Massachusetts, and has 
been one of its trustees since its incorporation. He 
is a member of the Massachusetts Commandery of 
the Loyal Legion, and a member of Post ii,G.A.R., 
and has served for two years as judge advocate of 
the Department of Massachusetts, G.A.R. He is 
also a member of the Hugh de Payen Commandery 
of Free Masons, a member of the Fifth Lodge 
of Free Masons, of which he is one of the char- 
ter members, and a member of the Bunker Hill 



Monument Association. In January, 1869, he was 
married to Miss Abby V., daughter of John and 
Hannah Getchell, of Charlestown. 

Hailev, Dudlf.v Perkins, son of Dudley Perkins 
and Hannah Barrows (Cushman) Perkins, was 
born in Cornville, Me., Oct. 24, 1843. He was 
educated in the district school of his native 
town, at Monson Ai aileim-, Monson, Me., and at 
Waterville Cullem', now Culhy University, from 
which he graduated ni 1867. Before entering 
college he taught school (in 1862) in St. Albans, 
Me. He studied law with the Hon. William L. 
Putnam, of Portland, Me., and was admitted to 
the bar April 28, 1870. Soon after he removed 
to Massachusetts. He has long been a member 
of the school committee of Everett (1873-74; 
1876-80; 1882-91); has been director or trustee 
of the Everett Public Library from 1878 to date, 
and secretary of the board 1878-92 ; represented 
the town in the lower house of the Legislature in 
1886-87, when he was house chairman of the com- 
mittee on ta.xation ; has lieeii treasurer of the First 
Baptist Church in Everett 1878-92 ; is a life mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Baptist Convention, and 
has been director thereof 1887-92, member of the 
finnnce committee 1SS9-92, chairman 1892, and 

attorney fo 
has been a 

■ the corporation 1889 to date. 
:ontributor to various periodicals 

1867, and to the " Bankers' Magazine," of New York, 
since 1875. He is author of several pamphlets on 
the " Clearing-house System," which give a greater 
amount of statistical information than can be found 
elsewhere. He is also author of the part relating 
to clearing-houses in a work entitled " Practical 
Banking," by A. S. Bolles, published by the Homans 
Publishing Company ; and he prepared the histori- 
cal sketches of the town of Everett, in Drake's 
" History of Middlesex" (1879), and in Lewis's 
"History of Middlesex County" (1890). He is 
a member of Palestine Lodge, F. and A. M. of Ev- 
erett, and of Royal Arch Chapter of the Taber- 
nacle of Maiden. He is also a member of the 
American Statistical Society. Mr. Bailev is un- 

Bailey, Russell, son of Otis and Lu- 
cinda Alden (Loring) Bailey, natives respectively 
of Andover and Duxbury, Mass., was born in 
North Andover, Mass., Feb. 24, 1852, in the old 
(iovernor Bradstreet house, once the home of Anne 
Bradstreet, the first female poet of America. He 
fitted for college at Phillips (Andover) Academy, 
graduated from Harvard with the degree of A.B. 
in 1877, and from the Harvard Law School with the 
degree of LL.B. in 1878, taking the degree of 
A.M. in 1879. He also studied law with Hyde, 
Dickinson, & Howe, and was admitted to the bar 
in Boston in February, 1880. He began practice 
at No. 30 Court street, in the office of William 
R. Richards, but is now established in the new 
l>;xchange Building on State street. During a part 
of one year he was private secretary to Chief 
Justice (Iray. His practice, though general in 
character, has been largely on the equity side of 
the court. He is an Independent in politics. He is 
a member of the Phi Beta Kappa Society of Har- 
\ard, of the Colonial Club of Cambridge, and of 
the New England Tariff Reform League. In his 
religious views he is a L'nitarian. Mr. Bailey was 
married Feb. 12, 1885, to Mary Persis, daughter of 
ex-(iovernor Charles H. Bell, of i'',xeter, N.H. 
He resided in Boston from 1880 to 1890, Inil is 
now living in Cambridge. 

Baker, .Almena Jane, .\L1)., whn horn in Winter 
Harbor, (louldsborough, Me., .A|)ril 5, 1842. Her 
early education was attained in the common and 
high school of Gouldsborough. In 1876 she grad- 
uated M.D. from the Boston University Medical 
School, and subsequently studied in European hos- 
pitals, spending a year in Vienna, Berlin, and Paris. 
She was phvsician to the Itoston Homcjcopathic 



Dispensary for two years, and has been a member 
of the medical staff of the Homeopathic Hospital 
for about seven years. She is also president of the 
" Sunny Bank Home " at ^Vaterto\vn, for conval- 
escent women and children. In 1881 she was sent 
from the American Institute of Homoeopathy as 
a delegate to the International Medical Congress, 
held that year in London. She is a member of 
various other societies, including the Massachusetts 
Homceopathic Medical Society ; the Boston Ho- 
moeopathic Medical Society, of which she has been 
president and also secretary ; the Massachusetts 
Surgical and Clynjecological Society ; the Gregory 
Society; the Alumni Association of the Boston 
University Medical School, at one time its presi- 
dent ; the Society for the University Education of 
Women ; and the Women's Educational and Indus- 
trial Union, serving upon its board of directors. 
Dr. Baker has been a frequent contributor to the 
medical journals. 

Baker, Charles H., son of John ami Elizabeth 
Baker, was born in Roxbury March 12, 185,^, where 
he received a liberal education in the public schools, 
and has since resided. Shortly after graduation he 
entered n well-knmvn merrMntiU- hnn-if in Boston, 

official duties. An active R 

ihcn he assumed 
can of the " stal- 

his party for place. In 1889 he became interested 
in fraternal insurance, and was one of the founders 
of the Order of j'Egis, the first endowment order 
chartered in Massachusetts. He served two years 
on the board of trustees of this order, and then 
resigned to become a member of the executive 
committee, which position he is still holding. Sub- 
sequently he aided in developing the Order of the 
World, another endowment and life insurance order, 
and was elected to his present office, that of su- 
preme treasurer of the relief and general funds. Mr. 
Baker married Miss Clara S. Davis on June 4, 
1879 ; they have two children : Marion Sinclair and 
Charles Sidney Baker. 

Baker, George Taylor, was born in Cambridge- 
port Sept. 2, 1856. He obtained his early educa- 
tion in the public schools of Chelsea. He then 
attended Brown University, for one year, and 
from there came to the Boston Dental College, 
graduating from the latter institution in 1880. .^t 
the dental college he was associated with Robert 
I,. Robbins, D.D.S., at that time its treasurer. Im- 
mediately after graduating he began his professional 
career alone, succeeding to Dr. Thomas Cogswell's 
practice in 1885. Dr. Baker is a member of the 
.Massachusetts and the New England Dental Socie- 
ties, and of the .American Academy of Dental 

Baker, Hkxry A., was born in Newport, N.H., 
Nov. 27, 1848. He was educated in the public 
schools. In 1870 he entered the office of Dr. W. 
F. Davis, and read dentistry with him for two years. 
Then, in 1871 and 1872, he attended the medical 
department of Dartmouth College, and in 1873 be- 
gan the practice of his jirofession in Woodstock, \'t. 
In 1874 he began the study of his specialty, oral 
deformities, and about this time, realizing the lack 
uf dental roo|ieration in ^■ermont, called the 
ilcntist^ (i\ that State together at Montpelier, the 
movement resulting in the formation of a State 
dental society in March, 1877, Dr. Baker being 
chosen vice-president. In 1878 he sold out his 
practice in Woodstock and moved to Boston, where 
he entered the Boston Dental College, graduating 
with honors in 1879, and securing the first prize in 
the senior class. In .\pril, 1879, Dr. Baker was 
chosen demonstrator of the college. He filled the 
position for several years, when he was appointed 
lecturer on oral deformities. This office he held for 
seven years, and then resigned. In 1881 he read a 
paper before the Massachusetts Dental Society, in- 

type, he has several times been the choice of troducing a new appliance for correcting speech 


cases of cleft palates, and in 1887 he contributed a 
chapter for the " American System of Dentistry " 
on " Obdurators and Artificial Uvula." He is a 
member of the Massachusetts and New England 
Dental Societies, in both of which he has held im- 
portant offices. He is also a member of the Ameri- 
can Academy of Dental Science, and an honorary 
member of the Vermont and the New Hampshire 
State Dental Societies. Dr. Baker is the inventor of 
a pneumatic mallet, an operative stool, and various 
other articles for dental puqioses. 

Balch, Geor(;e Hallet, son of Joseph W. and 
Maria (Hallet) Balch, was born in Jamaica Plain, 
West Roxbury, May 27, 1847. He was educated 
in the public schools. At the age of eighteen he 
entered the counting-room of William Perkins & 
Co., so long well known in the shipping business, and 
at twenty-two he started on a journey round the 
world, in which two years were consumed. Return- 
ing to Boston in 1872, he went into the office of the 
Boylston Insurance Company, fire and marine, with 
which his father had been connected for many 
years, and its president since 1853. He had charge 
of the fire-insurance branch of the business until 
the death of his father in January, 1 891, when he was 
elected to the position thus left vacant, that of presi- 
dent of the company. Mr. Balch is a member of 
the Boston Yacht Club. He is unmarried. 

Ball, Henry I!., architect, son of I'rue M. and 
Alice (Sistare) Ball, was born in Portsmouth, N.H., 
July 27, 1866. He was educated in the schools of 
Portsmouth and in the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. After four years spent in the office of 
Peabody & Stearns, he devoted a year to travelling 
and studying architecture abroad. Upon his return 
to Boston he started in business for himself, and 
in 1890 entered into partnership with \\. H. 
Dabney, under the firm name of Ball & Dabney. 
Mr. Ball is a member of the Puritan, Country, 
Union Boat, and .Architectural Clubs, and of the 
National Lancers. 

Ball, Joshua D., son of Walter and Mary Ball, 
was born in Baltimore, Md., July 11, 1828. He 
received a classical education in Baltimore, and 
coming to Boston in May, 1847, began here the 
study of law, while employed in the office of the 
clerk of the United States Circuit Court. He then 
read with Messrs. Chandler & Andrew, and later 
with Hon. Peleg W. Chandler, and was admitted to 
the bar in November, 1840. From 1852 to July i, 
:88i, he was associated with the late Benjamin F. 


. Moorfield 




L. M. 


were also 1 

lis pari 


for a con;- 


time ; i 

md the firii 


il, i:-;X7. h. 

as been 


known as Ball & Tower. It is now one of the most 
successful and best-known in the city. Mr. Ball has 
always been a Democrat, but has never devoted 
much time to political life ; he has, however, been 
twice chosen to the common council and was its 
president one year. 

Ball, Josiah Warren, was born in Holden, Mass., 
June 28, 1841. In i860 he entered the army, and 
served in two cavalry regiments. For his bravery 
he was promoted to a lieutenancy. He remained 
in the service until 1865, when he was honorably 
discharged. Returning home, he studied dentistry 
under Dr. Tourtellot, after which he went to Ala- 
bama and was associated with his brother. Dr. S. 
Ball, for three years. He then came to Boston and 
graduated from the Boston Dental College in 1869, 
being a member of the first class to complete a 
course at that institution. His practice in Boston 
has become very extended and lucrative. He is a 
member of the Massachusetts and New England 
Dental Societies. Dr. Ball was first married to Miss 
Elizabeth B. Farrington, of Roxbury. She died 
some years ago. For his second wife he married, 
October, 1879, Miss Edna E. Smith, of St. [ohn, 



Barnes, Charles M., son of Dr. W. A. Barnes, 
of Decatur, 111., was born in Macon County, III, 
Oct. 12, 1854. He fitted for college at Phillips 
(Andover) Academy, and graduated at Harvard in 
1877, and from the Law School in 1880. He 
studied law in the office of Meyers & Warner, and 
was admitted to the bar the same year. He was 
associated as partner with Nathan Matthews, jr., for 
about two years, and is now a member of the firm 
of Barnes, Bond, & Morison, engaged in general 
practice at No. 40 Water street. He was instructor 
in sales in the Harvard Law School in 1882-83. 
He edited the thirteenth edition of Kent's " Com- 
mentaries." He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Reform Club and of the Boston Bar Association. In 
politics he is a Democrat. Mr. Barnes was married 
Oct. 31, 1882, to Lillian J. Young, of Philadelphia. 

Barnes, Henkv J., M.D., was born in Northboro, 
Mass., Feb. 16, 1848. He was educated in that 
town, graduating from Allen's Classical School and 
studying under Rev. Joseph Allen and in the Har- 
vard Medical School, from which he graduated M.D. 


in 1 87 2. After acting a year as interne at the 
Boston City Hospital, he began the practice of his 
profession here. In 1873 and 1874 he was surgeon 
to the out-patients department of the City Hospital. 
In 1889 he was abroad, attending, as a member, the 
International Congress of Hygiene, which met in 

Paris, and studying European sewage-systems. 
During this time he visited the sewage farms of 
Europe, and through the courtesy of Mayor Hart of 
Boston and Secretary Blaine he was introduced to 
the principal sanitary authorities abroad, and given 
exceptional opportunity to study his favorite subject. 
He was instrumental in obtaining a special com- 
mission to examine the water-supply of Boston, 
. which resulted in excavating the basins in harmony 
with the views he presented ; and he has long been 
an earnest advocate of the utilization of sewage. 
He has written extensively on this subject for sani- 
tary and medical journals, and for the State Board 
of Agriculture. He has lately reported upon the 
system of sewage from Nantucket. He introduced 
the order to take the street-sprinkHng away from 
contractors and have this work done by the city of 
Boston. Dr. Barnes is a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society, and one of its council- 
lors. In 1880 he was married to Miss Augustine 
Lelierre, of Paris. 

Barreit, William E., son of Augustus and Sarah 
(Emerson) Barrett, was bofn in Melrose, Mass., 
Dec. 29, 1858. His education began in the public 
schools of his native town, was continued in the 
high school of Claremont, N.H., where his father 
was engaged in manufacture, and finished at Dart- 
mouth College, from which he graduated in 1880. 
Choosing journalism as his profession, immediately 
upon graduation he obtained a position on the 
"St. Albans Messenger," at St. Albans, Vt. Here 
he remained for two years, doing general newspaper 
work and contributing occasionally news despatches 
to New York papers. In 1882 he was given a 
position on the "Boston Daily Advertiser" as a 
correspondent, and after a preliminary experience 
as the " Advertiser's " special in the campaign 
of the summer and autumn of that year in Maine, 
he was sent to Washington as the regular corre- 
spondent of the paper. Here he rapidly developed, 
and soon attained a position among the most active 
men of " Newspaper Row." As a news-gatherer he 
was prompt and alert, and his note and comment 
upon political and other movements were always 
bright and often brilliant. During the national 
campaign of 1884, when the "Advertiser" had 
been transformed from a party organ to an inde- 
pendent journal, Mr. Barrett was assigned to special 
service in the " doubtful " States, and his letters 
and despatches published during the most exciting 
periods of that memorable campaign were among 
the most important and interesting contributions to 
its literature. Although himself a stanch Repub- 



lican, he was given a free hand, his instructions 
being to state the situation as he fouml it, rci^ardless 
of the editorial attitude of the paper ; and this he 
did with remarkable frankness and accuracy. In 
the early part of 1886 the ownership of the "Adver- 
tiser " changed, and it again became a Republican 
paper, the managers who had conducted it as an 
independent journal retiring ; and in June of that 
year, the paper being without a head, Mr. Barrett 
was called from Washington and placed in charge. 
Subsequently he became the editor and publisher, 
and the leading owner of the property. At present 
he holds the positions of president of the .Advertiser 
Newspaper Company and publisher of the " .Adver- 
tiser " and " Evening Record," the latter the even- 
ing edition of the " Advertiser," established in 
September, 1884. In 1887 Mr. Barrett was elected 
to the lower house of the Legislature from his town 
of Melrose. This was the beginning of a political 
career which has been remarkable in many respects. 
Repeatedly reelected, he soon took a leading hand 
in the legislation of the House, and was recognized 
as one of the foremost members. In 1889 he was 
elected to the speakership, and in 1890, i8gi, and 
1892 was reelected ; in e\eryi :i^e receiving a practi- 
cally unanimous \(.)te after his nomination in caucus, 
imtil in 1892, without preliminary caucus of either 
party, he received the absolutely unanimous vote of 
the whole House. In the councils of his party he 
has also been prominent, and in the preliminary 
canvass of 1891 for the Republican nomination for 
governor, he was conspicuous among several men- 
tioned for that position. Mr. Barrett is a member 
of a number of business corporations, of political, 
dining, and other clubs, and of the Masonic bodies 
of Melrose. While a Washington correspondent he 
was clerk of the congressional committer to in- 
vestigate the so-called Copiah outrages. On the 
28th of December, 1887, Mr. Barrett was married, 
in Claremont, N.H., to Miss Annie L. Bailey, of 
that town : they have two children : a son, William 
K., jr., and a daughter, Florence Barrett. 

Bar-] LEiT, CH.ARi,f:s W., was born in Boston on .Aug. 
12, 1845. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 
the class of 1869, and then studied law in the Law 
School of Alban;^, N.Y. He was there admitted to 
the bar in 187 i, and the same year began the prac- 
tice of his profession in Dover, N.H. Two years 
later he came to Boston, and here he has since con- 
tinued in practice. He is now of the firm of Bart- 
lett & Anderson, with offices in the (ilobe Building. 
Mr. Bartlett is a Democrat in politics. He is a 
Mason of high standing, a member of Mt. 'labor 

Lodge, St. John Chajner, De Molay Commandery. 
He was a soldier in the Massachusetts Volunteers, 
and is now commander of John A. .Andrew Post 
No. 15, G.A.R. 

Bateman, Charles J., architec 
Cambridge, March 4, 1851. He 

s horn in 
ducated in 


the public schools and in the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, and then studied architecture in 
the office of Faulkner & Clarke seven years, one of 
which was passed in their Chicago office. For 
three years he was with George Ropes, now of Kan- 
sas, and then began practice for himself in Boston, 
in 1876. In the year 1883 he was elected city 
architect, and appointed again in 1888. During 
his administration he built the 0-street school-house 
and also the school buildings on Auburn street. 
Harbor View, George Putnam, Hammond street, 
and the Roxbury High School ; also an engine- 
house in Charlestown, and other buildings. A 
jieculiar feature of Mr. Bateman's work is that while 
in public office the actual cost of his plans never 
exceeded his first estimates. Mr. Bateman has also 
accomplished much notable work in private prac- 
tice in the way of diunlu-s .lud |Mn»lii;il m hool 
buildings. In this cl:i>s ni \y<nk .w,- ihc piD, hial 
school buildings in (Ivuicstow n, \hililcn, Wiillham, 
and East Boston; the St. Cecilia Church, Back 
ISay district ; the St. Catherine's Church, Charles- 



town district : Most Precious Blood, Hyde Park ; 
Sacred Henrt School, East Boston, and others. 
Among larger buildings designed by Mr. Bateman 
are the Carney Hospital, South Boston, Boston Col- 
lege, Home for Aged Poor in Roxbury, and a sim- 
ilar structure in Somer\'ille ; apartment houses in 
Boston, and in Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury 
district; the tomb at Mt. Benedict, West Rox- 
bury district ; the Couch Block in Somerville ; 
and the Hotel Miller. Although the greater portion 
of Mr. Bateman's work is seen in large buildings, 
he has designed many handsome residences in 
the Dorchester and the Roxbury districts, and 
in the cities of Keene and Nashua, N.H. He 
resides in the Roxbury district, with his wife and 

Bates, Phineas, son of Phineas and Hannah L. 
Bates, was born in Cohasset, Mass., Oct. 30, 1S51. 
The family moved to Boston when he was a lad of 
seven, and here he was educated. He attended 
the Dwight School, from which he graduated, and 
spent one year in the Boston Latin School. In 
May, 187 1, he was elected clerk to John D. Phil- 
brick, then superintendent of schools, which posi- 
tion he held until 1876, when the school board was 
reorganized. Then he served as clerk and as acting 
clerk of the board of supervisors until 1879, when 
he was elected to his present position, that of secre- 
tary of the school committee, which he has filled 
ever since with great efficiency. He has been a 
close student of history and antiquities for many 
years. He possesses a valuable collection of tiocu- 
ments pertaining to the schools of Boston, indexed 
from 1792 to the present time, which cannot be 

Beach, Henry Harris Aubrey, M.D., is a native 
of Middletown, Conn., and was born Dec. 18, 1843. 
He attended school in Middletown and in Cam- 
bridge, Mass., entering the Harvard Medical School, 
and graduating therefrom in 1868. Four years prior, 
during the Civil War, he entered the army, and was 
assigned to hospital duty, which he continued for 
two years, being honorably discharged in 1866. He 
was appointed surgical house-officer at the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital, and after a year of ser- 
vice graduated from the Harvard Medical School, 
where he was soon after made assistant demonstrator 
of anatomy, continuing until 1880, when he was 
appointed demonstrator in the same department. 
In 1885 he resigned, and has since devoted his in- 
struction to the department of clinical surgery at the 
Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Beach has 

been associated with this institution since 1873, as 
surgeon to out-patients and as visiting surgeon. He 
was at one time in the surgical department of the 
Boston Dispensary. He was president of the Boyl- 
ston Society of Harvard University for 1873-74, and 
for two years was associate editorof the " Boston Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal." He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, the Boston Society 
for Medical Sciences, the Society for Medical Im- 
provement, the Society for Medical Observation, 
and has contributed many valuable professional 
articles to the different medical publications. Dr. 
Beach was married in 1885 to Miss Amy M. Cheney, 
of this city, the brilliant pianist and composer, 
whose work is highly appreciated by Boston concert- 
goers. Of her Mass in E flat, announced by the Han- 
del and Haydn Society, as one of the features of 
the season of 1892, it was said in the secretary's 



circular : " All who have obtained acquaintance with 
it are unanimous in their admiration of its beauty, 
brilliancy, and strength. A work of such magnitude 
by a woman makes a positive addition to the history 
of music." 

Beal, Caleb Gray, was born in Cohasset, Mass., 
Sept. 6, 1836. He was educated in the public 
schools. As a boy he began work in Boston, in 
Chandler & Co.'s dry-goods store. Gradually pro- 
moted, he was finally placed in charge of the whole- 



V ye:irs. In 

in 1884 ai 

\. Smith cV- 

as a me ml 

as chairm 


Co., and in 1889 mi 

the business as sole 

Beard, Alanson W'., son of James and Chloe 
Bartlett (Wilder) Beard, was born in Ludlow, \t., 
Aug. 20, 1825. When he was ten years old his 
parents moved to Stockbridge, where he was trained 
for a farmer's life. He was educated in the public 
schools and in his home. At seventeen he became 
a school-teacher, and followed this calling until he 
was twenty-one. At twenty-two he was proprietor 
of a country store in Pittsfield, \'t., which he con- 
ducted until 1853, when he sold out his interestand 
came to Boston. Here, in the autumn of that year, 
he entered the wholesale clothing-business, begin- 
ning as salesman for Whiting, Kehoe, & Galloupe. 
Three years after he left that house and went into 
the business on his own account. Since 1847 he 
has been more or less prominent in public life. In 
the Vermont town where he had his country store 
he held various local offices from 1847 to 1853, in- 
cluding that of postmaster part of the time. From 
1864 to 1866, and again from 1883 to 1885, he was 
a member of the Massachusetts Republican State 
central committee, its chairman in 1875, 1876, and 
1SS5. In 1870 and 1871 he was a member of the 
lower house of the Legislature from Brookline, and 

885 from Boston, serving all these years 
of the committee on finance, in 1870 
of the committee on mercantile af- 
fairs, in 1871 of that on prisons, in 1884 on tax- 
ation, and in 18^5 on finance. He was identified 
with the law of 1881 exempting real-estate mortgage 
notes from taxation, having begun the agitation 
against double taxation in 1 871, and continuing it 
through successive sessions of the Legislature. In 
1868 he was a delegate to the National Republican 
convention in Chicago, and again to that of 1888. 
In 1878 he was appointed collector of the port of 
Boston, which position he held for four years. In 
1886, 1887, and 1888 he was State treasurer of the 
Commonwealth. In 1888 he was the Republican 
candidate for Congress in the Third Congressional 
District, but was defeated by John F. Andrew, the 
Democratic candidate. In 1890 he was again ap- 
pointed collector of the port of Boston, which 
position he now (1892) holds. Mr. Beard was mar- 
ried on Nov. 27, 1848, in Wayland, to Miss Mary 
Calista, daughter of Harvey Morgan ; they have had 
three children: James Wallace (deceased), Ambert 
Wilder (deceased), and Charles Freeland Beard. 

Belcher, Orlaxuo F., son of William B. and 
Esther G. (Fuller) Belcher, was born in North 
Chelsea, Mass., Oct. 15, 1844. He was educated 
in the public schools of his native place, and early 
entered business life. He was first a manufacturer 
of boot-heels, but his genius taking a mechanical 
turn he soon became the patentee and manufacturer 
of the Belcher automatic cartridge-loader. This, 
in 1886, was sold to the LTnited States Cartridge 
Company, and Mr. Belcher gave his attention to the 
development of real estate on the northerly shore of 
Boston harbor, in which he had been for some time 
interested, having owned since 1871 the tract of 
land in Winthrop now known as Cottage Park, the 
improvement of which as a watering-place he had 
begini in 1881. Later he bought the Gen. William 
F. Bartlett estate and the Beacon Villa property near 
by, and brought them into the market. Mr. Belcher 
was married in Winthrop Oct. 16, 1883, to Miss 
Lizzie D., daughter of Nathaniel I.tmt. 

Bell, TH(>^L■\s Franklin, was born in Salem, Mass., 
Oct. 31, 1 83 1. Moving to Boston at an early age, 
he was educated in the old Hawes School. He fol- 
lowed the trade of a house painter for about fifteen 
years, and then entered the real-estate business. 
In October, 1889, he was appointed to the office of 
sealer of weights and measures, to fill the unex- 
pired term of Joseph A. Campbell, and was re- 




appointed the following year by Mayor Hart. Mr. 
Bell has always been active in politics, has been 
a member of many important committees, and for 
a number of years was chairman of the Ward 14 
committee of his party. He is a member of the 
association of " Old Hawes School Bovs." 

Bellows, How.^rd P., M.D., son of the late 
Albert F. Bellows, N.A., the New York artist, and 
grandson of .-Albert J. Bellows, M.D., of Boston, 
was born in Fall River, Mass., April 30, 1852. His 
early education was acquired in Amherst and New 
York city. Then he entered Cornell University, 
from which he graduated B.S. in 1875 and M.S. 
in 1878. Finally he finished at the Boston Univer- 
sity School of Medicine, graduating in 1879 an 
M.D. Dr. Bellows served one year as resident 
physician in the_ Massachusetts Homoeopathic Hos- 
pital, and practised another year in Boston in asso- 
ciation with Dr. Conrad Wesselhoeft. Then he 
went abroad for a course of further study in Leipsic, 
preparatory for a lectureship on physiology. On his 
return he established himself in Auburndale, Mass., 
where he engaged in general practice, and instruc- 
tion in the Boston University Medical School as 
lecturer and afterwards as professor of physiology. 
During 1884 he left general jiractice for a year, 
studying diseases of the ear exclusively, chiefly in 
New York, Vienna, and Berlin. i\gain returning to 
Boston, he engaged in the special practice of an 
aurist at No. 118 Boylston street. His office is at 
present in the Woodbury Building on the corner of 
Boylston and Berkeley streets, his residence being in 
West Newton, Mass. Resigning the chair of physi- 
ology, he was appointed in 1886 to a lectureship in 
otology in the Boston University Medical School, and 
to a professorship in the same chair in 1888, which 
position he holds at present. He is a member of 
the American Institute of Homceopathy, the Mas-, 
sachusetts Homoeopathic Medical Society, the Boston 
Homoeopathic Society and the Hughes Medical Club. 
Dr. Bellows was married June 20, 1880, to Miss 
Mary A., daughter of Dr. John I,. Clarke, of Fall 
River, Mass. 

BENNE'iT, Kii.MUNi) H., was born in Manchester, 
Vt., April 6, 1824. He is the son of the late Milo 
L. Bennett, who was judge of the Supreme Court of 
Vermont for over twenty years, and who died in 
: 868. He prepared for college at the Burr Semi- 
nary, Manchester, \'t., and also at the academy in 
Burlington in the same State. He graduated from 
the Vermont University in Burlington in 1843, '^'''fl 
after studying law with his father in that city he was 

admitted to the Vermont bar in 1847. .\ year 
later, in 1S48, he came to Boston and began the 
practice of law in this city, and also in Taunton, 
where he has a large clientage. He made his place 

of residence for some years in the latter city, and 
was its first mayor. He was also judge of probate 
and insolvency for Bristol county from 1858 to 
1883, when he resigned. Judge Bennett has edited 
many well-known and valuable legal works, promi- 
nent among them bemg all of Judge Story's books, 
?2nglish Law and Ecjuity Reports, Massachusetts 
Digest, Leading Criminal Cases, Benjamin on Sales, 
Goddard on Easements, and the last four volumes of 
Cushing's Reports of Massachusetts. He has been 
a Republican since the formation of that party, and 
prior to its organization was a Whig. Judge Ben- 
nett was married on June 29, 1853, to Sally, daugh- 
ter of the late Hon. Samuel L. Crocker.. They 
have two children living, Samuel C. Bennett, a 
lawyer and professor and assistant dean of the 
Boston Law School, and Mrs. Mary B. Conant, wife 
of Dr. William M. Conant. 

Bexne'it, Frank P., proprietor of the " Wool and 
Cotton Reporter," and also principal owner of the 
" United States Investor," was born in North Cam- 
bridge, Mass., May 2, 1853. His parents removed 
to South Maiden, now Everett, when he was eight 
months old. He was educated mainly in the schools 



of Maiden. He entered the Maiden High School at 
the age of twelve years, and graduated from the Chel- 
sea High School in 1870. After leaving school he en- 
gaged in journalism, which profession he has followed 
ever since, for a short time in the West, but mainly 
upon Boston newspapers. In the spring of 1866 
he became the leading editorial writer on the 
"Boston Daily Advertiser." Of his work the late 
John L. Hayes wrote as follows in the Bulletin of 
the National Association of ^Vool Manufacturers : 
" Our New England readers are aware of the change 
which has taken place within the last year in the 
position of the ' Boston Daily Advertiser,' and with 
the great ability with which tariff questions have of 
late been discussed in its columns. The 'Adver- 
tiser ' has been able to assume and sustain its posi- 
tion through the services upon its editorial staff of 
Mr. Frank P. Bennett, for many years previously 
engaged with other Boston newspapers, who by his 
studies and writings upon the tariff and other indus- 
trial questions has become one of the most com- 
petent economical authorities in New England." 
As a financial writer for many years over the signa- 
ture of " E. & O. E." Mr. Bennett became widely 
known. In April, 1887, he established the " Ameri- 
can Wool Reporter," which has now become the 


"American Wool and (;«lt.)n Reporter." He has 
offices for his two papers in Boston, New York, and 
Philadelphia, and a large force of travelling corre- 

spondents and agents covering every section of the 
United States. In the Massachusetts Legislature of 
1 89 1 Mr. Bennett was chairman of the committee 
on taxation, and took high rank as an independent 
legislator; in that of 1892, a member of the com- 
mittee on rules, chairman of the important rapid- 
transit committee, and a member of a special 
committee to consider the adoption of a metropoli- 
tan park-system for the suburbs on the north side of 
Boston. In politics Mr. Bennett has always voted 
the Republican ticket, but is a believer in free raw- 
materials. He is a member of the National Asso- 
ciation of Wool Manufacturers, and of the \\'ool 
Consumers' Association and other organizations. 

BENNE'rr, Samuel C, son of Edmund H. Bennett, 
was born in Taunton April 19, 1858. He prepared 
for college at St. Mark's School in Southborough, 
and at the Adams Academy at Quincy. Entering 
Harvard, he graduated in the class of 1879. He 
then studied law with his father and at the Boston 
University Law School, graduating from the latter in 
June, 1882. In January, 1884, he was admitted to 
the bar, and has since practised his profession in 
this city. He is also assistant dean and professor 
at the Boston University Law School. Mr. Bennett 
is an Independent in politics, an Episcopalian in 
religion, and a member of the Puritan Club. 

Bentox, JosiAH H., JR., was born in Addison, 
\t., Aug. 4, 1843. He pursued his early studies at 
Bradford Academy, ^'ermont, and at the New Lon- 
don Institute, New London, N.H. Graduating 
from the Albany Law School, he was admitted to 
the bar in the spring of 1866. Mr. Benton began 
practice in Bradford, Vt., going from that place to 
Lancaster, N.H., where he remained till 1873. In 

1869 and 1870 he was private secretary to the 
governor of the State of New Hampshire, and in 

1870 and 1872 was clerk of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. In 1873 he removed to Boston, where 
he has since resided. He has an extensive and 
varied general practice, and has also been general 
counsel for the Old Colony Railroad and Steamboat 
Companies since 1878. Since 1879 he has been 
a director and counsel of the Northern Railroad 
of New Hampshire, and he has engaged in most of 
the important railroad litigation in that State. In 
the trial of cases he is thorough in their preparation 
and conduct, quick to grasp a situation, and far- 
sighted in the interests of his clients. For the past 
five years he has lectured on " Railroad Corpora- 
tions " before the Law School of the Boston L'ni- 
versity. During the C'ivil \\'ar he served as a private 



in the Twelfth Vermont Volunteers, and is now a 
member of Edward Kinsley Post, G.A.R., in Boston. 
His great-grandfather was a captain in the Conti- 

nental army, and Mr. Benton has in his possession 
an autograph order written by Gen. Washington 
to Capt. Benton, at Valley Forge. 

Berry, John King, son of Nehemiah Chase and 
Hannah H. (King) Berry, was born in Randolph, 
Mass., Nov. 8, 1854. He acquired his educa- 
tion in the Roxbury Latin School, from which he 
graduated in 1872; and at Harvard College, 
graduating in 1876. Subsequently he attended the 
Boston University Law School, and in 1880 was 
admitted to the Suffolk bar. In 1890 he was 
admitted to practice in the United States courts. 
He is a member of the firm of Berry & Upton, 
No. 166 Devonshire street, attorneys for the Master 
Builders' Association, and is also in general practice. 

Besarick, John H., architect, born in New York, 
acquired his architectural education in Boston, for 
eight years associated with S. J. F. Thayer. In 
1869 he went into business on his own account, 
and for fifteen years his office was in Pemberton 
square ; he is now at No. 33 Bedford street. Mr. 
Besarick has done much work on Catholic as well 
as Protestant structures, the St. John's Seminary, the 
St. John's, St. Patrick's, and other parochial schools, 

seminaries in Brighton, and churches in Glou- 
cester, Rockland, and Whitman, all showing evi- 
dences of his skill. Other work of his is shown in 
the People's Church, Emmanuel Church, St. James 
.Swedenborgian Church, Roxbury District, and sev- 
eral others ; in a number of school-houses, the 
Hotels Gladstone, Rochdale, and Nightingale, and 
in many residences : that of J. W. Converse on 
Beacon street, and a number of others in the Back 
Bay district, possess many fine interiors designed 
by him. Mr. Besarick was married, in Boston, to 
Elizabeth Morrill. He resides in the Dorchester 

BiGELow, George B., son of Samuel and Anna 
J. (Brooks) Bigelow, both natives of Massachusetts, 
was born in Boston April 25, 1836. He graduated 
from Har\'ard in 1856, and studied law in the Law 
School two years, and afterwards with Dana & Cobb, 
a famous firm of that day. Admitted to the bar in 

1858, he began practice in i860 in Boston, and 
has continued in the profession successfully ever 
since, having done mostly chamber practice, per- 
taining to mercantile, real estate, and probate mat- 
ters, and corporations. He has been counsel for 
the Boston Five Cents Savings Bank (one of the 
largest in the State) for seventeen years. He has 
affiliated with the Republican party in politics, but 
is Independent in his views. He is a member of 
the Boston Athletic Association, the Boston Art 
Club, and the Bostonian Society. 

Bigelow, Jonathan, president of the Boston Fruit 
and Produce Exchange, was born in Conway, Mass., 
and traces his ancestry back in the seventeenth 
century. He was born on the 1st of January, 1825, 
and is the oldest of a family of ten children. When 
nine years old he left home to reside with his uncle 
in Charlestown, and when the latter subsequently re- 
moved to Brighton, he went with him and assisted him 
on a farm. During the winter months he attended 
school, and took advantage of every opportunity for 
the acquisition of knowledge. When nineteen years 
of age he went South and taught school in Scre\-en 
county, (Georgia, sixty miles from Savannah. This 
was in 1844. The next year he returned North, 
and established a boot and shoe business in Rox- 
bury, which was successfully carried on for ten 
years. Meanwhile he had studied the produce trade, 
and in 1857 he established himself in this business 
at No. 3 North Market street, subsequently, in 

1859, removing to No. 23 the same street, where he 
ha.s since remained. The firm was first known as 
Perry & Bigelow, then by its present title of Jona- 



han Bigelow & Co., then Rigelow & Magee, and 
[gain, in 1S65, Jonathan Bigelow & Co. It is one - 
)f the oldest produce commission-houses in the 
:ity. Mr. Bigelow was elected to the Legislature 
n 1887, from the Sixteenth Middlesex District, his 
esidence being in Watertown. In 1888 he was 
;lected president of the National Butter, Cheese, and 
•^gg Association, which position he still holds. 

.yman W. Bigelow, of Norwood, ^lass., was born in 
hat town July 11, 1865. He was educated in the 
)ublic schools of Norwood, and was graduated from 
he Har\'ard Dental School in June, 1886. After 
traduating he was with Prof. Thomas Fillebrown, 
it Portland, Me. Here he remained two years, 
rhen coming to Boston in February, 1888, he 
las since practised his profession in this city at 
Vo. 3 Park street. He is a member of the 
harvard Odontological Society. Dr. Bigelow was 
iiarried June 24, i8go, to Miss Elizabeth, daughter 
)f Charles H. and Rebecca T. Hartshorn, of 
A'alpole, Mass. They have one son, I )ana Harts- 
lorn Bigelow. 

BiNNEV, .\RiHL'k A., was born in ISoston in 1865, 
md educated in the Roxbury Latin School and the 
Institute of Technology. He studied naval archi- 
;ecture, and entered the office of Edward Burgess 
n January, 1888. Upon the death of Mr. Burgess, 
n 1891, he became a partner in the new firm of 
Stewart & Binney, which succeeded to the business 
eft by the eminent yacht designer and builder. 

Bird, Francis William, son of George and 
Martha (Newell) Bird, was born in Deilham, 
Mass., Oct. 22, 1809. He attended the public 
schools of Dedham and Walpole until 1824, then 
Day's Academy, in Wrentham, Isaac Perkins, pre- 
:eptor. Here he fitted for college, entered Brown 
University in 1827, and was graduated in the 
:lass of 1 83 1. He began business as a paper- 
maker in 1833. This industry he has followed and 
done much to develop, continuing in it continu- 
ausly to the present time. He has associated with 
himself various partners at different times, but 
ilways held control of the business, and in 1882 
the firm became F. W. Bird & Son, having with 
him as i)artner Charles Sumner Bird. Their mills 
are at East Walpole, where Mr. Bird now resides. 
He was member of the House of Representatives 
in 1847, 1848, 1867 and 1869, 1877 and 1878 ; and 
of the State senate in 1S71. He was also a member 
of the executive council with (lovernor llnutweil 

in 1 85 2, and with Clovernor .Andrew in 1863, 1864, 
and 1865. He was especially active in matters that 
pertained to the general public policy ; fought Know- 
nothingism with a will in 1854 ; and was strenuously 
opposed to the Hoosac Timnel scheme. He has been 
a typical Independent in his political associations. 
He was a Whig until 1846 ; a C'onscience Whig 
until 1848; a Free Soiler until 1856; a Republican 
until 1872; a Liberal Republican until 1874; and 
an Independent Democrat to date. Mr. Bird was 
member of the Massachusetts constitutional con- 
vention in 1853. He has ever been a man of great 
nervous energy and strong individuality. He has 
the courage of his convictions, and always moves in 
accordance with their promptings. He is a man 
very widely known in commercial and political cir- 
cles, and probably has enjoyed the friendship of as 
many of the leading men of the State as any living 
man. Not a stain rests upon his character, not a 
suspicion attaches to the sincerity of his purpose. 
Outliving mgst of his comrades who have made the 
State so illustrious by their wise counsel and patri- 
otic labors, he still takes a keen and lively interest 
in all that tends to keep Massachusetts in the van 
of every philanthropic cause and movement towards 
true reform. Mr. Bird was first married in Provi- 
dence, R.I., Jan. I, 1834, to Rebecca Hill, daugh- 
ter of Benoni and .Amy (Brown) Cooke, who died 
Feb. s, 1835. He again married, June 20, 1843, in 
Boston, Abby Frances, daughter of Joseph R. and 
Mary (Reynolds) Newell. Of this union were six 
children : Frances Newell, F. W., jr. (deceased 
1874), Mary Reynolds, Charles Sumner, Caroline 
Augusta, and Rebecca Hill Binl. 

BiR'i WELL, JosEi'H, was born in England forty-four 
years ago, and has been engaged in the structural 
iron business all his life. In 1870 he established 
himself in busines-, m l.imdon, and in 1882 came 
to Boston and began Iwsiness at No. 60 Broad 
street, under the firm name of Joseph Birtwell & 
Co. Since this time he has been the largest im- 
porter of iron and steel beams and girders in the 
United States, and has furnished his materials for 
some of the largest buildings in the country, among 
them being the Texas State Capitol Building, the 
New England Mutual Life Insurance and the 
Massachusetts Life Insurance Companies' Buildings 
in Kansas C'ity, the new Suffolk County Court House, 
the new Public Lilirary Building, the Pierce Build- 
ing, the Massachusetts Life Insurance Building, the 
Boston Tavern, the .Albion Building, the Tudor, 
and n number of other public and private build- 
uv'-^ in llo>t,,n and other cities. Mr. P.irtwell is 



also extensively engaged in bridge, tower, and via- 
duct work. He is a member of the Master Builders' 
Association. He resides in the Dorchester district. 

BiACKALL, CL.4RENCE H., architect, was born in 
New York Feb. 3, 1857. He received the degree 
of B.S. and M.A. in the University of Illinois, and 
studied his profession in the School of Fine Arts in 
Paris. He was the first to enjoy the benefit of the 
Rotch ^'ravelling Scholarship, and the valuable ex- 
perience he received abroad has shown itself in his 
later work. He entered the office of Messrs. Pea- 
body & Stearns in this city, and remained there 
eight years, beginning practice as architect, for him- 
self, in 1888 in Music Hall Building, Hamilton 
place. He is the architect of the Old Cambridge 
Baptist Church, large warehouses on Purchase 
street, Boston, and fine residences in Brookline, 
AUston, Cambridge, and \\'ollaston. Among the 
houses he has designed in Brookline are those of 
E. Story Smith, F. E. James, AV. I. Bowditch, 
David K. Horton, and his own residence. He is 
also the architect of the Church of Our Saviour at 
Roslindale, the Peabody Building, Salem, and the 
Bowdoin Square Theatre, Boston. Mr. Blackall 
was the organizer of the Architectural Club, and 
was chosen its first president, which position he 
still holds. He was also one of the organizers of 
the Architectural League of New York, and is gener- 
ally interested in all matters of art. In a short 
space of a few years Mr. Blackall has acquired an 
acquaintance and reputation which has placed him 
in the front rank of his profession. He was mar- 
ried in 1883 to Miss Emma Murray, and resides 
in Cambridge. 

Bu-iCKMAK, W. \\'., (leneral, was born in Pennsyl- 
vania in July, 1 84 1. His father was a clergyman, 
and moved to Boston when the son was a small l)uv. 
He went through the Brimmer School and the 
Bridgewater Normal School. He was fitting for 
college at Exeter, N.H., when the war broke out. 
He discarded his books and took up a sabre. He 
enlisted as a private in the Fifteenth Pennsylvania 
Cavalry, and was promoted through all the non- 
commissioned grades until he became orderly ser- 
geant of his company. He was then promoted to a 
lieutenancy and transferred to the F'irst West \k- 
ginia Veteran Cavalry, one of Custer's famous regi- 
ments. He was next promoted to a captaincy on 
the field of Five Forks by General Custer, after he 
had taken the colors across a deep gully under a 
heavy fire of the enemy. 'i'he brigade rallied 
around the colors and continued the fight to a suc- 

cessful termination. He was detailed as adjutant- 
general of his brigade, and afterwards made provost- 
marshal of the division, in which capacity he served 
to the end of the war, being present at Lee's sur- 
render at Appomattox. Among the battles in which 
he took part were Antietam, Stone River, Chicka- 
mauga, Chattanooga, the Shenandoah Valley cam- 
paigns, the battles around Richmond and Petersburg, 
Sailor's Creek, F'ive Forks, .Appomattox Court House, 
and several others. After the vi'ar he resumed his 
studies and graduated from the Harvard Law School. 
He is now enjoying a large practice, and has charge 
of several large trust estates. He was the first com- 
mander of Post 113, (i.A.R., and was judge-advo- 
cate of the Department of Massachusetts. He has 
always taken an active interest in politics — a stanch 
and sturdy Republican, but with the exception of 
service in the city council early in life he has steadily 
refused to hold political office. He was for twelve 
years judge-advocate-general of the Commonwealth. 
He is an able and eloquent speaker. He is a member 
of the Loyal Legion, and is a Mason. He is director 
in several large corporations, including the Nantasket 
Beach Steamboat Company, the Hamilton Woollen 
Company, and the Boston National Bank. 

Bi.AiR, Is.A.AC, was born in Truro, N.S., and was 


educated at Mt. Allison College, Sackville, N.B. 
He learned his trade in Boston, and began business for 







hiiiisL'lf here in 1885. One of his most important 
undertakings was the raising of the old United States 
Court House Building, on the corner of I'remont 
street and Temple place, now the dry-goods estab- 
lishment of R. H. Stearns & Co. This was a stone 
structure 80 by 60 feet, and it was raised to a height 
of 32 feet from the sidewalk. Other successful 
undertakings were the raising of an iron tank, 35 
feet in diameter by 40 feet high, to a position on 
brick walls 45 feet high ; the raising of the great 
roof of the Columbia skating-rink 25 feet, when 
the building was reconstructed into the Grand 
Opera House ; and the raising of the old Catholic 
Cathedral, on the corner of Washington and Motte 
streets, a brick structure 80 by 75 feet, to the full 
height of 37 feet and i inch. Mr. Blair is mar- 
ried and has two children: l-'.thel M. and (leorge 
A. Blair. 

Hi.AKi:, Fr.\ncis, son of Francis and Caroline (Trum- 
bull) Blake, was born in Needham, Mass., Dec. 25, 
1850. He is of the eighth generation descended 
from William and Agnes Blake, who came to 
America from Somersetshire, England, in 1630, 
and settled in Dorchester. This ancestor was a 
distinguished leader in colonial affairs, and his de- 
scendants have kept his name in honorable prom- 
inence to the present time. Mr. Blake was edu- 
cated at public schools until 1866, when his uncle. 
Commodore George Smith Blake, U.S.N., secured 
his appointment from the Brookline High School to 
the United States Coast Survey, in which ser\'ice he 
acquired a scientific education which has led to his 
later successes in civil life. Mr. Blake's twelve years 
of service on the Coast Sur\'ey have connected his 
name with many of the most important scientific 
achievements of the corps, his active career in which 
closed with the following correspondence : 

Weston, Mass., April 5, 187S. 
Sir: I'riv.itu affairs not permitting me at present to dis- 
charge my official ilutics, I respectfully tender my resignation 
as an assistant in the United States Coast Survey. It is impossi- 
ble for me to express in official language the regret with which 
1 thus close my twelfth year of service. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Francis Hlake, 
.Iss/. i'.S. Coasl Survey. 
To the Hon. C. P. Pa-itekson, 

Siipt. C.S. Coast Survt-y, Washington., D.C. 

I .S. Coast Survey Office, 

Washington, April 9, 1878. 
SiK : I regret very greatly to have to acknowledge the re- 
ceipt of your letter of .\pril 5, tendering your resignation as 
an assistant of the United States Coast Survey. I accept it 

w ith the greatest reluctance, and beg to express thus officially 
my sense of your high abilities and character — abilities trained 
to aspire to the highest honors of scientilic position, and char- 
acter to inspire contidence and esteem. So loath am I to sever 
entirely your official connection with the survey that I must re- 
quest ycu to allow me to retain your name upon the list of the 
survey as an " extra observer, " under which title Prof. B. 
Peirce, Prof. Lovering, Dr. Gould, Prof. Winlock, and others 
had their names classed for many years. This will, of course, 
be merely honorary ; but it gives me a "quasi" authority to 
communicate with you in a semi-official way as exceptional 
)n may suggest. Your resignation is accepted, to date 

C. P. P. 

Supt. Coast Survey. 

During a greater part of the last two years of 
his service in the Coast Survey, Mr. Blake was at 
his Weston home engaged in the reduction of his 
European field-work connected with the determina- 
tion of the differences of longitude between the 
astronomical observatories at Cireenwich, Paris, 
Cambridge, and Washington. In his leisure mo- 
ments he had devoted himself to e.xperimental phys- 
ics, and in so doing had become an enthusiastic 
amateur mechanic ; so that at the time of his resig- 
nation he found himself in possession of a well- 
equipped mechanical laboratory and a self-acquired 
ability to perform a variety of mechanical opera- 
tions. Under these conditions, what had been a 
pastime naturally became a serious pursuit in life ; 
and within barely a month of the date of his resig- 
nation Mr. Blake had begun a series of e.xperiments 
which brought forth the Blake Transmitter, as pre- 
sented to the world through the Bell Telephone 
Company in November, 1878. Mr. Blake's inven- 
tion was of peculiar value at that time, as the Bell 
'Telephone Company was just beginning litigation 
with a rival company which, beside being financially 
strong, had entered the business field with a trans- 
mitting telephone superior to the original form of 
the Bell instrument. The Blake Transmitter was 
far superior to the infringing instrument, and en- 
abled the Bell 'Telephone Company to hold its own 
in the sharp business competition which continued 
until, by a judicial decision, the company was assured 
a monopoly of the telephone business during the life 
of the Bell patents. 'There are to-day more than 
215,000 Blake 'Transmitters in use in the United 
States, and probably a larger number in all foreign 
countries. Since its first invention Mr. Blake has 
kept up his interest in electrical research, and the 
records in the patent office show that twenty patents 
have been granted to him during the last twelve 
years. .Mr. Blake's life ni Weston began June 24, 



1873, on which day he was married to Elizabeth I,., 
daughter of Charles T. Hubbard. In the year of his 
marriage there was the beginning of " Keewaydin," 
the beautiful estate in the south-eastern part of the 
town which has since been his home and the birth- 
place of his two children — Agnes, born Jan. 2, 
1876, Benjamin Sewall, born Feb. 14, 1877. Mr. 
Blake has been a director of the American Bell 
Telephone C'ompany since November, 1878. He 
was elected fellow of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science in 1874, fellow of the 
.•\merican .Academy of Arts and Sciences iSSi, 
member of the National Conference of Electricians 
1884, member of the American Institute of I'^lec- 
trical Engineers 1889, member of the corporation 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 1889, 
member of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers 
1890. He is a fellow of the American (ieographi- 
cal Society, member of the Bostonian Society, 
member of the Boston Society of the Archaeological 
Institute of America, and has for many years been 
appointed by the Board of Overseers of Harvard 
College a member of the committee to visit the 
Jefferson Physical Laboratory. He is a member of 
the most prominent social clubs of Boston, and his 
active interest in photography has led to his election 
for many years as vice-president of the lioston 
Camera Club. 

Blakk, Oeorc;k Fordvce, is descended from one 
of our oldest New P^ngland families, and one that 
has an honorable record. His ancestor, William 
Blake, came to this country from Little Baddow, 
Essex, Eng., in 1630, and settled in Dorchester. 
In 1636 he removed, with ^ViHiara Pynchon and 
others, to Springfield ; but his descendants for three 
generations continued to reside in Dorchester and 
Boston; two of them held the office of deacon of 
the church and selectmen of the town, and (jne 
was a member of the General Court. At the period 
of the outbreak of the war for Independence we find 
Increase Blake living in Boston, on King (now 
State) street, near the scene of the Boston Massa- 
cre, and engaged in the manufacture of tin-plate 
goods. His public-spirited refusal to supply the 
British with canteens, which he had furnished for 
the provincial troops, aroused the retaliatory spirit 
of the 'Lories ; his shop and other property were 
destroyed, and after the battle of Bunker Hill he 
found it expedient to remove to \Vorcester, Mass. 
His son, Thomas Dawes Blake, the father of the 
present representative of the family, was born in 
Boston in 1768, and was educated in the schools 
of Worcester. He was engaged for a few years in 

teaching, then studied medicine, and later settled at 
Farmington, Me., where he continued in the prac- 
tice of his profession until his death, in 1849. 
Oeorge Fordyce Blake was born in Farmington, 
Me., May 20, 1819. At the early age of fourteen 
he was apprenticed to learn the trade of house- 
carpentry. In 1839 he left his native town, and first 
went to South Danvers (now Peabody), where he 
remained seven years, working at his trade. From 
that place he went to Cambridge to take the posi- 
tion of mechanical engineer at the brickyards of 
Peter Hubbell, with the general charge of the works. 
While thus employed he devised a water-meter, for 
which he received his first patent in 1862. After 
the removal of the brickyards to Medford, it was 
found that the clay obtained there could not be 
worked with the ordinary machinery, and Mr. Blake 
])lanned and constructed a new machine for pulver- 
izing the clay, which was patented in 1861. In 
order more efficiently to free the clay-pits from 
water, he invented what is perhaps his greatest 
achievement, — the Blake Steam-pump, — and thus 
laid the foundation of his fortune. 'Lhe practical 
testing of his pump at the yards proving its great 
capacity, he, in company with Job A. 'I'urner and 
his former employer, Peter Hubbell, began in 
1864 the manufitcture of steam-pipes and water- 
meters in a building on Province street, Boston. 
'I'he business grew so rapidly that several successive 
removals to better quarters were necessary, and in 
1873 the firm purchased and occupied the large 
building on the corner of Causeway and Friend 
streets. Their foundry for large castings was at 
East Cambridge. In 1874 a joint-stock company 
was incorporated under the title — " The Cieorge 
F. Blake Manufacturing Company," with George F. 
ISlake as president. In 1879 it purchased the 
large plant of the Knowles Steam-pipe Company, 
at Warren, Mass., thus greatly extending its facili- 
ties. It was, however, found necessary in 1890 to 
remove the Boston manufactory to East Cambridge, 
where extensive works were erected, covering four 
acres, with a main building of four hundred feet 
long by one hundred feet broad, with every con- 
venience for the successful prosecution of the work. 
The business has been recently sold to an English 
syndicate, though Mr. Blake still retains an interest. 
In the course of his successful career Mr. Blake 
has given unremitting attention to his business, and 
has brought his intelligent judgment to bear upon all 
its various details. For a long time, until the growth 
of the business made that an impossibility, all the 
plans and drawings for the special ada])tation f>f 
the machinery were nr.ide under his personal super- 





\isioii. The result is seen in the vast l)nsiness that 
has grown up. The Blake ininips have gone to all 
parts of the world and have been adapted to every 
(onreivable use, some of them, constructed for sup- 
|ilying cities with water, having a capacity of twenty 
million gallons in twenty-four hours. In 1869 
Mr. Blake removed to Belmont. His beautiful 
home stands on a breezy hill overlooking a wide 
stretch of country to the northward and westward 
of Boston, and is surrounded by fine trees and well- 
kept lawns. 

B1.AKK, S. FARKi\L\x, was born in Boston Nov. lo, 
1835. He was engaged for a number of years in 
commercial business in Philadelphia, Pa., deahng in 
yarns and dry goods consigned from New England ; 
then returning to Boston in 1872, he entered the 
real-estate business, which avocation he still pur- 
■sues at No. 19 Exchange place. In that time he 
has developed a widespread connection and an ex- 
tensive patronage, including among his customers 
many leading capitalists and property owners. He 
is a recognized authority in regard to values of resi- 
dential and business properties in the city and its 
neighboring towns, and has placed many heavy 
loans and negotiated extensive trusts. Mr. Blake 
was one of the early members of the Real Estate 
Exchange and .Auction Board, and has been in the 
board of directory since the opening of that insti- 

Bi.AKK, WiLi.iA.M P., son of Edward and Mary J. 
(l)ehon) Blake, was born in Dorchester July 23, 
1846. He was educated in the local schools and 
at Harvard, graduating in 1866. Subsequently he 
studied law in the Harvard Law School and with 
Hutchins & Wheeler, and was admitted to the bar 
in September, 1869. He practised with his father 
until the latter's death in 1873, then continued the 
office and business, with cases and care of trusts. 
IvArlier he did much in conveyancing. He was a 
Reimblican until Blaine's candidacy for the presi- 
ilency, and is now independent in politics. He is a 
member of the Tavern, St. Botolph, and .\thletic 
Clubs, and of the Boston P>ar Association. 

B1.ANCHAKI), Bknjamin Seavkk, son of William and 
Mary E. (Seaver) Blanchard, was born in Roxbury 
on Sept. 22, 1856. He comes of an old Massa- 
chusetts family. His grandfather, Benjamin Seaver, 
was mayor of Boston for three terms, from 1852 to 
1854. He obtained his early education in the pub- 
lic schools, and graduated from Harvard Medical 
School in 1882. He began the practice of his pro- 

fession in the Roxbury district, and afterwards re- 
moved to Brookline, where he still resides. He was 
married in 1887, and has one son, l''essenden S. 

Blood, Hir.mi .^liiko, son of Ezra and I.ydia 
.\nn (Jefts) Blood, was born in Townsend, Mass., 
Feb. 3, 1833. He re<;eived an academical educa- 
tion in the town of his birth. At the age of eigh- 
teen he went to Worcester in search of employment. 
Two years after he entered the commission-house 
of Bliss, Sutton, & Co., in that city, as a clerk, and 
the following year (in 1854) became a member of 
the firm, at which time he opened a branch house 
in Fitchburg and went there to live. In 1857 he 
dissolved his connection with Bliss, Sutton, & Co., 
and entered into a copartnership with William O. 
Brown, of Fitchburg, imder the name of Blood & 
Brown. This firm existed until i860, when Mr. 
Brown withdrew to enter the United States army, 
becoming a major of the Twenty-fifth Regiment, 
and a new firm was formed under the name of H. 
A. Blood & Co., which continued the business. In 
1865 Mr. Blood withdrew from all mercantile pur- 
suits, and became entirely interested in railroads, 
to the construction and operation of which he has 
ever since given his time and attention. In 1865 
he was connected with the Fitchburg & Worcester 
Railroad as a director, and as its superintend- 
ent and general manager. He afterwards built, or 
was largely instrumental in building, the Boston, 
Clinton, & Fitchburg, the Framingham &: Lowell, 
the Mansfield & Framingham, and the Fall River 
Railroads, of which he successively became super- 
intendent and general manager. Subsequently he 
united and consolidated them, together with the 
New Bedford & Taunton and the Taunton Branch 
Railroads, into one system, under the name of the 
Boston, Clinton, F'itchburg, & New Bedford Rail- 
road Company, reaching from Fitchburg and Lowell 
in the north to Mansfield, Taunton, New Bedford, 
and Fall River in the southern part of the State. 
This system of railroads was for a time o|)erated by 
him as general manager, and was afterwards con- 
solidated with the Old Colony Railroad Company, 
of which it now forms an important part. In the 
construction of these railroads, and in their subse- 
([uent ojjeration and consolidation, Mr. Blood was 
the moving and directing spirit. In 1875 he pro- 
cured the charter for the Wachusett National Bank 
of Fitchburg, obtaining all the subscriptions to its 
capital stock, established the bank, and became its 
first vice-president. He was the third mayor of 
Fitchburg, first elected l)y the board of aMermen 


of Boston. He was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 
i860, beginning the practice of law in Boston in 
July. He entered business as senior partner of the 
firm of Boardman & Blodgett in Boston, this con- 
nection continuing until the junior partner, Caleb 
Blodgett, was elevated to the bench. Subsequently 
Stephen H. Tyng was taken as a partner, and later 
Frank Paul. He is now in the practice of his pro- 
fession alone at No. 17 State street. During the past 
few years, owing to defective sight, Mr. Boardman 
has found it necessary to throw off much of the 
labor incident to the legal profession, and has been 
engaged in \arious manufacturing and railroad in- 
terests. He is president of the Duluth & Winnipeg 
Railroad and director of several others. Mr. Board- 
man has been repeatedly called to offices of trust 
and responsibility. From 1862 to 1864 he was 
commissioner of the Board of Enrolment, under 
President Lincoln, for the Fourth Congressional Dis- 
trict. He was chairman of the Republican ward 
and city committee in 1874, president of the com- 
mon council in 1S75, Republican candidate for 

and common council Nov. 2, 1875, 'o fill out the 
unexpired term of the Hon. Eugene T. Miles. At 
the subsequent annual election in December he 
was elected by the people, and was inaugurated 
January, 1876, thus filling the office of mayor for 
one year and two months. Mr. Blood is now 
chiefly interested in railroads in the State of Ohio. 
He is the president of the Cleveland & Canton Rail- 
road Company in that State, which position he has 
held since May, 18S4. 

Blood, Robert Allen, M.D., son of Luke W. and 
Mary (Bickford) Blood, was born in New London, 
N.H., April 30, 1838. His training in the local 
schools was supplemented by a course in the New 
London Scientific Institute. At the opening of the 
Civil War he joined the Lhiion army, and ser\'ed with 
distinction in many engagements. After the war he 
studied medicine with Dr. Bickford, of Charlestown, 
and in the Harvard Medical School, from which he 
graduated in 1870. He at once began practice, 
first establishing himself in his old home. New Lon- 
don, N.H. Then, in 1873, he returned to Charles- 
town, where he has since remained, meeting with 
gratifying success in his professional work. He is a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, the 
American Medical Society, and the .Society for 
Medical Observation, and he is prominent in the 
Masonic and Odd Fellows orders. In 1872 Dr. 
Blood was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Oen. 
Luther McCutchins, of New London, N.H. ; they 
have one child : Roliert McCutchins Blood. 

Bmnt, William i;., was born in HaxerhiU, Mass., 
Aug. 20, 1840, where he li\ed until he was ap- 
pointed surveyor of the port of Boston, in 1890. 
For several years he held the position of city solici- 
tor of Haverhill, and served as associate justice of 
the district court for a period of twelve years ; and 
he was postmaster of Haverhill (first appointed 
in 1876) under Presidents (irant, Hayes, and 
•Arthur. From 1870 to 1876 he was a member of 
the Legislature. He was a delegate to the Repub- 
lican national conventions at Philadelphia and at 

BoARD.MAN, Hai,sev J., was bom in Norwich, \'t., halsey j. boardman. 

May 19, 1834. His early education was received 

in the common schools of that town, and he later mayor m the same year, and representative to the 

graduated from Thetfold Academy, in the class of Legislature in 1883, 1884, and 1885. In 1887 

1854. Entering Dartmouth the same year, he and 1888 he was a member of the Senate, serv- 

graduated with high honors in the class of 1858. ing as president both years. He is a prominent 

I'hen he studied law in the office of Norcross & member of the New England Historic Genealogical 

Snow in Fitchburg, and later with Philip H. Sears, Society. 


I', Ch\kii> H., son of Charles M. and Mary 
(Amerige) lioiid, uas Ijorn in t'liftondale, Saugus, 
Mass., July 13, 1S46. He was educated in the 


l)ublic schools and in Spear & Sawyer's Com- 
mercial College. He began business for himself 
when but seventeen years of age, and is now of the 
firm of Waitt & Bond, in this city, cigar manu- 
facturers. He has been a member of the Saugus 
Water Board since its organization, is trustee of the 
Saugus Library, and president of the Cliftondale 
Library Association. He has been twice married ; 
his first wife was Martha A. Morrison, and his 
present wife Bella Bacon. His children are : Sarah 
A., Edith L., and Mildred M. 

BooTHV, Ai.oNzii, M.I)., son of the late Nathaniel 
Boothy, of Athens, Me., was born in that town 
March 5, 1840. He was educated in the Athens 
public and high schools, at Kent's Hill, Me., and in 
Bowdoin College, where he attended two courses of 
lectures. Then he went to New York and studied 
his profession there under Dr. David Conant. He en- 
tered the army in 1862 as surgical dresser, and while 
in the ser\-ice he graduated from the Georgetown, 
1 ).C., Medical College. Afterwards he became acting 
surgeon in the United States army, and later on was 
commissioned surgeon to the Second United States 
Coloreil Troops, where he remained a year and was 
iletailed to take change of that regiment. Return- 

ing from the army in 1864, he established himself 
in Wilton, where he jiractised two years, 'i'hen he 
came to Boston, and has since remained here. He 
has been connected with the Boston L^niversity 
since the organization of the medical department, 
with the exception of one year. Dr. Boothy is one 
of the surgeons to the Homoeopathic Hospital, and 
he has also a private surgical hospital with a capacity 
for eighteen patients, and which is now being en- 
larged. He is a member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy, the Massachusetts Homfjeopathic 
Medical Society, the Boston Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, and the Boston Surgical and Gynaecological 
Society. He has contributed various articles to the 
medical journals. On April i, 1863, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Maria A., daughter of Reuben Stodder, 
of Athens, Me. 

BossoN, Albert D., son of George C. and Jennie 
H Bosson, was born in Chelsea Nov. 8, 1853. 
He acquired his early education in the schools of 
Chelsea, preparing for college at Phillips (Exeter) 
Atademv, and entering Brown University. Gradu- 
itmg in 1875, he read law for a while in the 
otti( e ot Messrs. Brooks, Ball, & Story, and then 
took the course of the Law School of the Boston 
LIniversity. hi ^Llrch, 1878, he was admitted to 
the Suffolk bar, and has been in active practice 
ever since, being associated for the past three years 
with H. L. Whittlesey, with offices in the new Ames 
Building. Mr. Bosson was one of the committee 
of one hundred in the campaign of 1884, and is 
now a Democrat of the Cleveland type. In 1890 
he was elected mayor of the city of Chelsea, and 
he declined a lenomination, the duties of the office 
interfering too much with his business interests. 
While mayor he recommended and secured the 
adoption of various measures by which the financial 
standing of the city was materially improved. Mr. 
Bosson has travelled ([uite extensively, having 
crossed the ocean five times. He is president of 
the Review Club of Chelsea, and a member of other 
clubs in that city and in Boston. He is president 
of the County Savings Bank of Chelsea, vice-presi- 
dent of the Winnisimmet National Bank, treasurer 
of the Gloucester Street Railway Company, a direc- 
tor in the Merrimac Valley Railroad Company, 
and is connected with other business enterprises. 
He is also trustee and manager of several large 
estates. He is associated with the Baptist de- 
nomination. His fiither was for manv years a 
prominent business man and manufacturer, is still 
living, and is a member of the firm of Reed iS: 
Brother, Boston. 


BosvvoRTH, Nathaniel, of the firm of Bosworth 
& French, was born in Arlington, Mass., in 1S35. 
He was educated in the public schools. At an 
early age he was apprenticed to the steam-fitting 
and plumber trade. After a few years he engaged 
in business for himself. In 1879 hu farmed a part- 
nership with J. \V. French. The firm is now estab- 
lished at No. 7 Appleton street, where they conduct 
a large and successful business in plumbing, steam 
and gas fitting. 

BouvE, \\\i;iik L., son of Thomas T. Bouv6, of 
Boston, was born in this city Oct. 28, 1849. He 
was fitted for college and studied civil engineering 
in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and 
followed that profession some eight years. Later 
he entered the Harvard Law School, and graduated 
in 1879. He was admitted to the bar in 1880, an<l 
has been in general practice ever since. His office 
is now at No. 1 1 3 Devonshire street. Mr. Bouv6 
is a Republican in politics. He resides in Hingham, 
Mass. He is special justice of the Second District 
Court of Plymouth, and was assistant district attor- 
ney of the South-eastern District during 1890. He 
is a member of the Boston Bar Association and 
of the Boston Athletic .•\ssociation. He is treasurer 
of the Rockland Hotel Company. Mr. BouviJ mar- 
ried Charlotte 1!. Harden, of Hingham. 

BowEX, Hknrv ]., elder son of Hosea 1!. and 
Mary D. Bowen, was born in Boston Sept. 11, 
1853. His maternal ancestor came to this country 
on the "Mayflower," in 1620, and shortly afterwards 
became the mother of Peregrine White, the first 
white child born in the Plymouth Colony. His 
paternal ancestor came from Wales, landing at 
Rehoboth in 1640 and becoming one of the set- 
tlers of the town of Swansea, Mass., naming it from 
their place of nativity in Wales. He is the grand- 
son of Henry Bowen, the publisher of the first 
Universalist magazine ever issued, and the grand- 
nephew of Abel Bowen, the well-known engraver 
and publisher of Bowen's "Picture of Boston" in 
1829. His family have resided in Boston since 
the beginning of the present century. Mr. Bowen 
graduated at the Lincoln (irammar School, and 
entered the English High School. While there, at 
the head of the graduating class, at the age of 
fifteen, he received the offer of a position in a 
wholesale lumber-house on State street, which he 
accepted. He remained in the lumber business 
for ten years, filling various responsible positions, 
and then took charge of the books of a wholesale 
flour and grain commission-house. He was admit- 

ted to the Boston Chamber of Commerce, of which 
he is still a member. L'pon the death of his father 
in tSS2 he succeeded to the Intter's and 


m^urancc busme-^-. ui South Boston, and greatly iu- 
( reased it. He is a large owner of real estate in that 
section, and has charge of many properties for clients. 
He is trustee for a number of large estates, and is 
regarded as authority on all matters pertaining to 
South Boston real estate. He is a director in the 
Mattapan Deposit and Trust Company, and in the 
Boston Real Estate and Auction Board. Mr. Bowen 
was married in Boston, in May, 1880, to Miss Sarah 
E. Dean, daughter of Henry A. Dean, of the Taun- 
ton family of that name. 

liRACKKi-i-, Okay, M.D., was born April 6, 
18C0, in Newton, Mass. He was educated in the 
public schools of Newton, and graduated from Har- 
vard M.D. in 1S86. After one and a half years at 
the City Hospital, he was interne in the Boston Lying- 
in Hospital one term. He is now (1892) connected 
with the Boston Dispensary as physician to the de- 
partment of nervous diseases. He is also City Hos- 
pital assistant to the same department, and assistant 
surgeon to the out-patients department of the Chil- 
dren's Hospital. Dr. Bracket! is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, the Boston Society for 
Medical Improvement, the Psychological Society, 
and the lloston Society for Medical Science. 

iOS'lON OI" 'rO-DAY. 


Hkackf/i-i, John (^uixcv, son of Ambrose 
S. ami Nancy B. Rrackett, is a native of the dranite 
State, born in Bradford, N.H., June 8, 1842. 
He attended tlie Colby Academy, New London, 
N.H., graduating therefrom in 1861. Declining 
an appointment to \Vest Point, he entered Harvard, 
finishing his course, with honors, in the class of 
T.S65. He then entered the Harvard Law School, 
from which he graduated in 1868. Admitted to 
the Suffolk bar that year, he has since carried 
on a lucrative practice, first in connection with 
the late Levi C. Wade, and later with Walter H. 
Roberts. Mr. Brackett was early associated with 
public affairs, and has occupied several prominent 
positions, besides that of chief executive of the 
Commonwealth. In 187 1 he was president of the 
Mercantile Library Association, and again in 1882. 
In 1874 he was chosen judge-advocate on the staff 
of C;en. I. S. Burrell, First Brigade, Massachusetts 
militia, and held the office for two years. He 
was one of the promoters of the Young Men's 
Republican movement, and presided at its first pub- 
lic meeting in Faneuil Hall in 1877. From 1873 to 
1876 he was a member of the Boston common 
council, president of that body the latter year; 
and in 1876, he was elected to the lower house 
of the Legislature. He was reelected for the four 
succeeding years, serving on several important com- 
mittees, among them those on labor and taxation, 
and the special committee on the revision of the 
statutes. In 1884 he was again elected to the 
House, and the year following was chosen speaker 
by a large majority. It was in this year that he 
Ijresided over the stormy debate on the Metropoli- 
tan Police Bill, and by his firm yet judicious action 
won praise and commendation from both sides. In 
1886 he was reelected speaker, and at the State 
election the same year was elected lieutenant- 
governor. This position he held for three years, 
and in July and August of 1888, during the illness of 
(iovernor .'\mes, was acting governor. In this 
capacity he visited Columbus, O., with a special 
legislative committee, on the occasion of the cen- 
tennial of the settlement of Ohio. A year later he 
represented the Commonwealth at the dedication 
uf the Pilgrim Monument at Plymouth. In the 
fall of 1889 he was elected governor, and served 
one term. (Governor Brackett was married, June 20, 
1878, to Miss Angle M., daughter of .Abel G. Peck, 
of Arlington, and he resides in that town. 

Bradfokii, Hknrv WnHiNi/iuN, M.D., was born 
in Randolph Jan. 22, 1852. He is a descendant of 
Covernor Bradford of the Plymouth Colony. His 

early education was obtained in the public school 
and the Stetson High School. He entered the 
medical department of Harvard University, from 
which he graduated in the class of 1875, receiving 
his degree of M.D., since which time he has been 
in the practice of his profession. He is an in- 
structor in the post-graduate course of the Harvard 
Medical School, surgeon in the Massachusetts Chari- 
table Eye and Ear Infirmary, and was formerly 
assistant ophthalmological surgeon in Carney Hos- 
pital. Dr. Bradford invented the electro-magnet 
for ophthalmological purposes, and introduced and 
used cocaine for the first time in the New England 
States. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, and of the .American and the 
New England Ophthalmological Societies. 

BR.'iDLEY, Wh.liam L., founder of the Bradley 
Fertilizer Company, was born in Cheshire, Conn., 
in 1826. He spent his childhood on a farm, 
attending the district school in his native town until 
the age of eleven. He then went to Southington 
Academy for one year, the subsequent year he 
spent at Cheshire Academy, and next had the 
benefit of six months' training at the Lancasterian 
School in New Haven. Immediately after, at 
the age of thirteen, he began his mercantile 
career, as a clerk in a dry-goods store in New 
Haven. .At the age of seventeen he entered the 
employ of Charles Parker, a large hardware-manu- 
facturer of Meriden, Conn., as travelling salesman. 
While here, and with Mr. Parker's consent, he be- 
came, in his early twenties, partner with one of his 
friends in another business. Through the misman- 
agement of his partner, to whom this business was 
entirely intrusted, he found himself at the end of the 
first year over twenty thousand dollars worse off than 
nothing, while the business, according to the books, 
showed a profit of much more than this amount. 
This copartnership was immediately dissolved. He 
consulted his employer only, who advised him to 
compromise with his creditors. But this he de- 
clined to do, saying that he was determined to pay 
dollar for dollar. He had marked out two ways to 
accomplish this. One was to leave his employer 
and begin business for himself, knowing that he 
could buy goods on credit; the other was to ask 
his employer to raise his salary from three thousand 
dollars, which he was then receiving, to six 
thousand dollars per annum, and pay the same 
for four years in advance. Mr. Parker, realizing 
the value of his services, granted his request. The 
money was advanced, all of which went to ])ay his 
indebtedness. Now came a period of struggle. 



when his energies must be devoted to his em- 
ployer's business for four years without further 
compensation, and when he must maintain him- 
self and his family by his outside endeavors (always, 
however, with Mr. Parker's consent). He felt 
that a clean record was cheap at any cost. Such 
an experience as this was not all loss. ( )n the 
contrary, it afforded him a practical knowledge of 
human nature and the power of making ([uick 
and correct estimates of those with whom he 
dealt. Here, too, he learned never to overesti- 
mate but rather to underrate his ability, and to 
undertake only such enterprises as in his judgment 
he could carry through. His successes ha\e justi- 
fied his judgments. His early business ventures 
being not wholly congenial to his tastes, he came to 
Boston in i<S6i, about the beginning of the Civil 
War, with no capital save his untiring energy and 
keen business sagacity. Having a natural fond- 
ness for agriculture, he was inclined to seek an 
occupation in this direction. His knowledge of 
certain new departures in agriculture abroad, and 
his quick appreciation of their agricultural and com- 
mercial importance, made him desirous of becom- 
ing a pioneer in the manufacture of commercial 
fertilizers in this country. Knowing the late Hon. 
Oakes Ames and his reputation as a willing helper 
of young men, he made him acquainted with his 
\ iews. The latter, recognizing the young man's 
character and energy, and grasping as well the 
feasibilitv of his project, consented to endorse Mr. 
Bradley's paper for a small amount, on the simple 
verbal promise that he should receive one-quarter 
of the profits of the venture, ^^'ith money obtained 
on these notes, Mr. Bradley built a small factory on 
the margin of the Back Bay, and thus inaugurated 
an industry which has grown to gigantic proportions. 
The difficulties in the way were at first almost in- 
surmountable ; but constant and untiring super- 
vision, intelligent experiments, and the devotion 
of eighteen hours out of every twenty-four much 
of the time, could not fail to bring good results, 
when imited with good business judgment and with 
one aim in view from which he has never swerved, — 
to earn a reputation for his goods and ever to main- 
tain it at any cost. In 1861 Mr. Bradley did a 
business of about fifteen thousand dollars. Now 
his company does the largest business of the kind 
in the world, requiring in all of its branches and 
connections a capital of over four million dollars, and 
employing over fifteen hundred men. In two or 
three years the small plant on the Back Bay was 
outgrown, and a new factory was built at North 
Weymouth, Mass., which formed the nucleus of the 

present immense works of the company. As the 
business grew Mr. .\mes's accommodations were 
largely extended from year to year, and out of the 
profits of the business alone these accommodations 
were retired and a working capital accumulated. 
In 1 87 1 came a grave crisis in Mr. Bradley's career. 
He was obliged to suspend payment and obtain an 
extension of six, twelve, eighteen, and twenty-four 
months, with interest added at seven per cent. 
These payments were all promptly made at ma- 
turity, and at the end of two years he had paid in 
full an indebtedness of five hundred and twenty- 
three thotisand dollars, with interest. He had 
saved his business and maintained his reputation. 
In sunshme and storm a strong friendship, based on 
mutual respect, continued between Mr. Bradley and 
Mr. Ames, each having implicit confidence in the 
word of the other, and asking for no better bond. 
How well that confidence was placed is shown by the 
fact that after the death of the latter, Mr. Bradley 
paid in to his estate the simi of about one hundred 
thousand dollars, for Mr. Ames's interest in the busi- 
ness, on the strength of the verbal understanding. 
From 1 86 1 to 1872 the business was done in Mr. 
Bradley's name, individually. In the latter year it 
passed into the hands of the corporation jireviously 
mentioned, formed under the laws of the Common- 
wealth, and known as the ISradley Fertilizer 
Company. Associated with Mr. Bradley in this 
corporation are his two sons, Peter B. Bradley as 
vice-president, and Robert S. Bradley as treasurer. 
Like father, like son ; but it is easier to keep 
a load rolling than to lift the first turn of the wheel. 

Brauv, Huch E., was born in Boston Dec. 4, 
1855. He was educated in the public schools, at- 
tending the Cooper-street Primary, the Mayhew 
Grammar, and the Evening High Schools. He 
learned the trade of a bookbinder and continued in it 
until 1887. He was a member of the Democratic 
city committee for several years, its secretary dur- 
ing 1884, 1885, and 1886. He also served in the 
common council in 1884, 1885, and 1886. In 
January, 1887, he was appointed by Mayor O'Brien 
to fill a vacancy in the board of street commis- 
sioners, and at the municipal election of that year 
he was elected to the board for a term of three 
years. In 1890, having received the nomination of 
the Democratic and Republican conventions, he 
was reelected for a further period of three years. 
Having been appointed by Mayor Matthews a 
member of the board of survey upon the passage 
of the act creating that body, he resigned the posi- 
tion of street commissioner May 17, 1891, entering 


11111)11 his new duti 
of a niiniher of sc 

clny. He is a member James and Eleanor Augusta (Harrington) 
iternal organizations. of Xewton. 

iJRKiHiN, W'li.i.iA.M I'm, MA)., son of Fere/, 
Martin and Harriet (Harrington) lirechin, was 
born in Cornwallis, N.S., March ii, 1851. He 
was educated in his native place and at Acadia Col- 


lege, from which he grailtiated in 1.S69. Coming to 
the United States, he entered the Harvard Medical 
School, and graduated in 1872. He was then for 
two years assistant surgeon of the Massachusetts 
Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary. He is now 
medical examiner for the ^■ermont Life Insurance 
Company, and also for the John Hancock Life In- 
surance Company, and surgeon to the First Regi- 
ment Patriarchs Militant (Odd Fellows). Dr. 
Brechin is a member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society and of the American Medical Association. 
He is also a member of the New England Historic 
( lenealogical Society, and a contributor to the " \Vest- 
ern Chronicle" of Kentville, Kings county, N.S., his 
articles being historical and genealogical sketches of 
Kings county, N.S., and its early New England in- 
habitants. He is past high priest of St. Paul's Royal 
Arch Chapter of Boston, a member of De Molay 
Commandery, Knights I'emplar, and of the .Massa- 
chusetts Consistory, S.P.R.S. He is a justice of the 
peace for Suffolk county. Dr. Brechin was married 
Dec. 25, i,S<S4, to Miss .Mice Florence, daughter of 

Brkf.d, I''rancis \V., one of the most prominent 
shoe- manufacturers of Lynn, is a native of that city. 
His extensive factories, when in full running-order, 
have a capacity of six or seven thousand pairs of 
shoes per day, and give employment to large num- 
bers of workmen. His progress in the business has 
been steady, and the rapid growth of his enterprises 
to their present proportions is due to his skilful 
management and thorough knowledge of the details 
of the trade and of the market, both for purchase 
and sale. He has travelled extensively in his own 
country as well as abroad. In politics he is Repub- 
lican, and has been prominent in his party, at one 
time being mentioned for the nomination for lieuten- 
ant-governor. In 1 89 1 he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Russell one of the Massachusetts commissioners 
to the \N'orld's Fair. He is president of the New 
England Shoe and Leather Association, elected to 
that position .-\pril 6, 1892. His residence on Ocean 
street in Lynn, having a beautiful outlook over the 
bay, is one of the most attractive homes on the 
North Shore. 

I'iRF.KU, Joseph J., born in Lynn, Mass., is a direct 

descendant of Allen Breed, who seltlcd in I ,ynn in 
1630, and from whom Breed's Hill, now Biinkci 

1 56 


Hill, was named. He received his education in the 
public schools of Lynn. For some years he was a 
frequent contributor to the press, and is now editor 
of the ".^gis Record," the official organ of the order 
of which he is vice-prepident. He has been honored 
with the highest offices in other bodies, and now 
holds the secretaryship of the Fraternal Beneficial 
Congress, a national league of the long-term assess- 
ment endowment fraternities of America. He has 
always been successful in his business undertakings, 
and is to-day the owner of an estate with several 
acres of land on the outskirts of Lynn, where he 
delights to retire from the cares of city life, and 
where, like Supreme President 1 )()l)son of the same 
order, he gratifies his taste in keeping a few choice 
specimens of blooded horses. 

Bkiik;ha.m, I'i-kcv Albkri', son of Albert and Martlia 
Campbell (Muddocks) Bridgliani, was born in ICast 
Eddington, Me., Nov. 5, 1850. He was educated 
in the public schools of Charleston and Bangor, 
Me., graduating from the high school in the latter 
city. He was assistant register of deeds of Penob- 
scot county. Me., from 1869 to 1872, and clerk of 
the common council of Bangor from 1870 to 1872. 
Then became to Boston and studied law in the office 


)f the late Alphonso L Robinson. Admitted Ic 
jar in 1875, he fornu'il a partnership with Mr. K( 

son which lasted five years. He has since practised 
alone in general law and conveyancing. For some 
years he has edited a legal department in the " Boston 
Globe," under the nom dc plume of " The People's 
Lawyer," and has published a book under the title 
of " One Thousand Legal (Questions answered by 
the People's Lawyer." He has foreclosed about 
seven hundred mortgages, probably the largest mnn- 
ber handled by any one man in Boston. Mr. Bridg- 
ham is a member of a number of orders. He is junior 
deacon of Mt. Olivet Lodge of Free and .-Accepted 
Masons, Cambridgeport ; junior sagamore, Hobo- 
mok 'I'ribe, Independent Order of Red Men, Boston ; 
member of Cambridge Royal Arch Chapter ; lioston 
Council Royal and Select Masters ; and Cambridge 
Commandery, Knights Templar. He was married 
Scjit. 12, 1870, to Miss Lydia M. Wentworth : 
they have two children : .Albert .Mphonso and Gladys 
Ruth Bridgham. 

Briggs, Frkdf.ric Mfxanciiion, M.I)., was born 
in Longwooil, Mass., Nov. 23, 1857. He was edu 
cated in the Brookline schools, and graduated from 
Harvard College in 1879, and the Harvard Medica! 
School in 1883. For some time he was surgica! 
house-officer at the Massachusetts (leneral Hos- 
pital, and then went abroad. Returning to Bostoi: 
in 1 886, he has since remained here in private prac- 
tice. Dr. Briggs is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, of the Boston Society for Medica! 
Imiirovement, of the Boston Society for Medica! 
( )bservalion, and Surgeon to the Boston Dispensary, 

liRicaiAM, CnARi.KS, architect, was born in Water- 
town, Mass., June 21, I 841. He was educated ir 
the public schools of his iiati\-e town, graduating 
from the high school in 1858. The same year he 
entered, as student, the office of Calvin Ryder 
architect, of Boston. In 1860-61 he was draughts- 
man in the office of Gridley J. F. Bryant. In 1862 
he enlisteil and served nine months in the field as 
second sergeant in Company K, Fifth Massachusetts 
Volunteers. On his return he renewed the study anc 
practice of architecture under Mr. Bryant and in the 
office of John H. Sturgis, with whoin he entered intc 
partnership in 1866 — a relation whieh continued 
until 1886, a short time previous to the death of Mr 
Stiirfjis. In 1888 he became associated with Johr 
C. Spollord, which partnership terminated in Febru- 
ary, 1S92. .Among the principal buildings designer 
during his association with Mr. Sturgis are the Bureai 
of Charities on Chardon street, the Musemn of Fine 
.\rts, the Boston Voting Men's Christian .\ssociatior 
Buildinu, the Church of the Advent, and the Massa- 

r/j> ra^ 


chusetts Hospital Life Insurance Building on State 
street. In 1890 and 1 891, while associated with Mr. 
Spol'ford, the extension of the Maine State Caiiitol 
an<l other important works were built ; and among 
the recent buildings designed by him and now in 
progress are the Massachusetts State House exten- 
sion, begim in 1890, the Pubhc Library and Town 
Hall at Fairhaven, Mass., and the Inebriates' Hos- 
pital at Foxborough. He has always resided in 
W'atertown, where he has held various public offices, 
having served several years on the school committee, 
and four years, 1884-87, as chairman of the board 
of selectmen ; has been a member of the board of 
trusteesof the Public Library since 1888, of which he 
has been chairman for the last three years ; has 
been president of the Cooperative Bank since its 
establishment ; and is a director of the Union Market 
National Bank. He was master of the Pequossette 
Lodge of Free Masons two years. 

i'.RicHT, \\'iLLi.AM Ellerv, was bom in Mobile, 
.-\la., Sept. 26, 183 1 ; died at Wahham, Mass., 
March 12, 1882. His father was Henry Bright, 
born in Waltham Aug. 31, 1793, and his mother, 
Abigail (Fiske) Bright, born Nov. 3, 1794. His 
earliest American ancestor upon his father's side 
was Henry Bright, born in the county of Suffolk, 
England, in 1602, and coming to this country in 
1630 with the company that settled in Watertown, 
Mass. William EUery Bright was of the seventh 
generation from this founder, and the order of his 
ancestry was as follows, viz. : Henry, Nathaniel, 
Nathaniel, Nathaniel, John, Henry, Henry. On the 
maternal side he was also of the sev^enth American 
generation. The succession was as follows : John, 
\Mlliam, Thomas, Jonathan, Jacob, .Abigail, and 
Henry. Mr. Bright received his early education at 
private schools in New England. He was for many 
years a member of the well-known firm of Torrey, 
Bright, & Capen, one of the leading carpet- houses of 
Boston. In 1861, February 28, he mairied Miss 
Elizabeth (i. Bright, daughter of Jonathan Brown 
Bright, of Waltham. From this union are three 
children, — a son, bearing his father's name, and two 
daughters, who, with their mother, survive. .A cor- 
respondent of the " Boston Transcript," who writes 
after a long and intimate acquaintance with Mr. 
Bright, says of him : " He was a man of excellent 
business faculty, with a calm, clear, and capacious 
head, a soul of the highest rectitude and honor, and 
a heart framed of generosity and kindness. In 1875 
the good people of \\altham elected him to the 
Ocneral Court, and urged him to be a candidate 
again the next year ; but the pressure of his business 

obliged him to decline. For the same reason he 
declined various other local offices which he was, 
from time to time, solicited to undertake. A con- 
tinuous residence of over thirty years in that town 
had made him well known ; liis steadfast integrity 
and his approved intelligence and liberality had 
gained him unbounded confidence, while the warm 
heart and open hand which he carried to works of 
piety and charity, his uniform suavity of manner, and 
his good judgment and frank cooperation in matters 
of public interest in town and church endeared him 
to the hearts of all who knew him." 

Brink, \\illum Hexrv, son of Robert and Ellen 
.Ann (Rowe) Brine, was born in Boston Sept. 

2 2, 1 84 1. He was the second of a family of ten 
children, all but two of whom are still living ; the 
parents celebrated their golden wedding in 1888. 
He was educated in the public s<:hools of Cambridge, 
and at the age of fourteen began work as a boy in 
the dry-goods shop of Jonathan Wheeler in l^ast 
Cambridge. Here he started on a salary of a dollar 
a week, but, alert and quick to learn, he soon became 
a salesman. Then he found employment with in- 
creased salary in the Boston dry-goods house of 
Hogg, lirown, & 'Jaylor. After remaining there 
a while he accepted a responsible position in the 
store of John Harrington, then in Somerville, and in 
1 86 1 , when but twenty years of age, he became 



partner in the business. A few years later the firm, 
in connection with W. L. Lovell, purchased the 
stock and stand of the Boston house of John 
Holmes & Co., on Tremont row, and there estab- 
lished a large and prosperous business. In 1884 
Mr. Harrington retired, and, the firm being dissolved, 
Mr. Brine formed a new partnership, which was con- 
tinued for seven years, when he dissolved and 
started alone at the corner of Tremont street and 
Pemberton square. Having had at one time four 
stores in Boston, one in Springfield, and one in 
Manchester, N.H., this is now his only place of busi- 
ness. The business at the present store, under the 
personal supervision of Mr. Brine, was increased 
more than fifty per cent, in the year 1891. The 
same year he visited Europe and established business 
connections with the English and Continental manu- 
facturers. Mr. Brine is a Republican in politics, and 
for many years served as treasurer of the Middlesex 
(political dining) Club. He was for twelve years a 
trustee of the Somerville Public Library. On Sept. 
26, 1865, he was married, in East Cambridge, Id 
Miss Hannah Southwick Cannon, daughter of John 
Cannon, of Cambridge. They have si.\ children : 
Henry Clinton, now with his father, Ellen, Blanche, 
^^"illiam Percival, .Alfred, and Francis Brine. 

Broderilk, Thomas Joseph, M.D., son of Daniel 
and Ellen (Hartnett) Broderick, was born in 
Exeter, N.H., Nov. 19, 1859. ^'^ early education 
was obtained in the public schools of Cambridge, 
whither his parents had moved when he was about 
four years of age. (Graduating from the Cambridge 
High School, he entered the Harvard Medical 
School in 1S79 ^'^'^ graduated in 1882. He imme- 
diately began the practice of his profession, estab- 
lishing himself in the Charlestown district. He is 
visiting physician to the Charlestown Free Dispen- 
sary and Hospital. During the nine years of his 
residence in the Charlestown district he has steadily 
advanced in his profession, and has secured a prac- 
tice which is not confined to that quarter alone, but 
extends to Chelsea, Medford, Somerville, Everett, 
and other nearby cities and towns. He is a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 

Brooks, Fr-ancis -Augustus, was born in Peters- 
ham May 23, 1824. His father, Aaron Brooks, 
was a lawyer of some note in his native town, and 
represented his district in the Legislature. Mr. 
Brooks prepared for college at the Leicester Acad- 
emy, and graduated from Harvard in 1842. He 
then studied law at the Harvard Law School and 
with his father, and was admitted to the Worcester 

county bar in 1845. He practised in Petersham 
until 1848, and then removed to Boston. His 
practice was chiefly in patent cases until 1875, since 
which time he has been engaged in railroad and 
corporation cases, gaining distinction in this especial 
line, among his notable cases being that of the Ver- 
mont Central Railroad, which lasted for upwards ol 
ten years. In politics Mr. Brooks is a Democrat ol 
the old school, but has never aspired to political 

Brooks, George M., judge of the probate court 
of Middlesex county at East Cambridge, was born 
in Concord, Mass. ; graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1844. He was admitted to the bar in 1847. 
from Lowell, Mass., and continued to practise until 
1872, when he was appointed judge of the court ol 
probate and insolvency in Middlesex county. He 
was in the lower house of the Legislature one term, 
and in the senate one term, and was a representative 
in Congress from 1869 to 1872. His father also was 
a lawyer. 

r.RoOKS, Phillips, son of William Cray and Mary 
Ann ( Phillips) Brooks, was born in Boston Dec. 13, 
1835. He is descended on both the paternal and 
maternal side from Puritan clergymen — on his 
father's side from Rev. John Cotton, and on his 
mother's side from the Phillips family which founded 
the two famous Phillips .Academies. The father, 
grandfather, and great-grandfather of Samuel Phillips, 
who gave the greater part of the funds for the found- 
ing of the Andover academy, were all ministers. 
Phillips Brooks is one of a group of four brothers 
ordained to the Episcopal ministry. His father was 
for forty years a hardware merchant in Boston, and 
was a member of St. Paul's Church. Phillips Brooks's 
boyhood was passed partly in Boston, and partly in 
North Andover in the old Phillips manse. He was 
educated in the Boston Latin School and at Harvard 
College, which he entered at the age of sixteen. 
After graduating, in 1855, he was for a time uslier 
in the Boston Latin School, and then, deciding to 
enter the ministry, he went to Alexandria, \a., and 
pursued a course of study in the Protestant Episco- 
pal Theological Seminary there. In 1859 he was 
ordained and became rector of the Church of the 
.Advent in Philadelphia. Three years later he went 
to the Church of the Holy Trinity, in the same city, 
and remained there until 1869, when he became 
rector of Trinity Church in Boston. From this 
pulpit his fame has spread far and wide. In 1880, 
and again in 1882-83, he was in ?:ngland, where 
he received marked attentions. During the latter 



HOS'ION OF 'rO-l.)AY. 


vacation, which was of a year's duration, lie was 
accompanied by his brother. Rev. John Cotton 
Brooks, and both of them preached in St. Botolph's 
Church, in old Boston, l.incohishire, where their 
ancestor, John Cotton, preached generations before. 
Dr. Brooks also delivere 1, by invitation of Dean 
Stanley, a sermon before the (^ueen in the Chapel 
Royal at the Savoy, London. He preached in other 
London churches, among them St. Mark's Church, 
Upper Hamilton terrace : Westminster Abbey ; St. 
Margaret's Church, Westminster ; Christ Church, 
Lancaster (iate ; St. Mark's Church, Kensington ; St. 
Paul's Cathedral ; Temple Church and Christ Church, 
Marylebone ; also in Wells Cathedral, Lincoln 
Cathedral, and St. l'eter-at-.\rcher, Lincoln. After 
his return home these sermons were published in 
a volume entitled " Sermons preached in English 
Churches." Dr. Brooks's other publications — 
namely, collections of his sermons and lectures — 
are: "The Life and Death of Abraham Lincoln" 
(Philadelphia, 1865), " Our Mercies of Reoccupa- 
tion " (Philadelphia, 1865), ".Addresses by Bishops 
and Clergy of the Protestant Episcopal Church " 
(Philadelphia, 1S69), "The Living Church " ( Phila- 
delphia, 1869), "Sermon preached before the .\n- 
cient and Honorable .\rtillery Company of Boston " 
(Boston, 1872), "Address delivered May 30, 1873, 
at the Dedication of .'\ndover Memorial Hall " (.An- 
dover, 1873), " Lectures on Preaching," Vale College 
(New York, 1877), "Sermons" (New York, 1878), 
"The Influence of Jesus," the Bohlen lecture deliv- 
ered in Philadelphia in 1879 (New York, 1879), 
" Pulpit and Popular Scepticism " (New York, 1879), 
" The Candle of the Lord and other Sermons " 
(New York, 1883), "Twenty Sermons" (New 
York, 1886), and "Tolerance," two lectures to 
divinity students (New York, 1887). The "Ser- 
mons preached in English Churches " was published 
in 1883. In i88i Dr. Brooks was offered the office 
of Plummer professor of Christian morals and 
preacher to Harvard University, but after patient 
and serious consideration declined it. He also 
subsequently declined the office of assistant bishop 
of Pennsylvania. In 1891 he was elected bishop of 
the diocese of Massachu.setts, to succeed Bishop 
Paddock, who died in 1890. Bishop Brooks is 

Brown, Bulkminster, M.D., distinguished as an 
orthopedic surgeon, was born in Boston July 13, 
1819 ; died in Auburndale, Dec. 24, 1891. He was 
descended from ancestors eminent in medical and 
surgical science. His paternal grandfather was a well- 
known physician in inland Massachusetts. His father. 

I )r. John Ball Brown, of ISoston, was the lirst surgeon 
to introduce subcutaneous tenotomy into New Eng- 
land. His maternal grandfather, Dr. John Warren, 
was one of the founders of the Harvard Medical 
School and the first professor of surgery in that 
institution. Buckminster Brown graduated from 
the Harvard Medical School in 1844. In 1S45 
and 1846 he was in Europe studying orthopsedic 
surgery: in P^ngland, under Dr. W. J. Little, of 
London; in France, under Drs. Jules GuiSrin and 
Bouvier; and in dermany, under Professor Stroh- 
meyer ; also visiting the large hospitals of F^ngland 
and the Continent. On his return to Boston, in 
1 S46, he immediately established himself in this city 
as a general practitioner. Orthopaedic surgery was 
at that early day in its infancy in New England. 
Dr. Brown's interest in this branch of his profession 
constantly increasing, and his practice in this spe- 
cialty becoming extensive and absorbing, he gradually 
relinquished general practice, and for many years 
devoted himself almost wholly to this branch of 
surgery. Patient study and frequent experiment 
enabled him to aid his surgical skill by apparatus 
and instruments of his own invention, which have 
proved most useful in the treatment of the sequete 
of hip disease, and also for spinal and limb de- 
formities. From time to time Dr. Brown pub- 
lished the results of his experience, in the medical 
and surgical journals of the country. Among these 
monographs are the following, the first published in 
1842, the last in 1885: "Recent Improvements 
in Medicine and Surgery," January, 1842 ; "Treat- 
ment and Cure of Cretins and Idiots," 1847; "^ 
Case of Extensive 1 )isease of the Cervical Vertebrae, 
with Clinical Remarks, etc." (this paper has been 
largely quoted by Dr. Broadhurst, the eminent 
English authority in this branch of surgery), 1853 ; 
" Cases of Talipes or Club Foot, with Illustrations," 
1858; '■■ Cases in Orthopaedic Surgery, with Photo- 
graphic Illustrations," 1868; "Femoral .\neurism 
cured by Direct Compression while the Patient was 
taking Active Exercise. Death from Peritonitis 
Ten Years after, with a Plate of the .'\neuiism and 
Enlarged Arteries," 1875 ; " Influence of the Pre- 
vailing Methods of Education on the Production 
of Deformity in \'oung Persons of both Sexes, with 
Plates," 1879, a lecture before the American 
.Social Science .Association ; " Description of an 
Apparatus for the Treatment of Contraction and 
False .Anchylosis of the Hip Joint," 1881 ; " Ex- 
tension in the Treatment of Diseased Vertebras," 
1884; "Double Congenital Displacement of the 
Hip, Description of a Case with Treatment result- 
ing in Cure, with Plates," 1885. This pamphlet 



has been extensively referred to by Dr. .\dams, 
of London, and other orthopa;dic surgeons of the 
day. Dr. Brown was, for nineteen years, sur- 
geon to the House of the Clood Samaritan. For 
many years he was councillor of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. He was a member and formerly 
librarian of the Boston Society for Medical Im- 
provement, a member of the Boston Medical Asso- 
ciation, of which he was formerly secretary and 
treasurer, and a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Benevolent Society. He was married in 
May, 1864, to Sarah Alvord Newcomb, daughter of 
Joseph Warren Newcomb, and great-granddaughter 
of Oen. Joseph Warren. 

Brown, Knoch S., supreme commander of the 
American Legion of Honor, was born in Brooklyn, 
N.Y., in 1847. After studying law for about three 


years, he engaged in the printing business. For 
two years he was employed in the editorial room of 
the " Brooklyn Daily Times," and afterwards man- 
aged the mechanical department of that paper. 
Subsequently he formed a partnership with Henry 
C. Wilson, and established the lithographing and 
printing house of Brown & Wilson. In 1875 Mr. 
Brown joined the ( )dd Fellows, and not long after 
became a member of the Royal .'Vrcanum, the 
National Provident Union, the Knights of Honor, 
and the American Legion of Honor. He is also a 

member of the Masonic order. His connection as 
a worker in the Legion of Honor began with the 
institution of the Grand Council of New York. He 
is a member of the committee on statistics and 
good of the order of the National Fraternal Con- 
gress. He is pronounced a master of the subject of 
fraternal insurance. 

Browx, J. Merrill, architect, was born in Con- 
way March 11, 1853. After the usual time spent 
in the public schools, he entered the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, finishing his architectural 
studies in the offices of H. H. Richardson and 
Peabody & Stearns. In 1882 he began practice for 
himself. He is the architect of many handsome 
and picturesque residences in the Dorchester dis- 
trict, Cambridge, Arlington, Lexington, Melrose, 
Marblehead, Milton, Fall River, Newtonville, Win- 
chester, Newton, Clifton, Brookline, New Bedford, 
Swansea, Woburn, and Somerville, Mass. ; Albany 
and Watertown, N.Y. ; and Kennebunkport, Me. 
The Massasoit National Bank, Fall River ; Eddy 
Building, New Bedford ; Town Hall, Swansea ; Gram- 
mar schools at Newton and Woburn ; Frost Brothers' 
apartment-house in the Dorchester district ; ex-Gov- 
ernor Brackett's residence at Arlington, — are all 
built after designs made by him. He also designed 
the cottage, stable, and interiors for Governor 
Flower, Watertown, N.\'. His present offices are in 
the new State-street Exchange Building. 

BRV.A.Nr, John Duncan, son of John and Mary A. 
(Duncan) Bryant, both natives of New Hampshire, 
and their parents Massachusetts people, was born in 
Meriden, N.H., Oct. 21, 1829. He came to Boston 
at the age of fifteen, and fitted for college in the 
Boston Latin School. He entered Harvard, and 
graduated in 1853. Then he studied law in the 
Harvard Law School and in the office of Willian: 
Dehore. He was admitted to the bar in 1857, and 
was in practice with Mr. Dehore until the latter re- 
tired, some fifteen years later. Since that time he 
has been engaged in general practice alone, and hi; 
present office is in the State-street Exchange Build- 
ing. For some years Mr. Bryant has been largel> 
employed as counsel for insurance companies, fire 
and marine, and other corporations, and in the care 
of trusts and settlement of estates ; has been directoi 
of railroad and other corporations. In politics he 
has always been independent. He is a member ol 
Trinity Church. Mr. Bryant married Miss Ellen 
Reynolds, of Boston. 


Lewis L., M.D., son of Lewis H. and 



Sophia (Mayberry) Bryant, was born in Casco, Me., 
May 14, 1850. His early education was begun in 
the local schools of his native town, and finished in 
the public schools of Cambridge, Mass., to which 
city his parents removed when he was eight years 
old. At the age of seventeen he went to work, and 
continued actively in business until 1871, when he 
began the study of medicine with Dr. Hildreth, of 
Cambridge. Afterwards he entered the Harvard 
Medical School. Graduating in 1874, he immedi- 
ately began the successful practice of his profession 
Since 1883 he has been assistant city physician of 
Cambridge. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society and of the Cambridge Medical 
Improvement Society. He is also prominently iden- 
tified with the Masonic order. On Oct. 12, 1874, 
Dr. Bryant married Miss Abbie M., daughter of 
Seth M. Wiley, of Bostbn ; they have had three 
children : Mola, Seth, and Horace Bryant, all of 
whom died in infancy. 

Bryant, Napoleon B., was born in East Andover, 
N.H., Feb. 25, 1825. His parents were among 
the honored citizens of the town, possessing but a 
limited amount of means, but rich in those attain- 
ments of character which characterized the sturdy 
New England people of their day. The mother was 
of Revolutionary stock, and from one of the oldest 
families in her native town, and the father was a man 
of high character and fine natural endowments, and 
for years filled a position in life parallel to that of a 
general lawyer of to-day, acting as magistrate, trial 
and otherwise, for many years, making deeds, wills, 
and contracts, settling up estates, and so on. Young 
ISryant's early education was obtained under dilifi- 
culties, the first schools being only those afforded by 
the district and one term at a private school, to at- 
tenil which he was compelled to walk about two and 
a half miles each way daily. At ten years of age he 
entered the high school at Franklin, but was able to 
attend only half a term. A similar privilege was 
accorded him at the age of eleven and twelve. .\t 
the age of fourteen he borrowed money enough 
from a relation to defray the expense of an entire 
term at Boscawen Academy, giving his note there- 
for, which note he repaid with interest at the end of 
three years. Here he studied trigonometry and sur- 
veying, and for several years afterwards earned con- 
siderable sums to aid him in further prosecuting his 
studies, by surveying in his own and adjoining towns. 
And it was at this age that he began life for himself, 
determining to be self-supporting and at the same 
time continue his education. At fifteen he began 
teaching, and taught every winter until he left col- 

ege. Thus lacking means he drifted about, a term 
at a time, among the various academies in the State, 
at Concord, Claremont, Cilmanton, and New Lon- 
don, until he entered New Hampton, joining a class 
which was to fit for college in one year from that 
time. Here he took the studies of the freshman 
year, entered the sophomore class at Waterville at 
the same time his fellow-classmates entered as fresh- 
men. At the age of twenty-two years he entered 
the ofiice of Nesmith & Pike, of Franklin, and after 
almost two years of hard study entered Harvard Law 
School, from which he graduated in 1848. At the 
November term of the same year he was admitted to 
the bar of Crafton county, and immediately began 
practice at Bristol. At the age of twenty- five he 
was elected one of the commissioners of Grafton 
county — a position which he held three years, being 
chairman of the board two years. At twenty-nine 
he was appointed prosecuting attorney (solicitor) for 
( Irafton county, and discharged the duties of that 
office with marked ability. In 1853 he removed to 
Plymouth, and from that time was engaged on 
one side or the other of nearly every important 
cause tried by the jury. In 1855 he removed to 
Concord and entered into partnership with Lyman 
T. Flint, who had assisted him at New Hampton in 
fitting for the sophomore year. His practice soon 
became extended to Belknap and Hillsborough, 
while he retained his hold in Merrimack and upon 
his old clients in Grafton ; and thus we find him at 
the age of thirty, a lawyer with a large practice and 
a fine reputation established over a large part of his 
State. Up to 1856 Mr. Bryant affiliated with the 
Democratic party, but after the passage of the Ne- 
braska bill, and the troubles which had arisen in 
Kansas, he left that party and supported by voice 
and vote the nomination of Fremont for president. 
In 1857 he was elected to represent the sixth ward 
of Concord in the State Legislature, and was re- 
elected in 1858 and 1859. The last two years he 
served as speaker of the House, and his record as 
such was forcible, consistent, and brilliant. He left 
the position with the respect of all, for the ability, 
fairness, and courtesy which he had displayed. He 
was conspicuous during the bilter fight waged over 
the judicial system of the State, and while speaker 
he devised and succeeded in having passed the bill 
proviiling for the present system of New Hampshire. 
In i860 he was present at the Chicago national 
convention as a substitute delegate, and worked 
strenuously and effectively for the nomination of Mr. 
Lincoln ; and he afterwards stumped New Hamp- 
shire in his behalf. He was also a delegate from 
Massachusetts to the lialtimore convention which 



again placed Mr. Lincoln in nomination. In the 
latter part of i860 Mr. Bryant removed to Boston, 
and has since continued here the practice of law, 
securing a place of prominence at the bar. 

BucH.^N.iN, Joseph Rodes, son of Dr. Joseph 
and Nancy Buchanan, was born in Frankfort, Ky., 
December 11, 181 4. At the age of fifteen he was 
left, by the death of his father, to maintain himself 
unaided ; and as a printer, teacher, and medical 
student he took an original course. In 1835, when 
he reached his majority, he began the career of a 
public teacher. Devoting himself to his chosen 
lifework, the consummation of physiology, by ascer- 
taining the unexplained functions of the brain and 
nervous system, and founding his labors on the 
theory of Gall and Spurzheim, he subjected this 
theory to years of analysis and criticism. In 1841 
his study of comparative development was super- 
seded by the discovery of the impressibility of the 
brain, and the power of so affecting the brains of 
intelligent persons as to determine the location of 
their various functions. The following year he pub- 
lished his explanation of the brain, showing the 
psychic and physiological functions of all parts, a 
condensed statement of which he afterwards gave in 
his " System of .Anthropology," published in 1854. 
Having graduated from the medical department of 
the Louisville University, he presented his conclu- 
sions to the faculty and authorities of that institution 
for examination. He was sustained by Professor 
Caldwell, and afterwards by Robert Dale Owen. 
Subsequently, in the winter of 1842-3, he pre- 
sented the subject in New York, where he received 
the indorsement of a committee of prominent men, 
William Cullen Bryant being the chairman. Subse- 
quently he gave experimental illustrations of the 
science of psychometry, first presented by him in 
1842, the principles of which are set forth in his 
" Manual of Psychometry," published in 1885. In 
1846 he joined with a number of physicians in 
Cincinnati in establishing the Eclectic Medical 
Institute. He was made dean of the faculty of 
the institute, and his new physiology was its most 
striking novelty. In 1857 he left Cincinnati to 
attend to the interests of his family estate in Ken- 
tucky. During the Civil War and the year succeed- 
ing he was chairman of the Democratic State 
central committee, and his policy, producing har- 
mony between the conflicting parties there, was so 
highly appreciated that he was nominated by lead- 
ing citizens for governor ; but he declined to stand. 
In 1887 he took a position as professor in the 
Eclectic Medical College of New \'ork, which he 

held for four years. During this time the growth of 
the college was phenomenal. Dr. Buchanan was 
among the first to procure the admission of female 
students to a medical college. In 1882 he pub- 
lished " The New Education," which proposes a 
complete revolution in educational methods. Later 
he published " Therapeutic Sarcognomy," exhibit- 
ing the theory of the relations of the soul, brain, and 
body, and the new system of practice based upon 
it which he teaches in his Boston "College of 
Therapeutics." For years he has issued " Bu- 
chanan's Journal of Man," the aim of which is to 
pubhsh the results of his labors, and to apply to 
social progress the theories of his philosophy. Dr. 
Buchanan was first married in 1841, to Anne, 
daughter of Judge Rowan of Louisville, who had 
represented Kentucky in the United States Senate ; 
they had three sons and a daughter, all of whom 
are still living. In 1881 he married for his second 
wife Mrs. C. H. Decker, who has become promi- 
nent in the practice of psychometry. 

Buckley, Melville Bryant, was born in Green- 
point, L.I., May 19, iSoS. His jiarents removed 




to Danvers, Mass., when he was a child, and he 
obtained his early training in the grammar and 
high schools of that place. He began the study of 
dentistry with Dr. C. H. White, of Danvers, and 
after nearly two years of tuition came to Boston 

73 a r 




and entered the Boston Dental College, from which 
institution he graduated June, 1889. In September 
of the same year he accepted the position of demon- 
strator of mechanical dentistry at this college, which 
office he still most creditably fills. He is an active 
and energetic member of the Boston Dental College 
Alumni Association, and takes a deep interest in the 
affairs of that school. He is also a member of the 
Massachusetts Dental and the New England Den- 
tal Societies. 

BuLL.\RD, ^\'ILLIAM NoRTON, M.D., was bom in 
Newport, R.I., Aug. 23, 1853. He was educated 
in Boston private schools, graduated from Harvard 
in 1875, receiving the degree of A.B., and, taking a 
medical course, graduated from the Harvard Medi- 
cal School in 1880. He was also medical interne 
in the Massachusetts General Hospital, and then 
went abroad for two years, pursuing his professional 
studies in Vienna, Berlin, and Paris. He returned 
to Boston in 1882, where he has since remained in 
the practice of his profession. Dr. Bullard is visiting 
l)hysician to Carney Hospital, physician for diseases 
of the nervous system to out-patients of the Boston 
City Hospital, physician for diseases of the nervous 
system to the Boston Dispensary, and neurologist to 
the Children's Hospital. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, the American Neuro- 
logical Society, the New England Psychological 
Society, the Boston Society for Medical Improve- 
ment, the Boston Medico-psychological Society, and 
the Boston Society for Medical Sciences. He has 
been a frequent contributor to the various medical 
journals; among the topics discussed by him being 
" Chronic Tea-poisoning," " A Case of Cerebral Lo- 
calization with Double Trephining," and " Provision 
for the Care of Pauper Epileptics in Massachusetts." 

BuRDElT, JosHPH ( )., SOU of Joseph and Sally 
(Mansfield) Burdett, was born in South Reading 
(now Wakefield), Mass., Oct. 30, 1848. He was 
educated in the local schools and at Tufts College, 
graduating, in 1871, second in his class, notwith- 
standing the fact that he was absent nearly one-half 
of his senior year earning money to meet his college 
expenses. Immediately after graduation he began 
the study of law in the office of Judge Hammond, 
then city solicitor of Cambridge, and the same year 
entered the Harvard School. He was admitted 
to the Middlesex bar in April, 1873, and began 
jiractice with Mr. Hammond. The following year 
he removed to Hingham, where he has since resided, 
and subsequently opened his law office in ]')Oston. 
In Hingham he has been for many years a member 

of the school board, the past dozen years its chair- 
man. In 1884 and 1885 he representetl the town in 
the lower house of the Legislature, serving both 
years as House chairman of the committee on pub- 
lic service, which in 18S4 reported the civil-service 
bill now in the statutes. In the session of 1885 he 
was also a member of the committee on the judi- 
ciary. In 1886 he was made a member of the 
Republican State central committee, and in 1889 
was its chairman. Mr. Burdett, while enjoying a 
lucrative practice, is also prominent in local business 
interests. He is interested in the electric-lighting 
company of Hingham, and is president of the Rock- 
land Hotel Company, which owns the hotels Nantas- 
ket and Rockland on Nantasket beach. In t874 
Mr. Burdett was married to Miss Ella, daughter of 
John K. Corthell, of Hingham; they have three 
children : Harold Corthell, Edith Mansfield, and 
Helen Ripley Burdett. 

Burke, John H., was born in Chelsea Sept. 6, 
1856. \\'hen an infant his parents removed to Ohio, 
but two years after they returned and made their 
home in South Boston. There he received his early 
education in the public schools. In 1872 he 
entered Boston College, employing his spare time in 
the law office of his half-brother, Gen. P. A. Collins. 
In 1875 he became a regular student in General 
Collins's office, and also entered the Boston L^niver- 
sity Law School. He graduated in 1877. The 
same year he was made chief clerk to the licensing 
board of Boston, which position he held until the 
autumn of 1878, when he resigned. In October, 
that year, he was admitted to the bar. In 1883 he 
became a partner in the law firm of Collins, Burke, 
& Griffin. In 1888 he was president of the Chari- 
table Irish Society. Early in 1891 he was appointed 
to his present position as associate justice of the 
municipal court, by Governor Russell. In politics 
Judge Burke has always been a Democrat. In 1882 
he was married and established his home in the Dor- 
chester district. His family consists of his wife and 
three children. 

Bl'rnham, l.AMoNi' G., son of Washington and 
Mary (Giddings) Burnham, was born in Essex, 
Mass., on Aug. 5, 1844. He was educated in the 
public schools of his native town and at the Putnam 
High School in Newburyport. At the breaking out of 
the Civil War he enlisted at the early age of eighteen 
in Company K of the Forty-eighth Massachusetts 
Infantry, U.S.N'. Col. Eben F. Stone, of Newbury- 
port, was in command, and young Burnham served 
under him until the regiment was mustered out of 



service. He enlisted a second time, in Company F, 
Third Massacliusetts Infantry, of wlnicli Col. Charles 
R. Codman was the commander. He was afterwards 
appointed captain on the staff of Cen. Isaac S. Bur- 


rell, iM.V.M., serxing here until the resignation of 
his leader, after which he was given a similar posi- 
tion on the staff of Brig.-Cen. Hoban Moore. He 
was also made a provost-marshal. After this he 
was elected captain of Troop D, First Battalion of 
Cavalry — a position which he resigned two years 
later. I'pon being mustered out of the service, Mr. 
Burnham began business as a clerk with Batchelder 
Brothers in the coal trade. He devoted himself to 
his work with energy, and in 1868 he entered into 
partnership with Charles F. Newell under the firm 
name of Newell & Burnham, succeeding to the 
business of William Wood it Co. on Charles street. 
Everything went well with the new firm. Three 
years later, in 1S71, Mr. Xewell retired, and the 
business has since been continued under the name 
of L. G. Burnham & Co., Mr. Burnham being, as 
ever, its moving and inspiring genius. Where 
William Wood & Co. sold four thousand fi\e hun- 
dred tons yearly, L. (J. Burnham & Co. now sell 
nearly two hundred thousand tons. They do nearly 
all their own transportation, and own two ocean- 
steamers and four ocean-barges. They handle both 
anthracite and bituminous coal. With a main office 
at No. 75 State street, they have branch offices and 

wharves at No. 144 Charles street and Swett street, 
Mount Washington avenue and ( iranite street, South 
Boston, and No. 221 Bridge street. East Cambridge. 
He is Republican in politics. He has held numerous 
positions of trust and honor. He is vice-president 
of the Chamber of Commerce, treasurer of the Bos- 
ton Executive Business .\ssociation, and a director in 
the Mechanics National Bank of Boston. He is a 
member of Washington Lodge Free and Accepted 
Masons. Mr. Burnham married Miss May A.Wood, 
daughter of Rufus Merrill, of Lowell, on the 30th <>( 
June, 1881. They have no children. 

r,L-RNs, Mark F., son of Charles .\. and Eli/.a- 
l)eth (Hutchinson) Burns, was born in Milford, 
N.H., May 24, 1841. He comes of good old New 
England stock, and his parents were among the 
earliest of the anti-slavery agitators. He spent his 
early life on his father's farm, and obtained his 
education in the public schools of his native town 
and at the Appleton .'\cademy in Mount Vernon, 
X.H. He taught school for four years, and in 
1S66 came to Boston. Here he engaged first in the 
?clail milk-business, five years after entering the 
wholesale trade as a milk contractor, so called. He 

is now one of the largest retail milk-dealers iu the 
city, and is treasurer of the Boston I )airy Company, 
one of the largest milk-companies in the country, 
handling all of the milk on the line of the Fitchburg 



Railroad and its tributaries, taking the milk pro- 
duced on over eight hundred different farms. Since 
iS66 Mr. Burns's business headquarters have been in 
the Charlestown district, and since 1873 he has re- 
sided in Somerville, now on his own estate at the 
corner of Pearl and Mt. Vernon streets. He was 
a member of the Somerville common council in 
18S0-1, the latter year its president ; of the board of 
aldermen in 1882-3 ; trustee of the Public ]-ibrary 
in I S84 ; and mayor of the city during the years 
1S85, 1886, 1 88 7, and 1888. He is secretary of the 
Mayors' Club of Massachusetts, which position he 
has held, with the exception of one year, since its or- 
ganization in 1887. He is a director in the Monu- 
ment National Bank of Charlestown, a trustee in the 
Charlestown Five Cents Savings Bank, and a direc- 
tor as well as treasurer in the Boston Dairy Com- 
pany ; and he was for several years president of the 
Milk Contractors' .Association. On Nov. i 7, 1862, Mr. 
fSurns married Miss Elvira Bowers ; their children 
are Samuel A., Robert, Maud, and Paul S. Burns. 

Burr, Chaiincv Rka, M.D., was born in Port- 
land, .Me., Oct. 16, 1S62. His early education was 
acquired in Portland, and then he entered Dart- 
mouth College. Subsequently, in 1884, he gradu- 
ated Ph.B. from Vale College, and ne.xt from 
Harvard Medical School in i888. .Afterwards he 
went abroad, studying his profession at Dublin and 
London. Returning to Boston in 1889 he has since 
practised his profession in this city. Dr. Burr has 
been district physician to the Boston Dispensary 
since October, 1890. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society and of the Suffolk 
District Medical Society. He was married July 25, 

1889, to Miss Frances, daughter of the late Maj.- 
Cen. James Brewerton Ricketts, U.S..\., of Wash- 
ington, D.C. 

lluRKAGE, Walier Li.vcoi.N, M.I)., was born in 
Boston Oct. 21, i860. He was educated in the 
public schools of this city, and in Mr. Noble's 
private school. He received the degree of A.B. 
from Harvard in 1883, and the degrees of .A.M. 
and M.l). in 1888 from the Harvard Medical 
Scho(jl. On the completion of his service as house- 
officer at tlie Boston City Hospital, he went to New 
\ork, where he remained a year and a half, and 
graduated from the Woman's Hospital there P'eb. i, 

1890. Then he returned to Boston, where he has 
since remained in the practice of his profession. 
Dr. ISurrage is now gynzecologist to St. lOlizabeth's 
Hospital, electro- therapeutist to the Free Hospital 
for Women, and gynaecologist to out-patients at the 

Carney Hospital. He is a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, of the Warren Club and 
of the .Alumni .Association, \Voman's Hospital. 

BuRREi.i., Herbert I.esi.ik, M.D., was born in 
Boston .April 27, 1856. He was educated in the 
public schools. He graduated from the Harvard 
Medical School in 1879, and received his degree 
of M.D. He was then house surgeon at the Boston 
City Hospital, and afterwards admitting physician 
at the same institution. In 1882 he was appointed 
surgeon to the Carney Hospital, which position he 
still holds. He is also surgeon to the Children's 
Hospital, and since 1 885 has been connected with 
the Boston City Hospital as surgeon to out-patients 
and assistant visiting-surgeon. He has been de- 
monstrator of surgical appliances and instructor in 
surgery since 1886, and is now instructor in clinical 
surgery. Dr. Burrell is a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, of the Boston Society for 
Medical Improvement, the Boston Society for Medi- 
cal Observation, and the American Orthopaedic 
Society. He is lieutenant-colonel and medical 
director of the First Brigade Massachiisetts Volun- 
teer Militia, and also president of the board of 
medical officers at the State House. He is a 
regular contributor to the " Boston Medical and 
Surgical Journal," as reporter of surgical progress. 
He confines his practice to surgery. 

Burrell, Isaac Sanderson, son of Benjamin and 
Lucy (Baird) Burrell, was born in Dorchester 
Oct. 13, 1820. He was educated in the Roxbury 
public and Latin schools. He began active life 
in 1844 as a carriage-builder, and with this busi- 
ness he was connected for many years. He early 
became identified with local affairs in Roxbury, and 
has held important positions there. During Pierce's 
administration he was appointed postma.ster, and 
served through Buchanan's administration. Sub- 
secpiently he served with distinction in the Civil 
\\'ar, and immediately after his return he was ap- 
pointed city marshal of Roxbury. In this posi- 
tion he remained two years, then resigning, again 
to take the place of postmaster, to which he was 
reappointed by President Johnson. He continued 
as ])ostmaster until the anne.xation of Roxbury to 
Boston, and the office was made a station. He 
was three years a representative in the lower house 
of the Legislature (1856, 1857, and i860), and 
served two years in the common council, and one 
in the board of aldermen ( 1 86 1 ) of Roxbury. 
Since 1S71 he has been a member of the board 
of street commissioners of Boston. Cleneral Burrell 



joined the Roxbury Artillery in 1840, and he has 
held all the different military offices, retiring as briga- 
dier-general of the First Brigade of the Militia. 
During the Civil War he commanded the Forty- 
second Massachusetts Regiment as colonel. He was 
taken prisoner at the battle of Galveston, Tex., and 
was held in confinement eighteen months and twenty- 
two days. He is a member of the G..A.R. (Post 26), 
the Loyal Legion, and other military organizations. 
He is also a Free Mason. He was married Jan. 23, 
1848, to Miss Maria A. Newell; they have six chil- 
dren: Maria L., Emma A., Benjamin H., Sarah S., 
Gertrude A., and Isaac H. Burrell. 

BuRr, Ge(>ri;e I.., was born in Walpole, N.H., 
Nov. 3, 1829. He was educated in the local 

the Roach Memorial Church and Liversidge Institute 
are theirs. Mr. Burt has resided in Mattapan since 
1848, is a director of the Dorchester Cooperative 
Bank, and was a member of the council four years. 
He served in the House of Representatives in 1880, 
1 88 1, and 1882, and was elected to the State senate 
in 1884 and 1885. He served on the committee ap- 
pointed by the governor to select a site for the insane 
asylum, and bought the four-hundred-acre farm at 
Medfield for $21,000, the allowance being $25,000. 
.^s the buildings secured were worth §9,000, the com- 
mittee obtained the site for about one-half the limit. 
Mr. Burt is an active member of the Master Builders' 
Association and of the Charitable Mechanic Asso- 
ciation. He was married in ^Valpole, N.H., to Miss 
Ellen A. Darby, of that town, on .Aug. 8, 1852. 

Burt, Johx H., son of Holland and .Xancy (Wat- 
kins) Burt, was born in Walpole, N.H., June 6, 1827. 
His early education was acquired in the public 
schools and academy of his native town. He learned 
the trade of a carpenter and builder, and coming 
early to Massachusetts, in 1850, established with his 
brother, George L. Burt, the contracting and building 
firm of J. H. Burt & Co., with headquarters in Matla- 
])an. The next year .Sumner .A. Burt was admitted 
to partnership, and the three brothers continued 


schools. He started business as carpenter and 
builder in Mattapan in 1850, in partnership with his 
brother, John H. Burt, and shortly after their older 
brother, Sumner A. Burt, was admitted, the business 
being conducted under the firm name of J. H. 
Burt & Co. Sumner A. Burt died in 1886, and the 
two younger brothers have since continued the busi- 
ness under the same style and name, and contract to 
any extent for all work, masonry as well as carpen- 
tering. They have done all sorts of building on ^^^^ ^ ^ 
churches, schools, business blocks, paper-mills, and 

fine residences, the latter being their great specialty, together for thirty-five year 
Many of the finest residences of Milton and Canton, Sumner A. dying 

886, the business 

notable \ 
has since 




conducted by the original partners. [For examples 
of their work see sketch of Cleorge L. Burt.] Mr. 
Burt has resided in Milton for forty years, and was 
selectman of the town for nine years. He is a mem- 
ber of the Master Builders' Association and the 
Charitable Mechanic .Association. He was married 
in lloston, 1854, to Miss Mary Jane Cushing. 

Bush, John Standish Foster, M.D., son of Solon 
W. and Theoda (Foster) Bush, was born in Burling- 

Massachusetts of the Legion of Honor, and he is 
now medical examiner-in-chief. He is also a past 
dictator of the Knights of Honor ; past commander 
in the Order of the (Golden Chain; a member of 
the Grand Lodge of Masons, and of the (irand Com- 
mandery of Knights Templar for Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island. Dr. Bush was married on June 4, 
1875, to ^I'ss Josephine M. Nason ; they have had 
two children : Klla A. and 'I'heoda F. Bush. 

Butler, John H.^skell, son of John and Mary J. 
(Barker) Butler, was born in Middleton, Essex 
county, Aug. 31, 1841. His early training was in 
the district schools of Groton and Shirley, the high 
school in Shirley, and the Lawrence Academy, Gro- 
ton, where he fitted for Vale. He was graduated 
from that college in the class of 1863. Then he 
studied law in the office of John n. A. (Iriffin and 
\Villiam S. Stearns, Charlestown, and in October, 
1868, was admitted to the bar at Cambridge. His 
first business connection was with Griffin & Stearns, 
and in the autumn of i868 he formed a copartner- 
ship with William S. Stearns, under the firm name 
of Stearns & Butler. This copartnership has con- 
tinued uninterrupted to the present time. Mr. 


ton, Vt., June 4, 1850. He obtained his early 
education in the schools there and in the Roxbiiry 
Latin School, his parents having moved to Boston 
when he was fourteen years old. 'I'hen he took a 
special course in chemistry in the Institute of Tech- 
nology, and after that a course in natural sciences at 
Cornell I'niversity, and entering the Harvard Med- 
ical School he graduated in 1874 with the degree 
ot M.I). In 1883 he was appointed house surgeon 
in the Massachusetts General Hospital. For many 
years he was surgeon to the Boston Dispensary, and 
he is now physician to the Children's Mission. He 
is a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 
and is one of the councillors of the society. Dr. 
Bush is actively interested in fraternal organizations. 
He was one of the charter members of the Boston Butler was a member of the House of Representa- 
Council, American Legion of Honor, and was elected tives in 1880 and 1881 ; was elected by the Legisla- 
its first commander. He has been grand treasurer ture of 1884 as member of executive council for the 
and supreme representative of the (Irand Council of Third Councillor District, to fill a vacancy caused by 


1 68 


. the death of the Hon. Charles R. McLean ; and was 
reelected by the same district in 1885 and 1886. 
He has served twelve years on the Somerville 
school board ; as president of the Eastern Associates 
three years ; supreme regent of the Royal .Arcanum, 
1883 to 1885 ; supreme representative of the 
Knights of Honor, 1887, 1888; president of the 
National Fraternal Congress two years; is chair- 
man of the committee on laws and advisory counsel 
of the C;rand Lodge, United Workmen, of Massa- 
chusetts ; chairman of the committee on laws of 
Supreme Council Royal Arcanum ; and supreme 
treasurer of the Home Circle and the Royal Society 
of Good Fellows. He is a member of the New 
P^ngland Commercial Travellers' Association, Order 
of Free Masons, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
American Legion of Honor, and Knights of Pythias. 
He is a director also of the Suffolk Trust Company. 
His residence is in Somerville. Mr. Buder was 
married in Pittston, Pa., Jan. i, 1870, to Miss Laura 
I.., daughter of Jabez B. and Mary (Ford) Bull; 
they have one child, John Lawton Butler. 

Butler, J(ihn Henry, son of William and Hannah 
( Paine) Butler, both natives of Maine, was born in 
Thomaston, Me., Oct. 11, 1819 ; died November, 
: 89 1 . He was fitted for college at Sandwich, N.H., 
and at Fryeburg, Me., and entering Dartmouth, 
graduated in 1846. He came to Boston the same 
year, and was elected usher in the Brimmer School. 
.After teaching three years in this capacity, he was 
elected master for three years. While there he 
read law with Lyman Mason, and afterwards with 
Ranney & Morse, and was admitted to the bar in 
1852. With the exception of a few years in the 
'6o's, when he was associated with Aaron Kingsbury, 
he practised alone. For years his office was at No. 34 
School street. He was an active Republican. He 
was married in 1849 to Charlotte P. Libbey, a native 
of Pordand, Me., and she survives him, with one son, 
Elliot L., a successful merchant in New York city, and 
one daughter, Emma R. Butler. Mr. Butler was a 
vestryman in Trinity Church for sixteen years, and for 
six years the superintendent of its Sunday-school. 

C AH ILL, Charles S., M.D., son of John and 
Mary Cahill, was born in Cambridge, Mass., 
April 1 1, 1864. He was educated in public schools 
and at Harvard, where he took a special course. He 
graduated from Harvard Medical -School in 1886, and 
then continued his studies with Dr. Durrell, of Som- 
erville. He was for a time connected with Carney 
Hospital, after which he began the practice of his 

profession in Cambridge, where he has since re- 
mained. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, of the Cambridge Medical Im- 
provement Society, and of the Somerville Medical 

Campbell, Charles A., son of Jeremiah and 
Nancy (Hawes) Campbell, was born in Boston 
Nov. 6, 1837. He was educated in the public 
schools of Chelsea, and there began business life. 
He has since been extensively engaged in the coal 
business in that city and in Boston. He has served 
in the Chelsea common council (four years), the 
board of aldermen (two years), as water commis- 
sioner, and as trustee of the Chelsea Public Library ; 
and has represented the First Suffolk District in the 
State senate (1884). He is in politics a Republi- 
can. He served in the Civil War, enlisting on July 
2, 1862, in Company O, Fortieth Regiment Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers ; was nine months regimental 
quartermaster sergeant, and was commissioned lieu- 
tenant by Governor Andrew, and captain March 
21, 1865. He is now a prominent member of the 
(;.A.R. Mr. Campbell was married in Boston Jan. 
I, 1861, to Miss Lavinia Hutchinson; they have 
one daughter and one son : Alice L. and Jeremiah 

Campbell, Benjamin Franklin, M.D., son of 
Benjamin W. H. and Isabel (.Sutherland) Camp- 
bell, was born near Halifax Sept. 12, 1834. He 
attended the local schools until 1853, when he 
moved to New York, where, in public and private 
schools, he fitted for college. In 1854 he entered 
the Harvard Medical School, and graduated in 
1857. Subsequently he took a special course in 
surgery in London, under Christopher Heath, and 
also visited the various hospitals in London, Edin- 
burgh, and Paris. Upon his return he established 
himself in East Boston, and soon acquired an ex- 
tensive practice, which is now limited only by his 
endurance. In 1862 he served as surgeon in the 
general field-hospital on the Pamentry River, Va., 
and in 1864 as acting assistant-surgeon U.S..\., at 
the Webster General Hospital in Manchester, N.H. 
He is now surgeon of Joseph Hooker Post, No. 23, 
(;.A.R. He was a member of the lower house of 
the Legislature of 18S2-3, serving as chairman of 
the committee on water supply. During his first 
term he introduced the order which became a law, 
compelhng merchants and manufacturers to provide 
seats for their female employees when not engaged 
in the performance of their duties. In 1 889-90 he 
was a member of the senate, serving as chairman of 



the committee on education. He was an alternate 
delegate to the national Republican convention at 
Chicago in 1880 ; and was president of the Garfield 
Club of East Boston, and also of the Harrison Club 
of 1 888. He is now (1892) president of the East 
Boston Citizens' Trade Association. He was over- 
seer of the poor for six years. He is a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, and one of its 
councillors. He has frequently given public lect- 
ures, four of which, on " The Effects of Alcohol 
upon the Human Organization," "The Dangers of 
the Republic," "The Abuse of the Tongue," and 
" Rational Medicine," received wide attention. Dr. 
Campbell was married on Dec. 20, 1866, to Miss 


-Albina M. C. .Anderson ; they have three children : 
Frank, Crace, and Blanche Sutherland Campbell. 

Campheu., Samukl S., son of Benjamin G. and 
Charity J. (I.unt) Camiibell, was born in Bangor, 
Me., July 23, 1832 ; died .April i, 1891. He ob- 
tained his early education in the public schools of 
his native city. He began business with M. 
Schwartz, saw manufacturer, hardivare and mill sup- 
plies, etc., in Bangor. In 1S56 he went to Mon- 
treal and engaged in the same business, where he 
remained until 1876, when he returned to the 
L'nited States and settled in Boston. He was con- 
nected with several corporations. He assisted in 
organizing the Harvard, now Boston, Clock Com- 

]5any, and was elected its first president. He was 
married in Bangor, Me., July 3, 1S54, to Lucy lane, 


daughter of Moses and Phimelia (Saunders) Stevens, 
who survives him, with one son, Charles M. Camp- 
bell. He was connected with the Park-street Church. 
In politics he was a Republican. He never aspired 
to office, although frequendy urged to stand for 
political positions. 


Samuel Roundy and Phebe Ware (Parker) Can- 
dage, was born in Blue Hill, Me., July 28, 1826. 
His great-grandfather, James Candage, went from 
Massachusetts to Blue Hill in 1766, and was one of 
the earliest settlers of the place, and his grand- 
father married Hannah Roundy there, in 1775. 
She died in 1851, at the ripe age, of nearly ninety- 
eight years. Rufus Candage passed his boyhood 
on his father's farm, and worked at times in the saw- 
mill near at hand. His education was attained in 
the country school and at the Blue Hill Academy, 
where he spent two terms. At the age of eighteen, 
after some experience in a coaster and fisherman, 
he became a sailor, beginning his seafaring life on 
vessels plying between ports in Maine and Boston. 
Then he extended his voyages to Southern ports, 
and then to the West Indies and European ports. 
Early becoming proficient as a seaman, he passed 
from the forecastle to the iiuarter-deck. In 1850 


friends in r.lue Hill built him a brig, which was 
named the " Equator," and in this he made his 
first voyage as master, from Boston to \'alparaiso. 
Subsequently he commanded the ships "James- 



town " of Neu- \'ork, the " Electric Spark " and the 
" National Eagle " of Boston, sailing to most of the 
principal ports of Europe, Asia, Australia, and 
America. His last voyage was made in the 
" National Eagle," of which he was part owner, 
from Liverpool to Boston, in May, 1867. Upon 
his retirement from the sea he made his home in 
Brookline, where he still resides, and established 
his business office in Boston. In January, 1868, 
he was appointed surveyor by the American Ship- 
masters' Association of New York, for the record 
of American and foreign shipping; and the same 
year he was made marine surveyor for the Boston 
board of underwriters, which position he held for 
about ten years. In 1882 he was made surveyor 
for the Bureau Veritas of Paris. He is now presi- 
dent of the Boston Fire-brick and Clay-retort 
Manufacturing Company, and of the Boston Terra 
Cotta Company. Mr. Candage has long been 
prominent in Brookline town-affairs. He has been 
one of the selectmen; an assessor since 1884 ; one 
of the board of trustees of the public librar)', and 
from 1880 to 1883 treasurer of the board; five 
years a member of the school committee, three 
years its chairman ; and the town's representative 

in the lower house of the Legislature in 1882-83, 
serving on the committees on harbors and public 
lands, and rules. He belongs to many organiza- 
tions, among them the Boston Marine Society, of 
which he was president in 1882-83 > ^^^ New 
England Historic Genealogical Society; the Bos- 
tonian Society ; the Brookline, the Brookline Thurs- 
day, the Norfolk, and the Pine Tree State Clubs ; 
and the Baptist Social Union. He is treasurer of 
the Seamen's Bethel Relief Society, and of other 
funds. He belongs to the Masonic Order, the 
Royal Arcanum, and the Independent Order of 
Improved Red Men. Mr. Candage has been twice 
married: first. May i, 1853, to Elizabeth Augusta, 
daughter of Elijah Carey, jr., of Brookline ; and 
second, May 22, 1873, to Ella Maria, daughter of 
Benjamin White, of Revere. Of the latter union 
are five children: C.eorge Frederick, Ella .Augusta, 
Phebe Theresa, Robert Brooks, and Sarah Caroline 

Canuler, John Wilson, son of Captain John and 
Susan (Wheelwright) Candler, was born in Boston 
Feb. 10, 1828. The family is of Saxon origin. 
Two branches of it are noted in English history, the 
one in county Suffolk and the other in Esse.x. In 
church militant, as well as in the army, the Candlers 
achieved reputation and influence. Captain John 
Candler, the grandfather, emigrated from Essex, 
Flngland, to Marblehead, and married, at about the 
close of the Revolutionary war, .Abigail Hulin Rus- 
sell. She was the descendant of a Huguenot family 
and the widow of Lieut. Thomas Russell, first lieu- 
tenant under Captain Mudford, commanding a pri- 
vateer during the Revolutionary war, who succeeded 
the gallant captain, upon the latter's death, in com- 
mand of the vessel, and was successful in beating off 
the British blockading-vessels in the memorable bat- 
tle in Boston harbor. The maternal grandfather of 
Mr. Candler was Lot Wheelwright, who was one of 
the great shipbuilders and merchants of Boston 
during the period between 1790 and 1840, being 
senior member of the firm of Lot Wheelwright & 
Sons, for many years on Central wharf. Mr. Candler's 
father, Captain John Candler, jr., was an officer in 
the United States Navy, appointed from Marblehead, 
in the War of 181 2 ; an officer on board the frigate 
" Constitution ;" and was with Commodore Stewart 
on the same vessel in his famous cruise through the 
British Channel. Mr. Candler was born while his 
father was in active business as shipbuilder and mer- 
chant in Boston. He was educated in the Marble- 
head Academy and the Dummer .Academy, Byfield, 
finishing his scholastic course under the tuition 



of Rev. A. Briggs, a Baptist minister of Schoharie 
.\cademy, New York. On leaving school he took a 
clerkship in Boston. Soon after the death of his 
father, in 1849, the family removed to Brookline, 
where Mr. Candler has since resided. For the past 
thirty-two years he has been a member of different 
firms of ship-owners engaged in foreign trade. The 
present firm-name is John \V. Candler & Co. Their 
business is chiefly with the East and West Indies and 
the Cape of Oood Hope, and is of such character 
and magnitude as to class the senior member among 
the eminent and widely known merchants of this 
country. Mr. Candler's interest in politics and in 
all public questions, coupled with his skill and ability 
as a public speaker and presiding officer, have con- 
tinuously brought him into notice. Foreign trade 
has given him exceptional opportunities of acquiring 
extensive and precise information ; business experi- 
ence has taught him how to use it. He was an 
intimate friend of the late Covernor John A. Andrew, 
and through the Civil War was a stanch and efficient 







supporter of the great "War ( lovernor " in his 
patriotic task. In 1S66 Nfr. Candler was a member 
of the Legislature, but declined a renomination. 
From 1869 to 1873 he "'as an earnest advocate of 
a board of prison commissioners. After the creation 
of the board by the State, he served for several years 
as its chairman. For four years he devoted much 
time to the prosecution of the work of building the 

separate prison for women, a philanthropic work, 
defraying his own expenses. He has been a promi- 
nent member of the national board of trade and 
has served for several terms as one of the vice-presi- 
dents from Massachusetts. He was president of the 
Boston board of trade in 1877 and 1878, and declined 
renomination. He has been president of the Com- 
mercial Club three terms. Mr. Candler is a Repub- 
lican in politics, but of the liberal wing of the party, 
advocating change of navigation laws, revision of the 
tariff, and modification of sundry commercial treaties. 
In 1876 and 1878 he was a prominent candidate for 
congressional honors. In 1880 he was elected a 
member of the Forty- seventh Congress by the Re- 
publicans of the Eighth Congressional District, and 
in 1888 he was elected to the I'ifty-first Congress 
in the Ninth District by a large majority, after an 
exciting and memorable contest, in which the Hon. 
Edward Burnett, the previous representative, was 
again the opposing candidate. During the Fifty- 
first Congress he was chairman of the world's fair 
committee, known as the select committee on 
quadro-centennial of the discovery of America, an 
important body which controlled largely the action 
(if Congress on this measure. It was recognized by 
the members of the Fifty-first Congress that no 
individual member had more influence, by means of 
his tact and earnestness and judgment, in securing 
the passage of the act and inaugurating the celebra- 
tion, than John W. Candler, of Massachusetts. Mr. 
Candler was married in September, 1851,10 Lucy 
A., daughter of Henry Cobb, of Boston. She died 
in October, 1855. His second marriage occurred in 
November, 1867, with Ida M., daughter of John 
Garrison, of the Garrett Garrison family, for many 
generations living on the Hudson River, New York, 
who died in April, 1891. His family consists of 
three daughters : Cora, who married Charles G. Bush, 
of Weston, and who resides in West New Brighton, 
Staten Island, N.Y. ; .Anita, who married Hon. 
David S. Baker, jr., of North Kingston, R.I., residing 
in Wickford, R.I. ; and .Amelia G. Candler. 

C.M'KN, G. \\'Ai;n-:R, architect, was born in Can- 
ton, Mass., in 1853. He graduated from the Insti- 
tute of Technology in the class of 1877, and then 
entered the office of J. P. Rinn, remaining there 
until 1880, when he began practice for himself. He 
is the architect of a number of fine buildings in 
Canton, Mass., among them being the Canton Corner 
Engine-house, the residences of T. B., J. L., and 
W. H. Draper, Charles Sumner, J. W. Wattles, and 
J. D. Dunbar, the large mill of the Rising Sun Stove 
Polish Company, and the new Knitted Carpet-lining 


Mills. In Hviie Park he has designed the resi- 
dences of (leorge H. Whiting, W. H. Turner, E. H. 
Williams, Fred Tirrill, W. H. Alles, and a large 
number of smaller but artistic homes. Of his latest 
work are an elegant stone country house and stable 
for ('jeorge H. Morrill, jr., of Norwood, and other 
artistic residences in the same town. 

Capf.n, .Samukl Killings, son of Samuel ("hilds 
and .'\nn (Billings) Capen, was born in Boston Dec. 
12, 1842. He is the eighth generation from Ber- 
nard and Jane Capen, the progenitors of all the 
Capens in New England. They came to Dorchester 


in the ship "Mary and John" May 30, 1630. The 
oldest gravestone in New England bears the name 
of Bernard Capen, who died in 1638. He is also 
the eighth generation from John Alden, of the Fly- 
mouth Colony, and of Roger Billings, who came to 
Dorchester in 1640. Samuel B. was educaterl in 
the old Quincy Grammar School and the Flnglish 
High, graduating from the latter in 1858. He be- 
gan his business career in the carpet store of Went- 
worth & Bright, and became a partner in the firm in 
1864, when the name was changed to William E. 
Bright & Co. ; afterwards it became William E. 
Bright (S; Capen. His firm is now the well-known 
Torrey, Bright, & Capen. Mr. Capen holds many 
positions of trust and responsibility. He is a 
director of the Howard National Bank, president of 

the Congregational Sunday School and Publishing 
Society, chairman of the finance committee of the 
Massachusetts Home Missionary Society, director of 
the American Congregational Association, member 
of the Boston Indian Citizenship Committee, and 
member of the Congregational Club, of which he 
was president in 1882. He is a prominent and in- 
fluential member of the school committee, chairman 
of the committees on school-houses, on manual- 
training schools, legislative matters, and annual re- 
port, and one of the committee on accounts. Mr. 
Capen was married Dec. 8, 1869, to Miss Helen 
Maria Warren, daughter of the late Dr. John W. 
Warren ; they have two children : Ivlward, and 
Mary Warren. 

Carlkiox, CiUV H., born in lloston Sept. 29, 
1 85 I, now the secretary and treasurer of the Smith- 
Carleton Iron Company, has long been a leading 
man in his business. He was secretary, treasurer, 
and direttor in the (i. W. &F. Smith Iron Com- 
pany, wliii h pici I'lled the Smith-Carleton Company. 
The latter was incurporated in 1889, and Bryant G. 
Smith, son of the late Oeorge \\'. Smith, of the 
former company, was made the superintendent. 
They have furnished the iron work for many large 
buildings, including those of the Master Builders' 
Association, the Quincy Market Storage Company, 
the John Hancock Company, the F",dison Electric 
Light Company, Bell Telephone, and the Mutual 
Life: the " Shuman Corner ;" the Waller Baker & 
( 'u.\ mill ; the Farlow Building ; several Beacon- 
sireet apartment-houses ; the Arlington library ; sev- 
1 111 liiiw 11 ir^ ind factories ; and a number of notable 
irsidrii. .s, lilt liidiim \V. K. Vanderbilt's mansion in 
Nr\v|)i.rl, ami si\cral in the Back Bay district, Boston. 
I'lieir works in Boston street are the most complete 
ill the country. Mr. Carleton was one of the orig- 
inal nine who started the Master Builders' .Associa- 
tion. He was married in 1875 to a daughter of the 
late Oeorge W. Smith, founder of the O. W. & F. 
Smith Iron Company. He resides in Boston. 

Car.vkv, .Michael, was born in Cuklaff, county 
Donegal, Ire., November, 1829. He received his 
education in the national schools of his native 
])lace, and came to this country when twenty years 
old, arriving in Boston in 1849. He found employ- 
ment in the shipyard of Donald McKay, the 
famous shipbuilder of his time, in East Boston. 
Here he soon acquired a thorough practical knowl- 
edge of fastening or bolting ships, a special branch 
of the business, and then with two others formed a 
copartnership, and took the contracts of fastening 



all the famous clipper-ships Iwilt by Mr. McKay 
(luring the period from 1851 to 1S60. During the 
same time he took similar contracts on the ships 
built by the Briggs Brothers, of South Boston. 
\\'hen the war of the Rebellion broke out, the busi- 
ness of ship-building was almost wholly given up, 
owing to the increased tariff imposed by the govern- 
ment on all imported materials that were used in the 
construction of ships, and thus being obliged to 
seek other employment, Mr. Carney engaged in the 
fire-insurance business. He continued in this busi- 
ness up to the time of his appointment to his pres- 
ent position of register of voters. IXiring this 
period he held many positions of trust and respon- 
sibility. He servetl as an assistant assessor of the 
city from 1859 to 1879. He was two years a mem- 
ber of the common council, and was elected six 
successive times to represent old Ward 2 in the 
Legislature. During his service as a member of 
that body he acted as chairman of the committee 
on inland fisheries, on the committee on street rail- 
roads, and on that of public charitable institutions, 
which in 1876 investigated the institutions of the 
State. While a member of the latter committee a 
bill was introduced the tenor of which was to grant 
religious liberty in all the prisons throughout the 
State. Mr. Carney earnestly advocated this meas- 
ure on the floor of the house, and his speech mate- 
rially aided its final passage. He was a charter 
number of the Catholic Union of Boston, and 
has been during the past twenty-four years president 
of St. Mary's Conference of the Society of St. Vincent 
de Paul, for which society he obtained a special 
charter while a member of the Legislature. 

Carsox, Hovv.vrd .Ad.4ms, son of Daniel B. Car- 
son, formerly a railroad contractor, was born in West- 
field, Mass., Nov. 28, 1843. His early education 
was in the schools of North O.xford ; and he gradu- 
ated from the Institute of Technology in the class 
of 1869. He was in the office of Messrs. Shedd 
& Sawyer the same year. In 1870 he was 
assistant engineer for the Brady's Bend Iron Com- 
pany in Pennsylvania. From 1871 to 1873 he was 
assistant engineer on the Providence Water Works, 
and for the next four years was assistant engineer in 
charge of the construction of sewers in that city. 
In 1X77 he went abroad with Joseph P. Davis, then 
city engineer of Boston, to study some of the 
sewerage systems of Europe. For several years 
thereafter he was principal superintendent of con- 
struction of the Boston main drainage works. In 
1887 he was selected by the State board of health 
of Massachusetts to make the investigations, plans. 

and estimates for what is now known as the Metro- 
politan System of Sewerage of Massachusetts. In 
the latter part of October, 1889, the Metropolitan 
sewerage commission appointed him their chief 
engineer. He is the inventor of the so-called " Car- 
son Trench Machine " and various other appliances 
and methods which are used on sewerage and simi- 
lar works. Mr. Carson is one of the trustees of the 
Institute of Technology, and was for four \ears 
president of the Alumni .Association. 

Carter, Hknry H., superintendent of streets, is 
a native of Boston. He graduated from the Insti- 
tute of Technology in the department of civil engi- 
neers, class of 1877. From that date until 1881 he 
was engaged, under the city engineer, on the con- 
struction of the Improved Sewerage System of the 
city, and from 1881 to 1883 on the construction of 
the Moon Island Reservoir and Dorchester Bay 
Tunnel. In 1883 he was appointed assistant en- 
gineer of the Boston Water Works, with head- 
quarters at South Framingham, having in charge the 
building of Farm-pond Conduit and the surveys for 
the future development of the Sudbury-river water- 
supply. On the completion of this work he was 
appointed chief engineer of the Boston Sewer De- 
partment, which position he held until April i, 1889, 
when he was appointed assistant engineer in charge 
of the extension of the Improved Sewerage System. 
He was holding this position when, on Jan. 1 7, 
1 89 1, he was appointed by Mayor Matthews acting 
superintendent of streets. Subsequently he was 
confirmed as superintendent of streets under the 
new ordinance consolidating the departments of 
sewers, sanitary police, and bridges, and the office 
of commissioner of Cambridge bridges, and placing 
them under the administrative control of this officer. 
Mr. Carter is a member of the .American Society of 
Civil Engineers and of the Boston Society of Civil 

Carter, Solomon, son of Solomon and Elizabeth 
(White) Carter, was born in Lancaster, Mass., Jan. 
19, 1 8 1 6. His education was acquired in the schools 
of his native town and in Master Whitney's evening 
school in Boston (which used to be in Harvard 
place, opposite the Old South Meeting-house), 
where he studied two terms. He began work as a 
boy in a retail dry-goods store here, and not long 
afterwards became an apprentice in the drug-store 
of Cregg & Hollis. Then, in 1839, when twenty- 
three years old, he opened a retail store on his 
own account in the West F.nd. Subsc(piently, 
removing to Hanover street, he enlarged his opera- 



tions, and there he contniued in the wholesale as 
well as the retail drug business for about thirty 
years, the firm name during that period changing 
several times : from Solomon Carter to Solomon 
Carter & Co., then to Carter, Wilson, & Co., then 
to Carter, Colcord, & Preston, and then to Carter, 
Rust, & Co. Finally, selling out the Hanover- 
street business, he formed a new concern under 
the style of Carter & Wiley, and established it on 
Washington street, opposite School ; and some years 
after, buying out Mr. Wiley, organized the firm of 
Carter, Harris, & Hawley. The house is now 
Carter, Carter, & Kilham, and occupies the sub- 
stantial building on Washington street nearly oppo- 
site Bromfield. The business is one of the largest 
in the city, and the head of the house is the oldest 
dealer in active trade in the State. Mr. Carter has 
been a member of the common council (in 1849 
and 1S50), of the board of aldermen (in 1S57), 
of the board of assessors and of the lower house 
of the Legislature (in i86g and 1870). From an 
ardent Whig he became an ardent Republican. He 
was married in Lancaster, April 10, 1845, to Miss 
Abby, daughter of Levi Lewis, of that town; they 
have had four sons: Frank Edward (deceased), 
Fred. I.., now associated in business with his father, 
Herbert L., and Clarence H. Carter. 

CuAMiiERLAiN, MvuoN Levi, M.!)., soh of Dr. 
Levi Chamberlain, of New Salem, Mass., was born 
in Creenwich, Mass., Sept. 22, 1844. He fitted 
for college at the New Salem Academy, but aban- 
doned a collegiate course to enter the army as 
a recruit to the Tenth Regiment Massachusetts 
Volunteers. While in camp at Cambridge he was 
taken seriously ill, and was discharged. As soon as 
his health was restored he began the study of medi- 
cine in the Berkshire Medical College, Pittsfield, 
Mass. In February, 1865, he was appointed a 
medical cadet in the regular army, and was sta- 
tioned at the Dale (ieneral Hospital in Worcester, 
and the Hicks (leneral Hospital in Baltimore. 
While in the latter hospital he took the winter course 
of lectures in the medical department of the Mary- 
land Institute. He received an honorable discharge 
from the service in February, 1866. In March, 
1867, he graduated from the Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College, New York, and in the following 
.'\pril settled in Southbridge, Mass., where he con- 
tinued in practice until September, 1874. The 
next two years were spent in rest, travel abroad 
(visiting Egypt, Syria, Turkey, and Creece), and 
study. Several months were devoted to the hospi- 
tals in London, Paris, and Vienna. In April, 1877, 

Dr. Chamberlain established himself in Boston, and 
he has been in active practice of medicine and 
surgery here since that time. He was visiting 
physician to Carney Hospital in 1885. He is a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society and 
of the American Medical Association. He has 
devised numerous original medical and surgical ap- 


pliances. In 1^74 Dr. CIki 
to Miss Charlotte P. Wales, 
Wales, of Wales, Mass. 

berlain was married 
lughter of Royal S. 

Ch.andler, Henry B., M.D., son of the late 
Cumberbatch Chandler, of Barbadoes, W.I., was 
born in Barbadoes June 24, 1855. He was edu- 
cated in the Montreal High School and the Uni- 
versity of Bishops College, Montreal, from which 
he graduated CM., M.D., gold medallist and vale- 
dictorian of the class of 1880. He took a special 
course of medicine in New York, and served 
eighteen months in a Brooklyn hospital, and then 
in 1882 entered the Massachusetts Charitable Eye 
and P^ar Infirmary in Boston as house surgeon, re- 
maining there for thirty months. In 1 886 he was 
appointed assistant surgeon to this institution, and in 
1889 surgeon, which position he now holds. He 
was oculist at St. P^lizabeth Hospital from 1886 to 
1889, when he resigned. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, of the New England 
Ophthalmological Society, and other medical or- 



ganizations. He has contributed important pajjers 
to the " Boston Medical and Surgical Journal " en- 


titled " Transplantation of Rabbit's Eye to the 
Human Orbit," and "Report of Fifty Cataract Ex- 
tractions by a New Method." 

Chandler, Parker C, son of Peleg \V. and 
Martha (Cleaveland) Chandler, was born in Boston 
Dec. 7, 1848. He fitted for college at the Boston 
Latin School, and graduated from Williams College 
in 1S72, and the Harvard Law School in 1874. He 
read law also with his father, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1875. He has been engaged successfully 
in practice ever since, concerned almost exclusively 
with corporation practice, having been counsel for 
electrical companies, and now counsel for the Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad. He was managing attor- 
ney in the suit of Cyrus W. Field z's. New England 
Railroad, and also in the famous seven-year case of 
the American Bell Telephone Co. Z's, Drawbaugh 
Telephone Co. In politics he is Republican. He 
was one of the originators of the Bristow Reform 
movement which first vigorously advocated the civil- 
service reform idea. He was secretary for Senator 
John Sherman in the latter's campaign for the nomi- 
nation to the presidency in 1880, and was also in 
charge of the Citizens' Reform movement in Boston 
during the Butler campaigns. He also made the 
original draft of the present registration-laws. He 

has never aspired to any office. Mr. Chandler's 
family have been connected with P.oston journalism 
for the last fifty years, during the Civil War being 
owners of the " Advertiser." He has devoted much 
time and attention to literary work. 

Chandler, Peleg Whitman, son of Peleg and 
Esther (Parsons) Chandler, was born in New 
Cloucester, Me., April 12, 1816 ; died in Boston 
May 28, 1889. He was a direct descendant of 
Edmund Chandler, who came from England and 
settled in Duxbury, Mass., in 1633. There his 
grandfather was born. The home in New Glouces- 
ter was made just prior to the Declaration of Inde- 
[lendence, and his grandfather represented that town 
in the General Court of Massachusetts in 1 774. His 
maternal grandfather was Col. Isaac Parsons, a 
native of (doucester, who moved to Maine in 1761. 
He also was a member of the General Court, and he 
was an officer in the Revolutionary army. Mr. 
Chandler's father was a graduate of Brown Univer- 
sity, and a successful counsellor-at-law. Mr. Chand- 
ler fitted for college in the classical department of 
the Bangor Theological Seminarv, and at the a^e of 


eighteen graduated from Bowdoin College in the 
class of 1834. He began the study of law in his 
father's office in P.angor, then entered the Dane Law 
School at Cambridge, and finished in the Boston 
office of his kinsman, the late Prof. Theophilus Par- 



sons. He was admitted to the bar in 1837, and es- 
tablished himself in Boston. Before completing his 
legal studies he became associated with the " Daily 
Advertiser " as reporter of law cases in the higher 
courts, and for many years after he was identified 
with this paper, a frequent contributor to its edito- 
rial columns ; for a long period, also, he was one of 
its proprietors. In 1838 he established the " Law 
Reporter," the first law magazine published in the 
country, and successfully conducted it for about ten 
years, when he sold it to Stephen H. Phillips, after- 
wards attorney-general of the State. At about this 
time he published the first volume of his valuable 
work on " American Criminal Trials," beginning 
with the case of .Anne Hutchinson, and including 
what has been called the best statement extant of the 
trial of the British soldiers in the Boston massacre 
of 1770. The second volume followed a few years 
later. The work was also published in London. In 

1843 Mr. Chandler was elected to the Boston com- 
mon council, and, reelected, was its president in 

1844 and 1845. In 1844 he delivered the Fourth of 
July oration for the city authorities, taking for his 
subject "The Morals of Freedom." From 1844 to 
1846, and again in 1862 and 1863, he was a member 
of the lower house of the Legislature, taking a leading 
part in the legislation of those seasons. He was 
chairman of the legislative committee that reported 
the act which gave to Boston her water-supply, and 
carried the bill through the House. In June, 1S46, 
he was chosen city solicitor, which office he held 
until 1853, when he resigned. In this important 
station, it has been truly said by one of his eulogists, 
" he sustained himself with a prompt energy and 
wise forecast." During this period he prepared 
and published a volume containing the ordinances 
of the city, and a digest of the laws relating thereto. 
After his retirement from the city solicitorship he 
was appointed to revise the city charter and subse- 
quent laws affecting it. In 1849, while a LInited 
States commissioner of bankruptcy, he published a 
useful work on "The Bankrupt Law of the LInited 
States, and an Outline of the System, with Rules and 
Forms in Massachusetts." In 1850 he was a mem- 
ber of the executive council when Emory \Vashburn 
was governor. He was foremost among the citizens 
who planned and advanced the " Back Bay Improve- 
ment," and the act of 1859, providing for the work 
and for the establishment of the Public (Jarden, was 
drawn by him. In i860 he was presidential elector 
at the first election of Lincoln as president. He was 
one of the oldest members of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, standing, at the. time of his death, 
third on the list of active members — Robert C. 

Winthrop and George E. Ellis preceding him. For 
several years he was treasurer of the society. He 
prepared the memoir of Governor Andrew which 
appears in the society's " Proceedings," and, subse- 
quently enlarged, was published in a separate vol- 
ume. Another work from his pen was a striking 
essay on the " Authenticity of the Gospels," which 
has passed through several editions. He was a con- 
stant friend and benefactor of Bowdoin college, and 
for nearly twenty years he was a member of its board 
of trustees. He received the honorary degree of 
LL.D. from his Alma Mater. As a counsellor Mr. 
Chandler was eminent for chamber advice, and 
before the calamity of deafness fell upon him, in 
middle life, he was one of the foremost of jury law- 
yers. Of his public service Judge E. Rockwood 
Hoar bore this testimony at the meeting of the Suf- 
folk bar, in June, 1889, in his memory: " He was 
thoroughly a public-spirited man, and a public man 
from the time when he began life in this community ; 
and his influence never ceased until the fifty- two 
years during which he was a member of the bar 
were terminated by his death. In every public posi- 
tion that he filled he learned all about those duties 
which appertained to that position, and understood 
them thoroughly thenceforth and forever. When he 
was chosen a member of the Legislature, and became 
a member of the governor's council, he learned the 
whole system and plan of the government of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and from that time 
until the day of his death nobody ever gave more 
counsel, nobody's counsel was more sought, and no- 
body gave safer or wiser counsel to those who ad- 
ministered the affairs of the State than he." In 
religious belief Mr. Chandler was a Swedenborgian. 
Mr. Chandler was married in 1837, in Brunswick, 
Me., to Martha Ann Bush, daughter of the late Prof. 
Parker Cleveland, of Bowdoin. They had one 
daughter and two sons : Ellen Maria, Horace Parker, 
and Parker Cleveland Chandler. Mrs. Chandler 
died at their summer homestead in Brunswick, in 
November, 18S1. 

Chandler, Thomas Henderson, was born in 
Boston July 4, 1827. After passing through the 
grammar and Latin schools, he entered Harvard 
College, and graduated in the class of 184S. He 
then entered the law school, from which, in 1851, 
he received the degree of LL.D. The following 
three years he was a teacher in the Latin School, 
and for three years more he taught a private school. 
In 1857 he began the study of dentistry with Dr. 
Isaac J. Wetherbee, and after two years' experience 
as a student he became associated with him in 

^?r:„,.. a^^^x^ 

sons. He was admitted to the bu in 1837, r ,<, and George E. Ellis preceding him. Foi 

: ,i;,'i,-,i !■; -v.-ii ' t;,K;.iii r,.-f,ji\ ... ■', vp;irs he was treasurer of the society. It'. 

iiomoir of Governor Andrew wh'u i' 

society's "Proceedings," and, siili-r 

<(,iiris. ml uii- published in a separate vi>' 

uith this paper '"i<"ii his pen was a suiV";^ 

rial riiiiimrii : '-V nf the Gospels." wWf'" 

1 ll.e "Law itions. He was n c\ n 

u.-^hed in the Bowdoin college, m.l 

.' S3 fell upon hir.i. 111 

foremost of jury i.uv 

extant 01 the yers. Uf his pubiic service Judge R. Rockwood 

>n mas^inrre Hoar bore this testimony at the meeting of the Suf- 

■ ' ' ■ ' !:; memory: " Uc \v;v 

li m, and a publi'- uj.ii', 

'• ''ii ihiscomiii -■'''.' i : 

■ '[ LU'j i.j'Acr i.. - ^^ Ik-''' 'le 

jiart in the lejri - and became .,tn , ne learned the 

uf the government of th'. 
-^achusetts, and from thai time 
M( 11 .ii'::i_ I'.r P-: 'Kiiii Mie '^,^^•o: r.ih i.leath nobody ever gave more 
In this important counsel, nobody's counsel was more sought, and no- 
ne iflii- ' nlogists, body c;.<ve safer or wiser counsel to those who a'^ 
and ministered the affairs of the ^State tha'n he." Ii: 
' ared religious belief Nfr. Chandler was a Swedenbitr.i . 
■-■r-- \i. ( i,., ,..!!,,- was. married in 1837, in Brun-"' ■ 
Ann Bush, daughter of the late l''>< 
""d, of Bowdoin. They ha'! .1. 
Ellen Maria, Horace 1':; . 1 
I I Chandler. Mr.s. Chan..'. 
' homestead m Rruni'i'' ■'. 

.After passing throui.! 

hools. he 'entered Ha: 

lie class of 184N. 

', from which, in 

LL.D. The f>-n 

in the Latin ^ 

inght a private - 

of dentistry will 

wo years' ex pi' 

- )ciated ' with hi 




practice. In this relation he continued for three 
years, and then established an office for himself. 
Dr. Chandler is the dean of the dental depart- 
ment of Harvard ITniversity, and has occupied the 
chair of professor of mechanical dentistry since 
1854. He has held various positions in many of 
the leading dental organizations, and has been 
president of the Massachusetts Dental Society, the 
New England Dental Society, and the American 
.\cademy of Dental Science. He has also been 
a member of the Boston school committee, and 
has held other responsible positions. 

Chapin, Charlks Taft, son of Charles Kdvvin 
and Fannie \\'ood I''isk (daughter of Benjamin and 
Mary Fisk, of Millbury, Mass.), was born in Dor- 
chester Nov. I, 1855. He attended Chauncy Hall 
School until seventeen years of age, afterwards tak- 
ing a course in Comer's Business College. In 
September, 1874, he began as clerk with Chapin 
iV' Co., coal and wood dealers, successors to Pres- 
cott iV Chapin, growing up in the business from 
that position to part owner. On May i, 1889, he 
entered into partnership with Benjamin D. Wood, 
under the firm name of Chapin, Wood, &: Co. 
Their place of business, Liverpool wharf, No. 512 
.Atlantic avenue, is noted as the site of the famous 
Boston Tea Party, Dec. 16, 1773. Since 1838 it 
has been the place of business of Mr. Chapin's 
grandfather, father, and himself, under firm names 
of Prescott &: Chapin (1829-74), and Chapin & 
Co. (1874-89), Chapin, Wood, & Co. since May, 
1889. Politically Mr. Chapin is a Republican. 
He is an attendant of the Rev. Dr. .Arthur Little's 
church. Congregational (old Second Parish Church). 
He is a member of the Royal Arcanum and the 
Royal Society of (lood Fellows. He was married 
Feb. 15, 1882, to .Annie M., daughter of Col. Isaac, 
jr., and Sarah Wood, of Newburgh, N.V. They 
have four children, two boys and two girls : Arthur 
^y., (ierard, Ada L., and Marjorie Chapin. Mr- 
Chapin resides in Ashmont. 

Chapin, Nahum, son of Harvey and Mattie 
(Rossa) Chai)in, was born in Jamaica, Vt., July 
16, 1820. His parents removed to Waltham in 
1824, and here his education was obtained in the 
local schools and Smith's Academy, where he spent 
four years. After graduating from the academy he 
became an apprenticed machinist in the works of 
the Boston Manufacturing Company, in Waltham, 
and four years later was made overseer there. .After 
three years in this position he removed to Charles- 
town, where he established a provision and produce 

business, which was successfully pursued for twenty 
years. Then, in i860, under the firm name of 
Richardson & Chapin, he engaged in the distilling 
business; and in 1877 the present firm of Chapin, 
'I'rull, & Co. was established : its works are now in 
the Charlestown district, and head<iuarters in the 
city proper. Mr. Chapin has long been prominent 
in local affairs. He served in the Charlestown 
common council from 1856 to i860, and in the 
board of aldermen in 1861 and 1872; he was on 
the board of assessors in Charlestown and Boston 
from 1867 to 1879, and was one of the commission- 
ers to carry into effect the act providing for the 
annexation of Charlestown to Boston; he was a 
member of the lower house of the Legislature in 
1877-8; and he has been for twenty-three con- 
secutive years in active service upon the school 
boards of Charlestown and Boston, a leading and 
influential member. He was for many years a 
director in the Middlesex Horse Railway Company, 
and he is now a director in the Bunker Hill National 
Bank and a trustee of the Warren Institution for 
Savings. He is connected with the Masonic and 
Odd Fellows orders. He is an active member of 
the Old City Guard of Charlestown. Mr. Chapin 
was married in 1841, in Waltham, to Miss Lucy 
Farwell. Of their four children, two, (George Francis 
and Lucy F. F. Chapin, are living, and both are now 
married ; of the other two, John Henry and Nahum 
Harvey Chapin, the latter died at thirty-nine years 
of age., John H., architect, is a native of New 
York. He graduated from Yale College, and studied 
his profession with Messrs. Ware & Van Brunt, also 
in the Sheffield Scientific School, and in the Royal 
.Academy at Stuttgart. Mr. Chapman early began 
to make a specialty of artistic country houses, and 
followed the principle that each side or view of the 
structure should be equally beautiful and picturesque. 
.As a result his work is famous for artistic outline, 
which is accomplished without any sacrifice of in- 
terior comfort or convenience. He is the architect 
of Congressman Sherman Hoar's handsome residence 
at Waltham, of that of Rev. Mr. Hutchins at 
Concord, the new Episcopal church and high-school 
buildings in the same place, the armory in Nashua, 
N.H., besides numbers of private residences in this 
and other States. Mr. Chapman was married to 
Miss Barrett, of Concord, a daughter of Jonathan 
Fay Barrett. 

Chase, .Andrkw J., was born in Sebec, Me. His 
education was obtained in the local schools, and he 



began his business career in a wholesale grocery store 
in Portland, Me. He early became interested in 
the insurance business, and in 1868 was made agent 
of the Travellers' of Hartford, Conn., with his 
headquarters in Portland. With this company he 
remained for twenty years. Then he resigned and 
entered the real-estate business. Subsetiuently, in 
April, 1 89 1, he became manager of the United States 
Life Insurance Company, in which position he has 
since continued. He is a prominent member of 
the Masonic and Odd Fellows orders. In 1865 
he was married to Hattie W. Lowney, of Bangor, 
Me. ; they have five children : H. Louise, Bertha 
M., Walter D., Clarence A., and Arthur W. Chase., C.\leb, son of Job and Phoebe (Winslow) 
Chase, was born in Harwich, Mass., Dec. it, 1831. 
His father in early life was a ship-owner and sea- 
faring man. Afterwards he kept a general store at 
Harwich until about twenty years previous to his 
death. He was largely interested in public affairs, 
was one of the original stockholders in the old 
Yarmouth Bank, and among the foremost in public 
enterprises of his day. He died at the age of 
eighty-nine. Caleb Chase worked in the store at 
Harwich until he was twenty-three years of age. He 
then came to Boston and entered the employ of 
Anderson, Sargent, & Co., a leading wholesale dry- 
goods house. He travelled in its interests on the 
Cape and in the West until September, 1859, «'hen 
he joined with the wholesale grocery house of Cloflin, 
Saville, & Co. Here he remained until Jan. i, 
1864, soon after which the firm of Carr, Chase, & 
Raymond was formed. In 1871 the firm of Chase, 
Raymond, & Ayer was organized, which existed until 
1878, when the present house of Chase & Sanborn 
began business, importing teas and coffees exclu- 
sively. Mr. Chase is now the head of this firm, 
which ranks as the largest importing and distributing 
tea and coffee house in the United States. The 
firm have branch houses in Montreal and Chicago. 
Mr. Chase's business career has been an uninter- 
rupted success. He has often been solicited to enter 
the field for public office, but has always declined, 
preferring to use his energies in his business life. He 
married Salome Boyles. They have no children. 

Ch.4Se, Horace, M.D., son of the hte Stephen 
Chase, of Haverhill, Mass., was born in Plaistow, 
N.H., Dec. 31, 1 83 1. He was educated in the 
local schools, graduating from the High School in 
Haverhill, Mass. After studying medicine for two 
years in Richmond, Va., he went abroad and con- 
tinued his studies in universities in Wiirtzburg, 

Prague, Vienna, and Berlin, where he received the 
degree of M.D. in February, 1865. During his 

studies ;i!iroad, which covered a period of seven 


years, he made heart disease a specialty. Immedi- 
ately after his return, in 1866, he became a member 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and afterwards 
held the following positions : United States pension 
surgeon, surgeon for United States witnesses and 
prisoners confined in Charles-street jail, and sur- 
geon of First Battalion of Massachusetts Militia. He 
has also been employed as expert in analysis of 
blood in many noted murder-trials. Dr. Chase was 
first married upon his return from Europe to Miss 
Jeannette H., daughter of Joseph A. Lloyd, of Lynn, 
Mass., by whom he had one son, DeForest VV., who 
is now associated with him in his practice. His first 
wife died in 1874, and in 1889 he married for his 
second wife Miss Jeannie P., daughter of the late 
Eben B. Phillips, of Swampscott, Mass. 

Chenerv, Elisha, M.D., was born in l.ivermore. 
Me., .\ug. 23, 1829. His ancestors and those of his 
wife were Puritans, the four families coming to this 
country and settling in Watertown and Roxbury 
about ten years after the landing of the Pilgrims. 
1 .ambert Chenery brought two sons, John and Moses, 
and went from ^^■aterto^vn to Dedham as one of the 
first proprietors, where Moses, marrying a Dorches- 
ter woman, remained, becoming the father of Dr. 



Moses Chenery. John married widow Boylston, the 
mother of Dr. Thomas Boylston, first chinirgeon of 
Hrookhne, through whom she became the grand- 
mother of Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, famous for intro- 
ducing inoculation for small-pox in Boston the same 
year that Lady Wortley Montagu brought the art 
into England. This was seventy years prior to the 
discovery of vaccination by Jenner. After their 
marriage John went to live on his wife's " homestall," 
which Boylston had purchased of the first proprie- 
tor and which has been occupied by the Chenerys 
ever since ; it is just on the edge of the present 
town of Belmont. .After the birth of one son, John 
was killed in a fight with the Indians at Northfield 
in King Philip's war. Dr. Chenery's great-grand- 
father was at Lexington and Bunker Hill. His 
grandfather saw the smoke and heard the roar of the 
battle, and being too young to enlist, he served his 
country by providing water and fuel for the women, 
then gathered for protection into a stockade on the 
Charles River. About the year 1795 he moved to 
Maine. The mother of Dr. Chenery was a Phil- 
brick, of the line of Judge Joseph Philbrick, late of 
W'eare, N.H., and the late John D. Philbrick, twenty 


years superintendent of the Boston public schools. 
Several of this family bore part in the Revolutionary 
struggle. One leaving Harvard College joined the 
Ticonderoga campaign. Others were in the \\ar of 
181 2. Mrs. Chenery's father was a veteran of the 

War of 181 2. Jonathan Parker, of Roxbury, her 
great-grandfather on her mother's side, was the man 
who got away with two of General Braddock's can- 
nons stored in the gun-house in Boston, while a 
neighbor followed his example with two more. 
These cannons were carried off in loads of manure 
and successfully secreted in Muddy-pond woods, 
near Dedham. They were brought into service by 
the Americans, and two of them were recaptured at 
the Bunker Hill fight, and the other two may be 
seen to-day in the Bunker Hill monument. Dr. 
Chenery's early life was passed on the farm. His 
schooling was at the town and high schools and 
several years at the seminary at Kent's Hill. He 
abandoned the set college course to give more time 
to the study of medicine and its collaterals. He 
entered the office of the late Dr. A. P. Childs, of 
Maine, took his first course of lectures at Bowdoin, 
and was six months in the Marine Hospital, Chelsea. 
Then, entering with the late Dr. E. B. Moore, of 
Boston, he practised with him, attended the second 
course of lectures at Harvard, his third at Bowdoin, 
and his fourth at Harvard, where he graduated March 
2, 1853, being the first Chenery in his family line to 
become a physician ; now his nephew, Fred. !>., and 
his son, William K., have followed his example. Buy- 
ing out a doctor in Maine, he entered at once upon 
a large and responsible practice. In 1862 he passed 
for a surgeon in the army and started for the front, 
but being overtaken by an attack of diphtheria was 
compelled to resign and was left in feeble health un- 
til after the war was over. Having spent thirteen 
years in his native State, he returned to Massachu- 
setts, residing three years in Cambridge and since 
1S70 in Boston. He has been a member of the 
Maine Medical Association, joining the second year 
of its organization, and of the Middlesex South Dis- 
trict Medical Society. He is now a fellow of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, member of the 
Suffolk District Medical Society, and a member of 
the .American Medical Association. From 1876 to 
1 8S0 he was professor of pathology and therapeu- 
tics at the Boston Dental College, and dean of the 
faculty. From 1881 to 1885 he was professor of 
principle and practice of medicine, and instructor 
on the diseases of women and children, in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons of Boston. Dr. 
Chenery wrote a prize essay on " Food and Cooking," 
and has contributed many articles to the religious, 
secular, and medical press. Among the latter may 
be mentioned " Double Conception " ( " Boston Med- 
ical and Surgical Journal," 1871) ; "Chloral and 
Morphine" (the same, 1874); "Diphtheria Suc- 
cessfully Treated " (the same, 1876) ; " Some Points 



in the Treatment of Typhoid Fever," and " Signs 
which should lead us to suspect Disease in Infants, 
and what that Disease is" ("Medical Register," 
1887) ; a series of articles on " Studies on Alcohol " 
("Times and Register," 1888-9). He is the au- 
thor of " .Mcohol Inside Out, Facts for the Mil- 
lions," 1889, and "Does Science justify the Use of 
Alcohol in Therapeutics? If so. Where? When?" 
("Journal of the American Medical Association," 
Nov. 28, 1891 ). 

Cheney, John K., was born in Lowell I'eb. 12, 
1847. He received his early instruction in the pub- 
lic schools of that city, and then took a year's course 
in the Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard LJ^niver- 
sity. Then he was employed in the engineering 
department of the Charlestown Navy Yard, where 
he remained for one and one-half years. At the 
end of this period he was for two years engaged in 
his profession in several places, and in 1870 went to 
Louisville, Ky., where he was employed by the Louis- 
ville Bridge and Iron Company. After three and 
one-half years spent in Louisville he returned to 
Boston, and in February, 1874, entered the office 
of the city engineer, where he is still engaged. 

Y'ale College in 1824, for eighteen years practised 
law in Worcester county, and was elected six times 
to the State senate on the Whig ticket. In 1845 
he removed to Lowell, and in 1862 thence to 
Boston, where he continued in successful practice 
until his death, Aug. 26, 1870. Linus M. Child 
graduated from Yale College in 1855, and studied 
law under his father. Admitted to the bar in 1859, 
he at once began active practice, rising steadily, 
until to-day he occupies a position in the front 
rank of his profession. He is a Republican in 
politics, and has represented his ward in the com- 
mon council for two years, and in the State Legis- 
lature during the sessions of 1868 and 1869. He 
was counsel for the Middlesex Horse Railroad Com- 
pany until it was merged in the West End — a position 
he held for over twenty years. He was also counsel 
for the city of Boston in the numerous damage 
cases growing out of taking of Sudbury River by the 
water board. He is an active member of the Old 
South Church. Mr. Child has been twice married, 
first, to Miss Helen A. Barnes, deceased, and has 
three children, Helen L., Catherine B., and Myra 
L. Child. His present wife was Mrs. .\da M. 
Wilson, of Chelsea. 

Child, Linus iM., was born in Southbridge, Mass.. 

us M. CHILD. 

March 14, i 
Child, a nati 

835. He is a son of the Hon. Linus 
ve of Connecticut, who graduated from 

Church, Adaline Barnard, M.D., was born in 
Chelsea, Mass., Sept. 19, 1846. She attended 
Boston schools, and later received private instruc- 
tion in literature, French, and (Jerman. She gradu- 
ated from the Boston LTniversity School of Medicine 
in 1879, and was subsequently connected with the 
college as assistant demonstrator of anatomy. She 
went abroad soon after for special work, diseases of 
women, and studied about a year and a half. On 
lier return she was appointed assistant in gyne- 
cology in the Boston University Medical School. 
She has made several subsequent visits to the Old 
World for special work, studying in London, Paris, 
Berlin, Zurich, and Vienna. She is now (1892) 
])rofessor of gynaecology in the medical school, 
which position she has held five years. Dr. Church 
is connected with the Boston Homoeopathic Dis- 
pensary ; is physician to the School of Liberal Arts ; 
is a member of the Boston Homceopathic Medica 
Society, of which she has been vice-president ; the 
Massachusetts Homceopathic Medical Society ,: the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy ; the Society 
for the University Education of Women (a direc- 
tor) ; and the Alumni of the Boston University 
School of Medicine (for some time its vice-presi- 
dent). She is now practising in Boston and Win- 
chester. She was married in 1S66, to Dr. B. T. 
Church, of Winchester. 


Churchill, Gardner Asaph, son of Asaph and 
Mary Buckminster (Brewer) Churchill, was born in 
Dorchester, Mass., May 26, 1839. He was edu- 
cated in the Dorchester public schools. In early 
youth he followed the sea, part of the time in the 
East India trade. He was in the United States 


Navy during the Civil War, acting ensign from 1862 
to 1865, navigating officer of United States ship 
•' Release," ITnited States steamer " Memphis," 
South Atlantic squadron, and United States gunboat 
" Shawmut," North Atlantic squadron. He was one 
of the founders of the Rockwell & Churchill press, 
established in 1866 by Messrs. Horace T. Rockwell, 
.A. P. Rollins, and himself, under the firm name of 
Rockwell & Rollins. Upon the death of Mr. Rol- 
lins in 1S69, the firm name became Rockwell & 
Churchill, and has so continued to the present time. 
The printing-house was first established at No. 122 
Washington street, at the corner of Water. After 
the great fire of 1872 removal was made to the 
-Amory Building, No. 39 Arch street, and now this 
building is occupied, and also the Sears Building, 
No. 41 Arch street, corner of Hawley place. Mr. 
Churchill has served two terms in the lower house 
of the Legislature (1875-6), the first year rep- 
resenting the Dorchester and Hyde Park district, 
and the second, Dorchester, Ward 16, of Boston. 
He was the author of the resolve passed by the 
Legislature of 1875 providing for the publication of 

the records of officers, sailors, and marines who 
served during the War of the Rebellion and were 
credited to Massachusetts ; such record having been 
entirely omitted from " The Record of Massachu- 
setts \'olunteers" published by the State in 1868. 
During the years 1877, 1878, and 1879 he was a 
trustee of Danvers Hospital. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Commandery Military Order of the 
Loyal Legion ; of the G.A.R., commander of Post 68, 
Kbenezer Stone, of Dorchester, in 1872, and jmiior 
vice-commander. Department of Massachusetts, in 
1873; of LInion Lodge Free and Accepted Mason, 
of Dorchester ; and of the Boston Commandery of 
Knights Templar. He is prominent in printers' or- 
ganizations, being a member of the Master Printers' 
Club and an honorary member of the Franklin 
Typographical Society of Boston ; and is a member 
also of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic 
Association, the New England Historic Clenealogical 
Society, and the Boston Athletic Association. Mr. 
Churchill was married April 16, 1862, in \\'ren- 
tham, Mass., to Miss Ellen Brastow Barrett, of 
that town ; they have three children : Mary Brewer, 
.\saph, and Ellen Barrett Churchill. Their home 
is in the Dorchester district., Charles Martin', son of Martin G. and 
Mary .\nn (Crillett) Clapp, was born in Watertown, 
N.V., July 5, 1834. He is a descendant of Edward 
Clapp, who came from Devonshire, Eng., and 
landed at Dorchester in 1633. He was educated 
in the common schools and at Monson Academy. 
He began business life in a country store at South 
Deerfield in 1854. Not long after he came to 
Boston, and here, in i860, became a rubber mer- 
chant. His firm since 1872 has been C. M. 
Clapp (S: Co., and it owns and operates the " .-Etna 
Rubber Mills," of which Mr. Clapp is president and 
treasurer. Mr. Clapp is also interested in other 
rubber companies, and he is a director of the .'^tlas 
National Bank, the Boston Lead Manufacturing 
Company, and the E. Howard Watch and Clock 
Company, and trustee of the Home Savings Bank. 
He is a member of the Commercial Club, and its 
treasurer ; has for many years been a member of 
the standing committee of the Church of the Unity ; 
and is a trustee of Forest Hills Cemetery. In 
1865 he was appointed United States government 
inspector of rubber blankets in the quartermaster's 
department, with headquarters at Cincinnati, O., 
and served until contracts for blankets were com- 
pleted. Mr. Clapp was married Aug. 25, 1 85 7, to 
Miss Georgiania Derby ; they have two children : 
G. L. and H. K. Clapp. 


Cl.\pp, Dwir.HT M., D.M.D., was born in South- 
ampton, Mass., June 5, 1846. He was educated 
in the local schools and in Westfield Academy. 
When a young man he went to London, Eng., 
and associated himself with Dr. Charles R. Coffin, 
a prominent dentist there ; and in 1869-70 he was 
with Dr. H. W. Mason in Geneva, Switzerland. He 
received his degree of D.M.D. from the Harvard 
Dental School in 1882, and the same year was 
appointed instructor of operative dentistry in that 
institution. That position he held until 1883, when 
he resigned ; in 1890 he was appointed clinical lect- 
urer. Dr. Clapp is a member of various dental socie- 
ties, and is an ex-president of the Massachusetts 
Dental Society. He was married in May, 1872, to 
Miss Clara J., daughter of Henry Simomls. of l.ynn. 

CL.APP, Hi-RiiKRi- CoiiMAN, M.D., son of John 
Codman and Lucy .\. Clapp, was born in Boston 
Jan. 31, 1S46. He was fitted for college in the 
Roxbury Latin School, from which he graduated 
in 1863. Four years later he graduated from Har- 
vard College, and in 1870 from the Harvard Medi- 
cal School. Having had his attention called to the 
subject of homoeopathy, he began to investigate it 
theoretically and practically under the instruction 
of the late Dr. Samuel Cregg, who has been hon- 
ored as the pioneer and father of homoeopathy in 
New England. .Adopting it as his method, he 
became associated with Dr. (Iregg in practice, 
which continued until the latter's death. I'hen 
he removed to the South End, where he now re- 
sides. Dr. Clapp is professor of diseases of the 
chest in the Boston University School of Medicine, 
physician to the heart and lung department of the 
college branch of the Homoeopathic Medical Dispen- 
sary, of which he is one of the trustees. |ili\sl( ian to 
the Massachusetts Homoeopathic I ln-,|, ni.l treas- 
urer of the Massachusetts Humn-upjthii Medical 
Society. He was formerly secretary and afterwards 
president of the Boston Homoeopathic Medical 
Society. He has written a book on ".Ausculta- 
tion and Percussion," for students and physicians, 
which was published by Houghton, Mifflin, lS: Co., 
and of which already nine editions have been 
issued ; another entitled " Is Consumption Con- 
tagious? " published by Otis Clapp & Son ; treatises 
on " Pulmonary Phthisis," " Physical Diagnosis," and 
"Tuberculosis," in .Arndt's " System of Medicine," 
published by F. E. Boericke, of Philadelphia ; and 
numerous articles in magazine literature. He was 
for three years the editor of the " New England 
Medical Gazette." Dr. Clapp pays special atten- 
tion to diseases of the lungs and heart. 

Cl.\pp, James Wilkinson, M.D., son of Otis Clapp, 
the founder of the house of Otis Clapp & Son, was 
born in Boston Sept. 22, 1847. He was educated in 
the Boston public schools, Chauncy Hall School, and 
the Boston University School of Medicine, from which 
he graduated in 1877. He has been lecturer on 
pharmacy in the Boston University Medical School 
for eight years, and still holds that position ; one of 
the trustees and also treasurer of the Homoeopathic 
Medical Dispensary since Jan. i, 1881 ; and is asso- 
ciate editor of the " Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia," 
now being issued by the .American Institute of Homoe- 
opathy. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Homa5opathic Medical Society, the Boston Homoe- 
opathic Medical Society, and the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy. He has contributed to medical 
journals papers pertaining to pharmacy. Dr. 
Clapp was married Oct. 20, 1868, to Eliza T., 
daughter of the late John Tuckerman. of i'.oston. 

Clark, .Augustcs N., son of Ninian and .Sally 
(Warner) Clark, was born in Hancock, N.H., 
March 23, 181 1. He was educated in the district 
school of his native town, and at seventeen was at 
work in the dry-goods and apothecary store of 
William Endicott, jr., in Beverly. In that town 
he has ever since lived. He remained in Mr. Endi- 
cott's store until he became of age, and then he 
branched out for himself in the same business. In 
1858 he became interested in the manufacture of 
machine leather-belting in Boston, and subsequently 
in other enterprises ; and after a prosperous career 
of twenty-five years he practically retired from busi- 
ness life. He is still, however, a trustee of the 
Beverly Savings Bank and a director in se\eral 
corporations. He represented his town in the lower 
house of the Legislature in 1861, and in 1880 was a 
presidential elector. In politics originally a Whig, 
he became a Republican upon the organization of 
that party, and he has been ever since an active 
member of it. Mr. Clark was married in Beverly 
.Aug. 23, 1838, to Miss Hitty Smith. She died in 
May, 1888, and of their four children only one is 
now living — Sarah AVarner Clark. 

Clark, Charles E., was born at .\uburn, Me., 
July 8, 1850. He received his early education in 
the Lewiston Falls Academy, and afterward removed 
to Portland, where he attended the high school, 
graduating in 1867. He graduated from Bowdoin 
College in 1871, and the same year entered the 
Harvard Medical School, taking his degree of M.D. 
in 1877. He then practised his profession until 
1SS3. In 1 885 and 1886 served as ferry com- 



missioner of Boston. In 1 889 he was appointed by 
Mayor Hart a registrar of voters for a term of three 

Clark, C. Evereit, was born in Townsend, Mass. 
He has been a building contractor for over twenty- 
one years, beginning business in x\thol in 1870. In 
1872 he removed to Worcester, where he remained 
for one year, coming to Boston in 1873. His work, 
however, is not confined to Boston, but extends all 
over the country. He built the Newport houses of 
William K. and Cornelius Vanderbilt, Miss Catherine 
L. Wolfe, Mr. Ogden Goelet, and the Lorillards ; of 
Charles Lanier at Lenox; the residence of F. F. 
Thompson at Canandaigua, N.Y. ; the Opera House 
and the Union Club House, Chicago ; large oflfice- 
buildings and residences in Kansas City ; the Cupples 
large warehouses and Church of the Messiah in St. 
Louis; and many elegant houses in the Boston 15ack 
Bay district. In 1891 he built the Security Building, 
an S8oo,ooo ofifice-building, and two additional ware- 
houses for the Cupples Real Estate Company in St. 
Louis; a large building for the Michigan Trust Co. 
in (Irand Rapids, Mich. ; the largest private resi- 
dence in the Northwest for Mr. J. L Hill at St Paul. 
Minn. ; and a large stone seaside- mansion at Nev\ 
port, R.I., for Joseph R. Busk, of New York He 
is one of the trustees of the Master Builders' Associa- 
tion, and a director in the Smith-Carleton Iron Com 
pany. He has several superintendents who ha\e 
been in his employ for nearly twenty years, and who 
personally superintend his buildings. His office is 
in the Master Builders' Association Building, \o 
166 Devonshire street, and he controls his vast busi 
ness by correspondence with his superintendents 
and by making regular trips \\'est once a month. 

Clark, Chester Ward, son of Amasa Ford and 
Belinda (Ward) Clark, was born in Glover, Vt., 
Aug. 9, 1851. He was educated in the academy 
of his native town, and at Phillips (Exeter) Acad- 
emy. In 1S74 he began the study of law in Boston, 
in the office of B, C. Moulton, and was admitted to 
the bar March 12, 1878. He immediately began 
practice, opening an office on Court street, from 
which he removed in 1882 to the Equitable Building. 
He has established a lucrative practice, principally 
in commercial and probate law. His residence is at 
Wilmington, where he is prominent in local affairs, 
and active in originating and promoting public im- 
provements. To his efforts are largely due the 
gready improved school facilities there. He has 
served as chairman of several local organizations. 
He is a member of the Congregational Club of 

Boston, and clerk of the local church. Mr. Clark 
is unmarried. 

Clark, Edward W., was born in Augusta, Me., 
Aug. 16, 1850. He was for some years foreman 
for his father, William M. Clark, for a long period 
a heavy builder of Boston. Afterwards he became 
foreman for Otis Wentworth, which position he 
occupied until 1875, when, in partnership with Capt. 
Walter S. Sampson, the present building-firm of 
Sampson, Clark, & Co. was established. They have 


taken and successfully completed some of the heaviest 
contracts known, contracting for every branch of the 
work of construction and finishing. The new Court 
House is their latest large success ; but others of their 
buildings, among them the State Building at Rutland, 
^'t., the County Building in Keene, N.H., the O'Brien 
<;rammar School and Hyde High School in the Rox- 
bury district, the Continental Sugar Refinery, the 
People's Church, the largest and finest horse-railroad 
stables in the country, at South Boston, the Plymouth 
Woollen Mills, and many blocks of stores in Boston, 
are notable. The private residences, particularly 
large and substantial mansions in the Back Bay dis- 
trict, which they have constructed, can be counted 
by the hundred. Mr. Clark is a member of the 
Master Builders' Association and of the Mechanics' 
Exchange of Boston. He was married in Boston 
in 1876. 



Clarke, Augustus P., M.D., son of Seth Darling Cambridge, where he has since practised his pro- 
and Fanny (Peck) Clarke, was born in Pawtucket, fession. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
R. I., Sept. 24, 1833. H^ ^^^^ fitted for college in Medical Society, and has been one of its councillors ; 

is vice-president of the Boston Clynaecological 
Society ; member of the American Academy of 
Medicine ; of the American Association of Obstetri- 
cians and ( lynKcologists ; the American Medical 
Association ; the Cambridge Medical Society, of 
which he was one of the originators, and for several 
years its secretary ; and the Public Health Associa- 
tion. He is also a member of the Cambridge Club 
and Art Circle, the Boston Baptist Social Union, 
and one of the standing committee of the First 
Baptist Church of Cambridge. He belongs to a 
number of charitable and fraternal societies, and is 
a prominent member of the G..\.R. and the Mili- 
tary Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. 
After two terms in the Cambridge common council 
(1872 and 1 8 73) and one in the board of alder- 
men (1874), he declined further to serve in public 
positions. Dr. Clarke was married in Bristol, R.I., 
Oct. 23, 1861, to Miss Mary H., daughter of Gideon 
tJray; they have two daughters; Inez Louise and 
Genevieve Clarke. 


the University Grammar School of Providence, R.L, 
and entering Brown graduated in the class of 1860. 
Then he studied in the Harvard Medical School and 
received the degree of M.D. On the first day of 
August, 1 86 1, he entered the United States service 
as assistant surgeon of the Sixth Regiment New 
York Cavalry, and was on duty in this capacity with 
the Army of the Potomac until May, J 863, when 
he was promoted to the rank of surgeon of that 
regiment. In November following he was assigned 
to duty as surgeon-in-chief of the Second Brig- 
ade, First Division of Sheridan's Cavalry, and in 
February, 1865, was appointed surgeon-in- chief of 
the First Cavalry Division, Sheridan's Corps, of the 
Army of the Potomac, which position he held until 
the close of the war. Mustered out October, 1865, 
he was appointed " brevet lieutenant-colonel. New 
York State Volunteers, for faithful and meritorious 
conduct during his terra of service." He was 
present and on duty in eighty-two battles and en- 
gagements. During the seven days' batde of the 
Peninsular Campaign in 1862 he was taken prisoner, — 
at the battle of Savage Station, June 29, — and after- 
wards sent to Richmond, was held there until August 
I, when he was exchanged. Immediately after his 
military service Dr. Clarke established himself in 

Clarke, ^H().^L^s W., son of Calvin \\ . and Ann 
K. (Townsend) Clarke, was born in Boston Dec. 
I, T834. His father was a native of Roxbury, and 
a well-known merchant of this city ; he was a mem- 
ber of the common council a number of terms, an 
alderman one term, and was twice elected to the 
State Legislature on the Whig ticket ; he was treas- 
urer of the American Unitarian .•\ssociation a num- 
ber of years, and for a long period was a director 
of the Traders' Bank, the Manufacturers' Insurance 
Company, and the New England Glass Company ; 
he died in 1879, at the age of eighty-three. Mr. 
Clarke's mother was a native of Boston, and daugh- 
ter of the late Dr. David Townsend, who was a 
pupil of Dr. AVarren, and one of the surgeons at 
Bunker Hill, General Ciates' chief surgeon at Sara- 
toga, and director-general of hospitals during the 
Revolution, and surgeon of the United States 
Marine Hospital, inspector of pot and pearl ashes 
for the State of Massachusetts, and president of the 
Society of Cincinnati later. Thomas W. Clarke was 
educated in Chauncy Hall School and by private 
tutors, and graduated from Harvard in 1855. He 
studied law with H. M. & H. G. Parker, and at the 
Harvard Law School. He was admitted to the 
Suffolk bar in 1857, and conducted a general prac- 
tice until 1 86 1. He was commissioner of insol- 
vency in 1859-60-61. In 1861 he went into the 
war as captain of the W'ightman Rifles, which was 



first attached to the Fourth Reguiient Massachusetts 
Vohniteers, and afterwards organized at Fort Mon- 
roe, with other three- years companies which had 
gone into service independently, into the Massachu- 
setts Battalion, which itself became, in December, 
1 86 1, the Twenty-ninth Massachusetts. He was 
mustered out in 1865 as captain, with Massachusetts 
appointment of colonel, to which the size of the 
regiment did not permit muster. He was quarter- 
master at Alexandria, Va., 1862-3 • commissary 
in East 'I'ennessee, January, 1864; judge-advocate 
in Alexandria, Va., 1 863, and near Petersburg, Va., 
1S65 ; and adjutant-general in the Second and Third 
Brigades, First Division Ninth Army Corps, in 1864-5. 
He was at Big Bethel, June 10, 1S61 ; in the Irish 
Brigade during the siege of Richmond, 1862 ; was in 
the X'icksburg and Jackson campaign in 1863 ; in East 
Tennessee, 1863-4; in the Wilderness and Peters- 
burg campaigns from the last of May, 1864, until 
after the foil of Petersburg ; and led the third line 
at the Crater, July 30, 1864, taking in the Two Hun- 
dred and P^ighth Pennsylvania in the fight at Fort 
Stedman, March 25, 1865. After the war Mr. 
Clarke resumed his practice. He confined it almost 
entirely to patents, copyrights, and trade-marks. He 
is now associated with F. F. Raymond at No. 32 
Pemberton square. He was counsel for the High- 
land Street Railroad from its organization until its 
consolidation with the Middlesex. He is a member 
of the Loyal Legion. In politics he is a Republi- 
can. Mr. Clarke married Miss Eliza A. Raymond, of 
Boston ; they have three children living : Lois W., 
Ihomas W., and Grace T. Clarke. 

Clement, Eoward Henry, son of Cyrus and Re- 
becca Fiske (Shortridge) Clement, was born in 
Chelsea, Mass., April 19, 1843. He is a descend- 
ant of Robert Clement, who came from Coventry, 
Eng., in 1643, who was chosen to buy and survey 
the territory of Haverhill ; afterwards he represented 
the town in the General Court. His mill was the first 
in the town, and the marriage of his son was the 
first marriage in Haverhill. Edward H. was edu- 
cated in the Chelsea public schools and at Tufts 
College, from which he graduated in 1864, leading 
his class. Subsequently he received from Tufts the 
honorary degree of A.M. He began his profes- 
sional life as a reporter and assistant editor of an 
array post newspaper, started with the deserted 
plant of the " Savannah News " by two correspond- 
ents of the " New York Herald " stationed at Hilton 
Head, S.C. In 1867 he returned to Boston, and 
for a month was chief proof-reader of the " Daily 
Advertiser." Then he resigned to accept a similar 

position on the " New York Tribune." Instead of 
that, however, John Russell Young, then the man- 
aging editor of the "Tribune," gave him a place as 
reporter. Soon after he was promoted to the posi- 
tion of exchange editor, then advanced to the tele- 
graph editor's desk, and then to that of night editor. 
Subsequently he was for a short time managing edi- 
tor of the " Newark [N.J.] Daily Advertiser," and 
in 1 87 1 he became one of the editors and proprie- 
tors of the " Elizabeth [N.J. ] Journal." In 1875 he 
was called to Boston to take the position of assistant 
editor of the "Transcript," which at that time was 
under the editorship of WiUiam A. Hovey. llpon 
Mr. Hovey's retirement, in iSSi, Mr. Clement was 
promoted to the position of chief, which he still 
holds. He has ably maintained the paper upon the 
lines laid down by the long line of eminent editors 
of this favorite Boston institution. He has been 
connected with a number of local organizations, 
among them the Boston Memorial Association and 
the Philharmonic Society ; and he was one of the 
founders of the St. Botolph Club, of which he is still 
a member. In 1869 Mr. Clement was married, in 
New York city, to Miss Gertrude Pound ; they have 
three children. 

Clements, Thomas W'., was born in Weymouth, 
N.S., April I, 1840. .At the outbreak of the Civil 
War he entered the ■ army and served three years in 
the Twelfth Maine Regiment ; a portion of the time 
as sergeant and the remainder as second lieutenant. 
He began the study of dentistry in 1864 in Port- 
land, Me., where he remained for some time, sub- 
sequently practising in Waldoborough and Ellsworth. 
Then he came to Boston and took the course of 
the Boston Dental College, from which he graduated 
in 1872. He first associated himself with Dr. I). S. 
Dickerman, of this city, and later removed to Brook- 
line, where he now enjoys an extensive practice. 
Dr. Clements is a prominent member of various 
societies. From 1873 to 1884 he was adjunct 
professor in the Boston Dental College, and he is 
now a member of the board of trustees of that 

CLiFF(.)Rn, Henry M., was born in Lewiston, Me. 
After receiving his education in the grammar and 
high schools of his native city, he engaged for a 
time in different mercantile pursuits. Then he 
began the study of dentistry in the office of Dr. I. 
Goddard, Auburn, Me., but soon left him to enter 
the Harvard Dental School, where he graduated in 
the class of 1886. A year later he became demon- 
strator of operative dentistry in the same school. 



which position he still occupies. Dr. Clifford is a 
member of the Harvard Dental Alumni, the Har- 
vard Odontological Society, the Massachusetts Den- 
tal Society, and the American Academy of Dental 

% ^ 


first to introduce the German system, which provides 
for constructing the building around open courts, 
thus affording ample light and ventilation to all 
parts of it ; the Prince School, on the German 
system for smaller school-buildings, completed in 
1881 ; the Pumping-station, the Westborough Insane 
Hospital, and the Suffolk County Court House. Mr. 
Clough's skill is especially manifested in his con- 
struction of school buildings, of which, since 1875, he 
has built twenty-five or more in Boston. He also de- 
signed the Marcella-street Home, the Lyman School 
for Boys, the Durfee Memorial Building at Fall River, 
one of the finest school-edifices in the world, the 
Bridge Academy at Dresden, Me., and similar 
buildings all over New England, as well as in Penn- 
sylvania and New York. Mr. Clough's plans for the 
new Suffolk County Court House were accepted after 
an extended competition among the architects of the 
county. The building, however, as erected is the re- 
sult of serious modification made by the commission, 
and to a considerable degree does not represent Mr. 
Clough's views expressed in the original design, or as 
to what the county needed. Mr. Clough was mar- 
ried in 1876, to Miss Amelia M. Hinckley, of Thet- 
ford, Vt. ; they have three children living : Charles 
Henry, .Annie Louisa, and Pamelia Morrill Clough. 


Science. He has contributed interesting papers to 
a number of dental journals, and has several times 
read essays on professional topics before the socie- 
ties of which he is a member. 

Clough, George A., architect, son of Asa Clough, 
of Bluehill, Me., a man of reputation in that com- 
munity as a ship-builder, having built eighty-three 
ships during his lifetime, was born in Bluehill, May 
27, 1843. He was educated in the Bluehill .Acad- 
emy, and when still a youth worked under his father 
four years as a draughtsman in the ship-yard, draw- 
ing the sweeps upon the floor, and forming the 
moulds for the ship timber. He began the study of 
architecture with (Jeorge Snell, of the firm of Snell 
& Gregerson, in Boston, in March, 1863, and re- 
mained with him until 1869, when he went into 
business for himself In December, 1875, he entered 
the city's employ as city architect, the first to hold that 
office. Mr. Clough organized the department, and 
during his regime, which covered a period of nine 
years, many notable public buildings were erected 
by the city from his plans. Prominent among these 
is the English High and Latin School building 
on Montgomery street, in which structure he was the 

CciHi!, Frederic Cod.m\n, I\LI )., was born in Boston 
.\pril 3, i860. He was educated in the Latin 
School and at Harvard, where he graduated with 
the degree of .A.B., in 1884, and that of M.D. 
from the Medical School in 1887 ; then went abroad, 
spending two years in Heidelberg, Vienna, Dublin, 
and London. Returning to Boston in 1889, he be- 
gan the practice of his profession. He was ap- 
pointed assistant in diseases of the throat and nose 
at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and physician 
to the Boston Dispensary, and also assisted Dr. 
Hooper at the City Hospital in throat diseases. Dr. 
Cobb is a member of the Massachusetts Medical 

CoDMAN, Charles Russell, eldest son of Charles 
Russell and Anne (Macmaster) Codman, was born 
in Paris, France, on Oct. 28, 1829, while his 
parents were travelling abroad. The Codman 
family have been identified with Boston since 
1640. His father was a well-known merchant, 
whose mother was Margaret, daughter of the Hon. 
James Russell, of Charlestown, and his grandfather, 
the Hon. John Codman, laid the foundation of the 
family fortune. His mother was of Scotch origin 
on her father's side, and on her mother's was of 
New \ork Dutch descent, from the I >ey and Van 



Kuskirk families. He was educated in the private 
schools of Boston under the late Henry R. Cleve- 
land, Kdmund L. Gushing (afterward chief justice 
of New Hampshire), and the late Franklin Forbes. 
He was also for three years at school near Flushing, 
L.I., under the late Rev. William A. Muhlenberg, 
a distinguished divine of the Protestant Episcopal 
church. In due time he entered Harvard College, 
and graduated in the class of 1S49. He then 
studied law in the office of the late Charles G. 
Loring, was admitted to the bar in 1852, and 
practised law for a short time, subsequently engag- 
ing in general business. He resided in Boston until 
1855, and then moved to Barnstable. At Walton- 
on-Thames, England, on Feb. 28, 1856, Mr. Cod- 
man was married to Lucy Lyman Paine, daughter 
of the late Russell Sturgis, of Boston, and afterwards 
of the firm of Baring Brothers & Co., of London. 
They have three sons and two daughters living : 
Russell Sturgis, Anne Macmaster, Susan Welles, 
John Sturgis, and Julian Codman. In 1861 and 
1862 Mr. Codman was a member of the school 
committee of Boston. In 1864 and 1865 he repre- 
sented a district of the city of Boston in the State 
Senate ; for four years, from 1872 to 1875 inclusive, 
lie was a member of the House of Representatives, 
serving each year on important committees, in the 
last two being chairman of the committee on the 
judiciary. He began life as a Whig. In 1856 he 
joined the Republican party, and was an active mem- 
ber of it until 1884, since which time he has acted 
with the Democrats. During the Civil War Mr. 
Codman served as colonel of the Forty-fifth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, having previously been lieutenant 
and captain in the Boston Cadets. He has been 
president of the Boston Provident Association, suc- 
ceeding the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop ; president 
of the Massachusetts Homcjeopathic Hospital, and a 
trustee of the State Insane .'Asylum at Westborough. 
He was elected a member of the board of overseers 
of Harvard College in 1878, and again in 1884. 
He was president of the board in 1880 and iSSi, 
and again from 1887 to i8go. He was Republican 
candidate for mayor of Boston in 18 78. Mr. Cod- 
man has always been independent in political con- 
nections. He supported the Republican party in 
its early days, when resistance to the slave power 
seemed to him a duty. He gave the Democratic 
party an equally cordial and enthusiastic support 
when to his mind that party stood for just and 
liberal tariff- legislation. He has always been iden- 
tified with and heartily in favor of the cause of 
civil-service reform ; and, in fact, to all the great 
moving reforms that tend to the purification of 

politics and the advancement of the best interests of 
the country his powerful influence is uniformly given, 
and in this advocacy his clarion voice utters no un- 
certain sound. 

Codman, John, son of John Codman, 
who descended from one of Boston's oldest families, 
was born in Boston Oct. 30, 1826. He is now one 
of the oldest-established dentists in the city. He 
was first associated wirh his uncle, the late Dr. 
Willard W. Codman, and afterwards with Dr. N. C. 
Keep, of this city. He graduated from Harvard in 
1870, receiving the degree of D.M.D., and has 
been forty-five years in the practice of his pro- 
fession, nearly forty of which have been spent in 
Boston. He has filled all the prominent offices of 
the Massachusetts Dental Society, is a member of 
the New York Odontological Society, the New 
England Dental Society, the Connecticut Valley 
Society, and the Boston .Society for Dental Im- 
provement ; and he has acceptably filled various 
offices in the American .Academy of Dental 
Science. Dr. Codman has been active also in 
society work ; has written many essays and read 
papers before the Massachusetts Dental Society, 
the American Academy, and other similar organiza- 



tions. He is a charter member of Boston Council, 
Royal Arcanum, and one of the founders of the 
order of the Home Circle and of the United 



Fellowship, as well as the Hoston Society for I )ental 
Improvement. In his leisure hours he still uses 
his pen, and has some valuable unpublished manu- 
scripts in his possession. Dr. Codman was married 
Dec. 13, 1859, to Miss Kezzie H., daughter of 
Mort t'lark, of Brewster, Mass. 

CoGCAN, Marcellus, son of Leonard and Betsey 
M. Coggan, was born in Bristol, Me., in 1847. He 
obtained his early education in the district school, 
and when yet a youth went to sea, engaging in the 
coasting trade between Maine and Southern ports, and 
the West Indies. Abandoning a seafaring life a few 
years later he went to Lincoln Academy, New Castle, 
Me., where he prepared for college. Entering Bow- 
doin in 1868, he made his way through by hard 
work, teaching in schools and academies during the 
winter months. He graduated with honor in 1872. 
Immediately after graduation he became principal of 
Nichols Academy, in Dudley, Mass., where he re- 
mained seven years, diligently studying law in his 
leisure hours with the view of ultimately adopting 
the legal profession. While living in Dudley he was 
active in town affairs, and was for four years upon 
the school committee. When in 1879 he retired 
from school-teaching, he came to Boston and entered 
the law office of Child & Powers. Two years later 
he was admitted to the Suffolk bar, and at once 
began practice. In 1886 he formed a partnership 
with \Villiam Schofield, then instructor in the law 
of torts at the Harvard Law School, under the firm 
name of Coggan & Schofield, and they have since 
continued together with offices in Hoston and 
Maiden. Mr. Coggan established his home in the 
latter city when he began his legal studies in Boston, 
and there, as in Dudley, he early became active in 
local affairs. During the second year of his residence 
there he was made a member of the school com- 
mittee, which position he held for three years. Then 
in 1884 he ran as an independent candidate for the 
office of mayor, against the regular nominee, and 
was defeated ; but the next year, running again as an 
independent, he was elected. His administration 
was so successful that he was rei^lected for a second 
term by an almost unanimous vote. Declining a 
nomination for a third term, he retired from office 
with an admirable record. In 1872 Mr. Coggan was 
married to Miss Luella B. Robbins, daughter of C. 
C. Robbins, of Bristol, Me. ; thev have had three 

CoLF.v, John Henry, son of John F. and Ruthey 
(Cloutman) Colby, was born in Randolph, Mass., 
June 13, 1862. He was educated in the Boston 

public schools and I )artmouth College, graduating in 
1885. He studied law in the Boston University 
Law School (from which he graduated in 1889), and 
in his father's office. He was admitted to the Suf- 
folk bar in 1889, and was associated in practice with 
his father until the latter's death. He is a trustee of 
the North End Savings Bank. Mr. Colby was mar- 
ried Oct. 8, 189:, to Miss Annie Evarts Cornelius. 

Coi.KiMAN, E. B., was born in Barnstable, Cape 
Cod, in 1842. He was educated in the schools of 
his native place. In early life he made several long 
sea-voyages, and during the Civil War he served four 
years in the United States Navy. In 1870 he en- 
tered the employ of James Edmond & Co., manu- 
facturers and importers of fire-brick and sewer-pipe 
in this city. Here he remained until 1877, when 
he formed a copartnership with George M. Fiske, 
who had also been in the employ of Edmond & Co., 
under the firm name of Fiske & Coleman, for the 
sale of the same material. The business rapidly 
increased, and the operations of the firm soon em- 
braced the manufacture of fire-brick and architect- 
ural terra-cotta. Subsec|uently, the production of 


faience for exterior and interior decorations was 
added. In 1885 the firm became Fiske, Coleman, 
& Co., William Homes being then admitted. At 
their exhibition rooms. No. 164 Devonshire street, 
are shown a great variety of forms and colors of 



brick and terra-cotta. They produce specialties of 
all kinds of building-material in clay, and have 
some twenty different colors now in use. In the 
management of the business of the house, Mr. 
Coleman gives his attention to finances and corre- 
spondence. [For examples of the work of Fiske, 
Coleman, & Co. in modern buildings in Boston and 
elsewhere, see sketch of George M. Fiske. Also, 
see sketch of William Homes.] 

Collins, Patrick A., son of an Irish farmer, was 
born near Fermoy, county of Cork, Ire., March 12, 
1844. His father dying in 1847, his mother emi- 


grated, with her children, to this country and settled 
in Chelsea, Mass. 'I'here he attended the public 
schools until he was twelve \ears old, when he went 
to work first as a shop boy, and then as ofhc e boy 
in a Boston lawyer's office. At thirteen he was 
working at various occupations in Ohio: subse- 
i|uently returning to Boston, he workeii at the 
ii]iholstery trade for several years, giving his leisure 
hours to study ; and at nineteen was foreman of a 
shop. When, advancing steadily in his trade, he 
determined to become a lawyer, and in 1868 he 
entered the Harvard Law School. Graduating there- 
from, he was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 187 1, 
and opening an office in Boston at once began 
practice. At this time he was already prominent in 
politics. In 1868 and 1869 he was a member of 

the lower house of the Legislature, and in 1870 
and 187 1 was a State senator. In 1875 he was 
judge-advocate-general of the Commonwealth. He 
was a delegate-at-large from Massachusetts to the 
national Democratic conventions in 1876, 1880, 
and 1888, and was elected president of the national 
Democratic convention of 1888, held at St. Louis; 
and in the campaign of that year took a leading 
part. In 1882 he was elected to Congress, and was 
twice reelected. He was one of the secretaries of 
the Fenian congress held in Philadelphia in 1865 ; 
and he has been an active and influential member 
of the land and national leagues since their estab- 
lishment. He was chosen president of the Irish 
National Land League at the convention held in 
Buffalo, N.Y., in 1880, and served something more 
than a year, declining a reelection. He was chair- 
man of the Massachusetts Democratic State com- 
mittee from 1884 to 1 89 1, and is recognized as one 
of the ablest leaders in his party, state and national. 
He is a brilliant speaker and a witty one. In his 
profession he holds a foremost place. He has 
travelled extensively in the West and across to the 
Pacific coast ; and has made several trips to the Old 
Country. Mr. Collins was married July i, 1873, at 
Boston, to Mary E. Carey : they have three children : 
Agnes, Marie, and Paul Collins. 

Cd.MKK, JdsKHH, was bom in P^ngland Aug. 22, 
i.S:;2. He was educated at the Collegiate Institute 
in Liverpool. He came to Boston in 1850 and en- 
tered the house of James M. Beebe, Morgan, & Co., 
wholesale dry-goods merchants, remaining with 
them until 1854, when he became a partner in the 
wholesale clothing-house of B. L. Merrill & Co. 
He established the " Blue Store " clothing-house in 
Adams scpiare and Washington street, and entered 
the real-estate business in i860. He has been trus- 
tee of some of the largest estates in Boston, and 
now (1892) manages several important estates and 
IS the agent of numerous out-of-town owners. His 
main forte has been the sale and care of city prop- 
erty ; but he is personally interested in the develop- 
ment of several suburban localities. He has resided 
with his wife and family on Beacon Hill for the past 
twenty-five years, is the owner of considerable real 
estate in Boston, and a stockholder in several of the 
banks of the city. 

CoNANT, William M., M.D., was born in Attle- 
borough, Jan. 5, 1856. He was educated in the 
Bridgewater and Adams Academies, fitting for college 
at the latter institution. He entered Harvard in 
1875, graduating A.B. in 1879, and, taking a course 



in the Harvard Medical School, received his degree 
of M.D. in 1884. He was house officer at the Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital for eighteen months, and 
was then assistant in anatomy at the Harvard Medi- 
cal School. He is now assistant demonstrator in 
anatomy in the latter. Dr. Conant is a member of 
the Boston Society for Medical Improvement, the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, the Boston Society 
for Medical Observation, the Society of the Medical 
Sciences, and the Association of American Anato- 
mists. He is a surgeon to the linston I )is|ieiisary, 
surgeon to out-patients at the Massn^ liii-,iiis i Icncral 
Hospital and at Carney Hospital, and sntycon lo St. 
Elizabeth's Hospital. 

Conner Y, Walter J., was born in Boston Feb. 
6, 1852. He was a member of the firm of D. 
Connery & Co., builders, from March 15, 1881, 
until April i, 1890, when he associated in partner- 
ship with Walter .\. Wentworth, also of that firm, and 
under the firm name of Connery & Wentworth suc- 
ceeded to its business. The concern of D. Connery 
& Co. had been in existence a number of years, suc- 
ceeding the well-known Boston builders, Messrs. 
Standish & Woodbury; D. Connery, the father 
of Walter T-, having been active in the business for 


over forty years. The present firm of Connery & 
Wentworth may therefore be said to have been 
estabhshed for over si.xty years. .Although making 

a specialty of mason work, they take large contracts 
for all other branches in the building line, and assume 
the responsibility of the work in every detail. They 
built the Pierce Building in Copley square, and the 
Telephone Building, corner of Milk and Oliver 
streets. Other important work of theirs is shown 
in the Christian Association building, the Ho- 
moeopathic Hospital, the Cambridge Hospital, 
Westborough Insane Asylum, Quincy Storage Build- 
ing, the fine residences of Messrs. E. V. R. and 
Nathaniel P. Thayer on Commonwealth avenue, and 
over three hundred other dwellings in the Back Bay 
district and at the South End. Mr. Connery was 
one of the originators of the Master Puilders' Associ- 
ation. His home is in Allston. 

Converse, .Alfred Collins, son of Joshua and 
Polly (Piper) Converse, was born in Rindge, N.H., 
March 17, 1827. He is a lineal descendant of 
Deacon Edward Convers, or Converse, who came to 
New England in the fleet with Governor Winthrop 
in 1630; received in 1631 the grant of the first 
ferry between Charlestown and Boston ; was first of 
the seven commissioners appointed by the church 
of Charlestown to effect the settlement of Woburn ; 
was selectman of the new town from 1 644 until his 
death : one of the board of commissioners for the 
trial of minor causes ; and was one of the founders 
of the church in Woburn, and deacon for many 
years. . His son James, commonly styled Ensign or 
Lieutenant Converse, was "repeatedly honored by 
the town with the principal offices which it had to 
confer;" James' son. Major James Converse, won 
distinction in the war with the French and Indians, 
was ten years a member of the General Court, and 
three times elected speaker of the House ; the 
major's son John, one of nine children, apparently 
lived an uneventful life in Woburn ; John's son 
Joshua in early life removed to Dunstable, and ten 
years later to Merrimac, N.H., then known as 
Naticook or Litchfield", where he was frei|uently 
elected to office ; John's son Zebulon was the one 
who established the family in Rindge ; and his son 
[oshua, the seventh of eleven children, was the 
father of Alfred Collins Converse. In addition to 
the management of a large farm, he was much em- 
jiloyed in other pursuits. In 1845 he purchased 
the mills and removed to the locality now known as 
Converseville, where he l)ecame extensively engaged 
in the manufacture of lumber and wooden ware. 
He represented the town in the Legislature in 1840 
and 1 84 1, and was a member of the constitutional 
convention in 1S50. For seventeen years he was 
a selectman. He lived to see his thirteen children, 


three daughters and ten sons, all married and well 
settled in life. Alfrefl Collins was the tenth child 
and eighth son of Joshua and Polly Converse. He 
was educated in the public schools and at the New 


Ipswich Acailunn. lie spent his boyhood on the 
farm and in his father's hiiubcr-niills. When yet a 
youth he taught srhndl winters in Rindge, Town- 
send, and Fitchburg. In 1850 he removed to New 
York, and was employed there in the wholesale flour- 
store of Cowing & Co., on South street. In one 
year the firm foiled, and he found more congenial 
employment in the tyjie foundry of Green Brothers, 
on Fulton street. In the course of another year 
they failed. He was next employed in the type 
foundry of William Hagar & Co., on (lold street. 
In less than two years they suspended. Hoping to 
get out of the area of failures, Mr. Converse then 
(in 1S54) removed to Boston, and here found em- 
ployment as electrotyper and fitter with Phelps & 
Dalton, then, as now, the leading type-founders in 
Boston. In 1863 he formed a copartnership with 
M. G. Crane, under the firm name of Con\erse iS: 
Crane, for the manufacture of fire-nlarni machinery, 
at the corner i)f Washington and Water streets, still 
retaining his |nisituin with I'helps lV Dalton. The 
following year Mr. Dalton sold his interest in the 
type foundry to Mr. Converse, and the firm took 
the name of Phelps, Dalton, & Co. In 1865 Mr. 
Converse sold his interest in the fire-alarm 

business, that he might devote his whole time 
to the type foundry. Since becoming a mem- 
ber of the firm he has had charge of the manufact- 
uring to the present time. In 18S3 he formed a 
partnership with his nephew, Morton E. Converse, 
of W inc heuilon, for the manufacture of toys and 
reed chairs. They have three mills, each one hun- 
dred feet long and four stories high, and employ 
about two hundred hands. Mr. Converse was a 
member of the Chelsea common council in 1877, 
an alderman in 1889 and 1890, the latter years re- 
ceiving the popular vote; and in December, 1891, 
was elected mayor of Chelsea. He has been a 
member of the Masonic order for thirty years, 
now of the Star of Bethlehem Lodge of Chelsea. 
Mr. Converse has been twice married : first, 
Nov. 13, 1855, to Julia A. Woods; and second, 
Nov. 18, 1869, to Hulda H. Mitchell. He has 
had four children : Julia Luella, born Feb. 4, 
1859 ; Lillia Frances, born May 10, 1865, died 
Sejjt. 15, 1866; a son, born and died Oct. 23, 
1870; and Alfred Otis Converse, born Dec. 21, 

Converse, Elisha S., son of Elisha and Betsey 
( W'heaton) Converse, was born in Needham, Mass., 
July 28, 1820. He was educated in the public 
schools. At nineteen he began work in a clothing 
store in Thompson, Conn., but the next year he 
changed to the shoe and leather business, in which 
his advance was steady and sure. Then in 1853 he 
became manager of the Boston Rubber Shoe Com- 
pany, and this position he still holds. He is also 
president of the First National Bank of Maiden, 
and director of the Exchange National Bank of 
Boston ; president of the Boston Belting Company 
and of the Rubber Manufacturers' Mutual Insurance 
Company ; director of the Revere Rubber Com- 
pany, and trustee of the Boston Five Cents Savings 
Bank. He is also a trustee of Wellesley College. 
Early making his residence in Maiden and becom- 
ing one of its foremost citizens, he was elected the 
first mayor when the town accepted the city charter 
in 1 88 1. He was a member of the lower house of 
the Legislature in 1878 and 1879, and of the senate 
in 1880 and 1881. He has done much to increase 
the attractions and promote the prosperity of his 
town, and has been a generous giver for good 
works. His latest and most important gift to the 
town is the handsome library building. Mr. Con- 
verse was married in Thompson, Conn., Sept. 4, 
1843, to Miss Mary D. lulmands ; they have had 
four children : Frank K., Mary Ida, Harry E., and 
Frances Eugenie Converse. 



Cook, John Hawkins, son of Justin and Fannie 
A. (Moore) Cook, was born in Northampton, 
Mass., July 28, 1841. He was educated in the 
common schools, and began business as an apothe- 
cary and country storekeeper. He entered the 
Union army as private of Company C, Tenth 
Massachusetts Infantry, June 21, 1861 ; was pro- 
moted to second and first lieutenant. Fifty-seventh 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers ; and brevet 
captain and major "for gallant and meritorious 
service in the campaign before Petersburg, Va., 
in 1864." He was dangerously wounded, and was 
honorably discharged Dec. 27, 1864. Captain 
Cook has been for nearly twenty-five years in the 
Customs service, and is now (1892) auditor and 
disbursing clerk in the Boston Custom House. He 
served as department inspector, G.A.R., Depart- 
ment of Massachusetts, in 1887-8; and is present 
commander (1892) of Edward W. Kinsley Post 
113, G.A.R. On Feb. i, 1876, he married Miss 
MoUie Pond. They have no children. 

CoDKK, Frf.dkkick Ai.i,s1(in, was born in the 
mountain town of Gorham, Me., Aug. 14, 1857. 
At an early age he was sent to Bridgton, Me., 
to attend the excellent schools in that place. He 
took a preparatory course for college under B. J. 
Legate. He studied dentistry with Dr. Isaac J. 
Wetherbee and in the Boston Dental College, 
graduating from the latter with honors in the 
class of 1879. He received a prize medal for 
class essays while in college, and was chosen presi- 
dent of the graduating class. After leaving college 
he was associated with Dr. Wetherbee, under the 
name of Wetherbee & Cooke. He was appointed 
demonstrator in charge at the Boston Dental Col- 
lege, and for a time successfully filled this position. 
Dr. Cooke is a member of the Boston Dental 
College Alumni Association, and of other societies. 

Miss Julia Shepley, of St. Louis, a sister of his 
partner, Mr. Shepley. 

CooLiDGE, William Hf.xrv, son of W'illiam L. 
and Sarah I. (Washburn ) Coolidge, was born in 
Natick, Mass., Feb. 23, 1859. He was graduated 
from Harvard in 1881. After studying two years 
in the Harvard Law School, he entered the law 
office of Hyde, Dickinson, & Howe in Boston, and 
was admitted to the Suffolk bar in January, 1SS5. 
In February following he was appointed assistant 
counsel of the Boston & Lowell Railroad Corpora- 
tion, of which his present partner was general 
counsel. He remained with that railroad and the 
Boston & Maine Railroad, its lessee, until Jan. i, 

1889, when he resigned to form a partnership with 
Almon A. Strout, under the firm name of Strout & 
t'oolidge, and he is now in general practice at No. 
40 ^\'ater street. He is a member of the Boston 
Bar Association, and of the Puritan, Newton, LTni- 
versity, and Republican Clubs. In politics he is a 
Republican. He was married Oct. 3, 1887, to Miss 
May Humphreys, daughter of George D. and Sarah 
F. (Young) Humphreys, of St. Louis, Mo. He re- 
sides in Newton. 

CooNEV, P. H., district attorney of Middlesex 
county, was born in Stockbridge, Mass., in 1845. 
He moved to northern New York, and lived on a 
farm until he was seventeen years old. He came to 
Natick in 1864 and was educated in the high 
school and at Allen's school in West Newton, after 
which he studied law in the ofiice of Bacon & 
Sawin, and was admitted to the bar in Suflblk 
county in 1868. He was appointed assistant dis- 
trict attorney of Middlesex county in 1880, and 
was elected district attorney of the same county in 

1890. He was a member of the school committee 
in Natick four years, from 1880 to 1884. 

CooLiDCE, Chari.ks Ai.lerii >n", architect, son of 
David and Isabella (Shurtlefif) Coolidge, was born 
in Boston Nov. 30, 1858. He was educated in 
Hopkinson's school ; at Harvard, graduating in the 
class of 1 88 1 ; and in the Institute of Technology. 
He began his professional work in the office of the 
late H. H. Richardson, and in 1886 became a 
member of the firm of Shepley, Rutan, & Coolidge, 
which was formed after Mr. Richardson's death, 
that year, and succeeded to his business. [For a 
list of some of the noteworthy buildings designed 
by this firm, see the sketch of (George F. Shepley.] 
He is one of the directors of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects. On Nov. 30, 1889, he married 

CoRCoR-AN, John W., sun of James and Catherine 
Corcoran, was born June 14, 1853, at Batavia, Mon- 
roe county, N.Y. His early education was ob- 
tained in the pubhc schools of Clinton, Mass. He 
afterwards pursued his studies in Holy Cross Col- 
lege, Worcester, St. John's University, New York 
city, and the Boston University Law School. He 
began the practice of law in Clinton, June, 1875, ^"^^ 
later on formed a copartnership with Herbert Parker. 
He was also a member of the law firm of Corcoran 
& Walsh. He is now (1892) in practice in Boston, 
with office in Sears Building, and associated with 
Mr. Parker. He was a member of the school com- 
mittee of Clinton for thirteen vears, and is now its 



chairman; town solicitor of Clinton since the cre- 
ation of the office in 18S3, with the exception of a 
single year ; and president of the Clinton board of 


trade, 1S86-7. He has been a member of the 
board of water commissioners since its organi- 
zation in 188 1. He was delegate to the national 
Democratic conventions in 1884 and 1888, and in 
the latter year acted as chairman of the delegation ; 
and he has been a member of the Democratic State 
committee since 18S3, and chairman of that body 
in i8gi-2. Mr. Corcoran was candidate for sena- 
tor in 18S0, for district attorney of Worcester county 
1883 and 1884, for attorney-general of Massa- 
chusetts in 1886-7, and for lieutenant-governor in 
1888-9 — all on the Democratic ticket. He was 
appointed receiver of the Lancaster National Bank 
of CHnton Jan. 20, 1886, by the comptroller of the 
currency of the United States, :md still holds that 
position. He is juili^'c-advor.itc-general on the 
staff of Governor Russt-ll. Mr. Corcoran was mar- 
ried in Boston, April 28, 1881, to Margaret J-i 
daughter of Patrick and Mary McDonald. Of this 
union are two daughters and one son ; Mary Ger- 
trude, Alice, and John Corcoran. 

Corse, John M., popularly known as General 
Corse, is a native of the smoky city of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., where he was born April 27, 1835, his ances- 
tors coming from an old Huguenot family and set- 

thng in Virginia early in the eighteenth century. 
His early education was received in St. Louis and 
Burlington, Iowa, and he entered West Point in 
1S53. He resigned to study, and then began prac- 
tice in Burlington, Iowa. Here he built up a suc- 
cessful patronage, at the same time taking much 
interest in public affairs, and in i860 was a candi- 
date for the position of secretary of State for Iowa 
on the Douglas ticket. At the breaking out of the 
war in April, 1861, he volunteered and entered the 
service as captain in the artillery. Then he was 
transferred as major of the Sixth Iowa Infantry, but 
later on was assigned to the staff of Gen. John 
I'ope, with the rank of judge-advocate-general, 
and afterwards inspector-general. After a number 
of hot engagements, among them Island No. 10 and 
Shiloh, he was promoted to the position of lieu- 
tenant-colonel of the Sixth Iowa Infantry and joined 
Sherman's army in the sieges of Corinth, Memphis, 
\icksburg, and* the Mississippi campaigns. For 
gallantry at the assault on Jackson, he received the 
commission of brigadier-general. He was given 
command of the Fourth Division, Fifteenth Army 
Corps, and was in many battles, among them Mis- 
sion Ridge, where his leg was broken by a shell ; 
and after recovering from the wound, he became a 
member of General Sherman's staff, and marched 
with him from " Atlanta to the sea." General 
Corse's bravery at Altoona Pass is well known to 
history, when with a handful of resolute soldiers he 
withstood one of the most deadly fires from the 
enemy, refusing to surrender, and holding the im- 
portant position until reinforcements from (General 
Sherman arrived. For his gallant conduct on this 
occasion he was made major-general. He was 
wounded five times during the war. He was ap- 
pointed lieutenant-colonel in the regular army after 
a two years' campaign in the Northwest against the 
Sioux. General Corse was appointed collector of 
internal revenue by President Johnson, and two 
years later he went abroad, passing several years in 
Europe. He was at one time a constructor of har- 
bors in Chicago. In 1886 President Cleveland 
appointed him postmaster of Boston, and his 
efforts in improving the mail ser\-ice of the 
city have become widely known. Changes have 
constantly been made and are still going on, so 
that newly appointed postmasters are frequently 
sent to Boston to learn the methods employed in 
the department here. General Corse's home is in 

Ci.mKR, jA^n;s E., son of James and Margaret 
(Callahan) Cotter, was born in county Cork, Ire- 



land, in 1848. Coming to this country when a boy 
and making his home in Marlborough, Mass., he ob- 
tained his education in the public schools of that town 
and in the State Normal School at Bridgewater. In 
the summer of 1871 he began the study of law in the 
office of William B. dale, in Marlborough, and was 
admitted to the bar in January, 1874. Then he re- 
moved to Hyde Park, and he has since ])ractised in 
Norfolk and Suffolk counties : his Boston office is 
now in the Sears Building. In Hyde Park Mr. 
Cotter has held a number of public positions. He 
has been chairman of the registrars of voters there 
(1884-5) ; for five years a member of the school 
committee (1886-91) : one year (1888) chairman 
of the board, and town counsel from 1878 to 1889. 
Since 1886 he has been town counsel for W'alpole. 
In 1874 and again in 1.S77 he was the Democratic 
candidate for district attorney for the southeastern 
district, comprising Norfolk and Plymouth counties, 


and in i SSS he was a candidate for presidential 
elector on the I )emocratic ticket. He is a member 
of the Norfolk and Suffolk Bar Associations, of the 
Charitable Irish Society (of which he was unani- 
mously elected president in 1892), and of the 
Massachusetts Order of Foresters. He was married 
Oct. 29, 1874, to Mary A. Welch: they have five 
children : Esther M.,^Alice K.. Mary Alma, Anna, 
and Sarah F. Cotter. 

Cov, S. \\'iLLARD, M.D., son of Fjdward L. and 
Clara (Gary) Coy, was born in West Hebron, N.Y., 
May 28, 1863. He was educated in the village 
schools at East (Greenwich, R.I., and in the Wilbra- 
ham .Academy. Then he came to Boston and 
attended the Boston University School of Medicine, 
from which he graduated in 1888. After graduation 
he began practice in East Boston, where he has 
since remained. He is a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Homoeopathic Society. 1 )r. Coy is also 
connected with the Knights of Pythias and the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 

Ckkkch, S.awuel W., jr., was born in Boston 
Nov. 7, 1839. He passed through the Boston 
IHiblic schools, and after reading law was admitted 
to the bar in 1862. He was a partner of Hon. 
William J. Hubbard \intil the latter's death, and has 
since practised alone. He has a wide and lucrative 
practice, and the management of large estates. 
He is president of the proprietors of Mount Hope 
Cemetery. In politics Mr. Creech is a Republican. 
He is a member ui the New t^ngland and Central 
<lubs, an<l ;i prominent Mason and Odd Fellow. 

Kidder (Haskell) Crocker, was born in Boston 
Dec. 15, 1843. He was fitted for college in the 
Boston Latin School, from which he graduated in 
i860 as a Franklin medal scholar; entered Harvard 
and graduated in the class of 1864 ; and took the 
course of the Harvard Law School, receiving the 
degree of LL.B. In 1867 he was admitted to the 
Suffolk bar, and began practice with his brother, 
Uriel H. Crocker — an association which has con- 
tinued to the present time (1892). Mr. Crocker 
early entered public life, and has rendered the State 
good service in a number of important positions. 
In 1873 and 1874 he was a member of the lower 
house of the Legislature, serving both terms as 
I hainnan of the committee on bills in the third 
reading, anil, during the second term, also as House 
chairman of the joint committee on the liquor law, 
and on the committee on rules and orders. In 
1880, 1881, 1882, and 1883 he was in the senate, 
tlie fourth year its president. While in that body 
he ser%ed as chairman of the committees on rail- 
roads, the judiciary, and rules and orders. He was 
also a member of the committees on ta.xation, the 
State House, bills in the third reading, and on the 
revision of the statutes (this a joint special com- 
mittee). He prepared the rules which the latter 
committee adopted to govern its sessions. He also 
prepared a "Digest of the Rulings of tiie Presiding 



Officers of the Senate and House," covering a 
period of fifty years, and this has since formed a 
part of the annual "Manual for the General Court." 
The session of the Legislature for 1883, when he 
presided o\er the senate, was rendered famous by 
the Tewksbury and other extended investigations, 
and it was the longest on record, lasting two hundred 
and six days. Mr. Crocker declined a reelection to 
the senate of 18S4. In February, 1887, upon the 
death of Hon. Thomas Russell, then chairman of 
the l)oard of railroad commissioners, Mr. Crocker 
was appointed a member of that board, and by its 
members was chosen chairman. In July, 1888, 
he was reappointed for the term of three years. 
At the expiration of that term in i8gi Hon. 
Chauncey Smith was appointed to the position b}- 
Governor Russell (Democrat), but the Republican 
executive council, by a party vote of seven to one 
(seven Republicans and one Democrat), refusing to 
confirm the nomination, and the governor making 
no other, Mr. Crocker continued in office. In 
January, 1892, however, when the annual report for 
the previous year was completed, he sent in his 
resignation. For two years (1877 and 1878) Mr. 
Crocker was secretary of the Republican State 
committee; and in the fall of 1877 he helped to 
promote the organization known as the " Young 
Republicans," of which he was elected chairman in 
.\pril, 1879. In 1889 he was appointed by Mayor 
Hart chairman of a commission of three to examine 
into the operations of the existing system of taxa- 
tion, and to report a more equitable system if any 
could be devised. In March, 1891, the committee 
made a report, concluding with certain recommenda- 
tions of which the most important were these : that 
municipal bonds should be released from taxation, 
on the ground that to tax such bonds results in loss 
rather than gain to cities and towns issuing the 
bonds, and that the many forms of double taxation 
should be abolished because such taxation is mani- 
festly unjust, and as a rule can be, and is, evaded. 
Mr. Crocker has prepared and published through 
G. P. Putnam's Sons (New York and London, 1889) 
a valuable parliamentary manual entitled " Princi- 
ples of Procedure in Deliberative Assemblies," 
which has had a wide circulation ; and, in con- 
junction with his brother, prepared the " Notes on 
the General Statutes" published in 1869. A 
second edition followed in 1875, and another 
simultaneously with the publication of the revision 
of the statutes of 1882, the latter being an enlarged 
edition entitled " Notes on the Public Statutes." Mr. 
Crocker is an officer of various business corporations, 
and is connected with a number of institutions and 

organizations. He is treasurer of the Massachu- 
setts Charitable Society ; a trustee of the Boston 
Lying-in Hospital ; president of the Massachusetts 
Charitable Fire Society; a life member of the 
Boston Young Men's Christian Union; a member 
of the Boston Civil Service Reform Association ; of 
the Citizens' .Association ; of the Society for Politi- 
cal Education ; of the Young Men's Benevolent 
Society ; of the Bar .Association of the city of 
Boston ; and of the Harvard Law School Associa- 
tion. He is also a member of the LTnion, St. Botolph, 
.Algonquin, Athletic, Papyrus, Country, and LTnion 
Boat Clubs, and the Beacon Society. On the 19th 
of June, 1875, he was married in Boston to Miss 
Annie Bliss, daughter of the late Dr. Nathan C. 
Keep, of Boston ; they have five children : George 
tilover, jr., Margaret, Courtenay, Muriel, and Lvne- 
ham Crocker. 

Crocker, John Mvrick, son of Francis and Susan 
(Kenyon) Crocker, was born in Provincetown, 
Mass., May 22, 1845. His early education was ob- 
tained in the public schools of his native town. He 
entered the Har\'ard Medical School in 1862, and 
graduated in 1866. The same year he began prac- 
tice in Provincetown, and remained there eighteen 
years. In 1884 he moved to Cambridge, Mass., in 
which city he has since resided, enjoying a steadily 
growing practice: He was medical examiner at 
Provincetown for over ten years, and also held 
other responsible positions there, among them : 
pension examiner, member of the school committee, 
member of the board of health, trustee of the Public 
Library, and acting assistant surgeon to the .Marine 
Hospital. He is prominent in several orders ; is 
connected with the .Amicable Lodge, Cambridge, 
the Joseph Warren Chapter and the Marine Lodge 
I.O.O.F., Provincetown, the Boston Lodge of Per- 
fection, the Scottish Rite, and the Cambridge 
Commandery Knights Templar. He is medical 
examiner of the Knights and Ladies of Honor and 
of the Home Circle. He is a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts Medical Society and the Cambridge 
Medical Improvement Society. Dr. Crocker was 
married in Provincetown, in 1871, to Mary, daugh- 
ter of William Adams ; they have one child : Inez 
M. Crocker. 

CuDDiHV, John J., was born in Saugerties on the 
Hudson, N.Y., in 1847. Having at an early age, 
through association with his father (who had been 
in the blue-stone business for many years), acquired 
a thorough knowledge of the North River blue- 
stone, he established the business in Boston under 



the firm name of Cuddihy & German. Mr. German 
died in 1883, and the business continued under the 
name of J. J. Cuddihy. The concern has filled 
many large contracts in Boston and vicinity. Its 
work includes the underpinnings and sidewalks of 
the buildings of S. S. Pierce & Co., at the corner of 
Dartmouth street and Huntington avenue, liack Hay 
district, and Court and Tremont streets/ down town : 
the R. H. Stearns sidewalks on the corner of Tremont 
street and I'emple place ; the .American l!ell Tele- 
phone Building underpinning, safe, floors, and side- 
walks, corner of Milk and Oliver streets ; the Bradley 
and Davis estate, corner Tremont street and Temple 
place ; and blue-stone in many houses on the Back 
Bay, such as those of Dr. W. S. Bryant, Dr. Fay, 
Mr. Amory, and George B. Davenport ; and side- 
walks on Bedford, Chauncy, Edinboro', Essex, 
Beacon, School, and other streets. Mr. Cuddihy 
is a member of the Master I'.uilders' .Association. 

Culver, Jane Kenhkick, M.D., was born in 
Warren, Mass., and is a descendant on the maternal 
side of the F'eltons — a name associated with a family 
of educators. She graduated and received the de- 
gree of M.D. in the year 1879, at the Boston I'ni- 
versity. She is a member of the American Institute 
of Homoeopathy, the Massachusetts Homoeopathic 
Medical Society, the Surgical and Gynaecological 
Society of Boston, and the Boston Homceopathic 
Medical Society, to all of which she has contributed 
papers. The Physiological Institute, which made 
its beginning in the city of Boston when the matter 
of " higher education for women " was unpopular, 
is a society in which she has taken dee]) interest. 

CuNNiKF, MiCH.iEL M.-iiTHEW, SOU of Michael 
and Ellen (Kennedy) Cunnifl', was born in Roscom- 
mon, Ire., in 1850, his parents coming to Bos- 
ton when he was three months old. He obtained 
his early educational training in the Boston public 
schools. This was supplemented by a course of 
commercial training in the Bryant & Stratton Com- 
mercial College, Boston. His first business con- 
nection was in the wine and spirit trade, with his 
brother Bernard, in this city. He subsequently re- 
tired from that line to enter a general banking and 
brokerage business, principally in the handling of 
gas securities and real estate. He has also been 
identified with the \\'est End Street Railway, the 
Charles River Embankment Company, and other 
land and railroad improvements in Boston and 
vicinity. Mr. Cunnifl" was chairman of the Demo- 
cratic city committee for two years ; chairman 
of the e,\ecutive branch of the Democratic State 

committee two years; and has been a member 
of the State committee fifteen years. He was a 
member of the executive council of Governor 
Ames, 1888, and was renominated, but declined 
the honor, for 1889. He is a director in the 
Mechanics National Bank of Boston, having been 
prominent in its reorganization ; also a trustee in 
the Union Institution for Savings, Boston; a director 
in the Bay State (las Company : is one of the fore- 
most capitalists in the organization of the Boston 
Gas Syndicate, and is largely interested in the gas 
business. He is also a member of several local 
yacht clubs, always having taken a lively interest 
in yachting matters; is a prominent member of 
the Suffolk Club, and of the Charitable Irish 
Society of Boston. He was chief ranger in the In- 
dependent Order of Foresters, and is a member of 
the Protective Order of Elks. He is also a member 
of the Montgomery Light (luard \'eteran ."Xssocia- 
tion, and an honorary memlier of the Kearsarge 

Veterans. Mr. Cunniff was married in Boston, June 
50, 1890, to Miss Jose]>hine McLaughlin, daughter 
of the late Francis McLaughlin. 

Cunningham, Thomas Edward, M.D., son of 
John and Mary (Murphy) Cunningham, was born 
in Prince Edward Island Jan. 5, 1851. His gen- 
eral education was obtained in the schools of his 
native town and at St. Dunstan's College, Charlotte- 



town, P.E.I. Then he began the study of medicine the active and successful practice of his profes- 
with Dr. Beer of Charlottetovvn, a leading prac- sion in this city, with an office in the Equitable 
titioner of that place, and in 1870 came to Boston. Building. Mr. Curry is a member of the Hull and 
Two years after he entered the Harvard Medical ^ 

School. Graduating in 1876, he established himself 
in Cambridge, and in a few years built up a large 
and successful practice. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, of the Har\-ard Med- 
ical School Association, and of the Cambridge 
Medical Improvement Society. Dr. Cunningham 
has been twice married. His first marriage oc- 
curred in 1S79, to Miss Mary Dooley (deceased) ; 
and the second on Feb. 3, 1891, to Miss Mary 
Kane. He has two children : Edward and 'Hiomas 

Currier, Frank D., United States naval officer 
of Customs, was born in Canaan, N.H., Oct. 30, 
1S53. He received his education in the ]iublic 
schools, the Meriden Academy, Meriden, N.H., and 
at Dr. Hixon's school in Lowell, Mass. He studied 
law, first in the office of Pike & Blodgett, and after- 
wards with Ceorge \V. Murray, of Canaan, N.H., 
antl was admitted to the bar from the latter office in 
1874. He began the practice of his profession at 
Canaan, N.H., where he continued >intil appointed 
by President Harrison United States naval officer 
of Customs for the district of Boston and Charles- 
town, Mass., May 19, 1890. He has, for several 
years, been prominent in New Hampshire politics. 
He was a member of the lower house of the Legis- 
lature of that State in 1879 ; clerk of the State senate 
from 1883 to 1886 ; was elected State senator in 1886, 
and upon the organization of that body was chosen 
its president ; was secretary of the New Hampshire 
Republican State committee from 1882 to 1888 in- 
clusive ; and delegate to the national Republican 
convention in 1884. He is a member of Social 
Lodge No. 53, and St. Andrews Royal Arch Chapter 
No. 1, Free Masons, of Lebanon, N.H., and Sul- 
livan (?ommandery Knights Templar of Claremont, 

CURRV, CIkokge E., is a native of Cleveland, Tenn., 
where he was born Feb. 13, 1854. His early edu- 
cation was attained in the local schools. Coming 
to Boston at the age of nineteen, he entered the 
Boston Latin School, and graduated therefrom in 
1878. Then he took the course of the Boston 
University College of Liberal Arts, graduating in 
1881 ; and afterwards entered the Boston University 
Law School, finishing his studies in 1884 and re- 
ceiving his degree. He was admitted to the Suffolk 
bar in February, that year. He has since been in 

Dorchester Va 
In politics he 


Chibs, and 

Curtis, Benjamin Rubbins, son of the late Judge 
B. R. Curtis, of the United States Supreme Court, 
was born in Boston June, 1855, and died in this 
city Jan. 25, 1891, when occupying a position on 
the bench of the municipal court. He was a 
worthy son of an eminent father. His early edu- 
cation was received at schools in Boston, and at the 
age of eleven he was entered at the famous -St. 
Paul's School, in Concord, N.H. There he was 
fitted for college, and entering Harvard he gradu- 
ated in the class of 1875, which included an un- 
iisually large number of men who have become 
lifominent in business and professional life. His 
bent was towards literature and law, and while in 
college he was one of the editors of the " Harvard 
Advocate." After two years spent in the Harvard 
Law School, he read law in the office of the Hon. 
Albert Mason, now chief justice of the Superior 
Court, and in 1878 was admitted to practice in the 
courts of the Commonwealth. Before entering the 
Harvard Law School he made a tour of the world, 
and upon his return published the journal of his 
travels in the attractive volume now widely known 


BOSTON OF ■ro-nA\'. 

under the title of "Dottings Round the Circle." In 
1879 he was the principal collator of facts for " The 
Life and Writings of B. R. Curtis," his father : in 

the following year he edited " The Jurisdic tinn, 
Practice, and Peculiar Jurisprudence of the Courts 
of the United States;" and in 1885 \ ol. 11. of 
Meyer's "Federal Decisions in Courts." In iSSi 
he was appointed lecturer in the Boston University 
Law School, on jurisdiction of United States courts. 
He was made a judge by Cdxernor Rohinsou, uho 
appointed him tu the municiiial bench in April, 
1886, and at the time of his last short illness he was 
in line for appointment to the superior bench. As 
a judge, dealing with peculiar, trying, and often sad 
cases which come before the lower courts, he was 
just and merciful. Judge Curtis was a member of 
the Somerset, St. Botolph, and Papyrus clubs, and of 
several benevolent and philanthropic organizations. 
He was of a retiring disposition, but not unsocial. 
His friendships were many and strong, and to those 
who were fortunate enough to know him intimatelx' he 
was one of the most companionable of men. He was 
married in 1S77, to Miss Mary G., a daughter of 
Professor Horsford, of Cambridge. His widow and 
three children, a son and two daughters, survixe 

CusHiNc, Ernest Watson, M.D., son of Thomas 
and Elizabeth (Baldwin) Cushing, was born in Bos- 

ton, Mass., Jan. 17, 1847. The family is well known 
in the early history of Massachusetts, to which 
it came in 1636 from Highani, Eng. He was 
educated in Boston and at Har\ard College, gradu- 
ating from the latter in 1S67. He received his 
degree of M.D. from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons in New York in 187 1. He was interne in 
Hellevue Hospital in 1871-2, and then studied two 
years in Europe. Returning to Boston, he has prac- 
tised here since 1874. He was physician to the 
l'io-,ton City Hospital, in the department of diseases 
ol the thi(Mt, from 1876 to 1884. In 1885 he again 
Msited i;uro|)e for a year's study, where he devoted 
his attention to bacteriology and especially to 
diseases of women and antiseptic surgery, tfpon 
his return he engaged in special practice, and in 
1886 was appointed surgeon to the Free Surgical 
Hospital for Women, lu 1.S.S7 he founded the 
medical journal " Annals of Cynsecology," now the 
■' Annals of Gynaecology and Ptediatry," of which 
he is editor. In December, 1S90, he was appointed 
siir-eon of the Woman's Cliarity Chili Hospital, 
;m institution de\i.ited es]ieeiall\' to abdominal 
sec lion. A new hospital was built in 1892, from 
desi-n-: by Dr. Cushing. He was secretary of the 
M-< tion for gynjecology of the American Medical 


Association in 18.S7, aiul also of the section I'or 
gynaecology in the Ninth International Medical 
Congress in 1887. He was a delegate to the Tenth 



Internatii)iial -\[f(li( :il ('invj,ress at Berlin in 1890, 
ami was the Aincri( an sci retary of the section for 
obstetrics and ,i;\ iKec o]oy:y. He was the Spanish- 
siieaking secretary of the section for gynfecology of 
the Pan-American Medical Congress, Washington, 
in September, 1891. He has translated and pub- 
lished " Pathology and Therapeutics of Diseases of 
A\'omen," by A. Martin, Berlin, with notes and ap- 
pendix by himself ( 1890) ; and he has contributed 
many papers tn xarinus medical and other periodi- 
I .lis, ammin them : " Keiigious Instruction in Public 

1 S,S4 ; "Simspiits and f',]iidenii(s," ■■ Internatinnal 
Review;" ■• Spec iTk and Infectious Nature of Tu- 
berculosis," " llostiiu Medical and Surgical Journal," 
Dec. 10, i8,S5 : •• Relations of Certain Bacteria to 
Puerperal Inflammations," " Physicians' Magazine," 
March, 1886; "Case of Chronic Arsenical Pois- 
oning of suiipused Criminal Nature," Suffoll< 
District Medical Societv. P.oston, February, 1887; 
"Tubal l'iegnanc\, Kuiitiire, Recovery," "Annals 
of Gymecology," February, 1888; "Drainage 
after Abdominal Section," read before Tenth Inter- 
national Medical Congress, Berlin, published in 
'• Annals of Gynecology and Pediatry," Novem- 
ber, 1890; "A Case of K.xtra-Uterine Pregnancy, 
( )peration at the Ninth Month, Recovery," " .Annals 
of Gynaecology and Pa3diatry," January, 1891 ; " ^'a- 
ginal Hysterectomy for Cancer, Report of Twenty- 
one Cases with Nineteen Recoveries," " .\nnals of 
Gynaecology and Paediatry," May, 1891; "Vaginal 
Hysterectomy," New York Medical Society, Albany, 
F"ebruary, 1892. Dr. Gushing lays no claim to 
si)ecial inventions or particular brilliancy of opera- 
tion, but he has endeavored to do clean surgery, and 
has worked hard to do his part in the transfor- 
mation of .surgical and gynfecological practice which 
has taken place since 1884, by taking pains to learn 
what was best and newest, by diligently jiractising 
it to the extent of his aliility, and by diffusing 
siiund teaching anil correct pathology as widely as 

CcsHiNi;, Hknrv Greenwood, sheriff of Middlesex 
county, was born in .Abington, Mass., m 1834. He 
was educated in the public school and the academy 
in Abington, and took a preparatory course for 
college at the ^Villiston Seminary, East Hampton, 
Mass. Deciding, however, to enter mercantile life 
at once, he began in the employ of Chandler & 
Co., dry-goods merchants in this city. After 
several years in their employ, he began the manu- 
facture of boots and shoes in his native town. At 
the outbreak of the Civil War he enlisted in the 

Eighth New Hampshire Volunteers upon its organi- 
zation, November, 1861. He was commissioned 
as second and first lieutenant, and served on staff 
duty under Brig.-Gens. Phelps, Cahill, H. E. 
Paine, and Major- Gen. W. T. Sherman, and 
after two years' service was honorably discharged 
for physical disability contracted by hardships which 
he had suffered. In 1867 he resumed the dry- 
goods business in Chicago, and before the great 
fire there was the head of one of the largest dry- 
goods firms in that city. After the fire he returned 
to Massachusetts, and in 1.S75 was appointed 
deputy sheriff for Middlesex < iiunly, residing 
at Lowell, Mass., under Hun. Charles Kimball, 
sheriff. Sheriff" Kimball died in 1879, and was 
succeeded by Hon. Eben W. Fiske, who appointed 
him special sheriff; and when Sherifl' Fiske died in 
18S4. Mr. CiiNhing was appointed l)y (rov. Butler 
sheriff for the unexpired term. In the election 
in November following he was nominated by 
both political parties for sheriff", and unanimously 
elected : and he still holds the position, having 
been nominated and unanimously elected by all 
political parties for three successive terms. He is 
a member of James A. Garfield Post ijo, (;..\.R., 
Lowell, Mass. ; of the Mass lchIlsett^ ( 'omiiKindery 
Loyal Legion; and the Massachusetts Consistory. 

Clishixl;, Ir.\ PJarkows, M.D., son of Caleb and 
Malinda Peck (Barrows) Gushing, was born in 
Providence, 111., Nov. 20, 1846. His father was a 
native of Massachusetts (born T793; died 1876), 
and removed to Illinois in 1836, where he engaged 
in agricultural pursuits; and his mother (born 
1803 ; died 1870), a native of Pawtucket, R.I., 
was a daughter of William Barrows and sister of 
Doctors Ira Barrows of Providence, R.I., and 
George Barrows of Taunton, Mass., both distin- 
guished physicians and pioneers in the school of 
houKjeopathy. He attended the common schools 
until sixteen years of age, and spent a portion of 
the next two years in the English High School at 
Princeton, 111. Then in 1869 he came East, and 
began the study of medicine in the office of his 
uncle. Dr. Barrows, of Taunton. In the fall of the 
same year he entered the Hahnemann Medical 
College at Philadelphia. Having a liking for 
chemistry, he took a special course in that branch 
under Professor Barker, of Yale, and subse([uently, 
in 1 87 I, during the vacation of the medical school, 
a full course. His third course of lectures, in 
the fall of 1S71 and early winter of 1872, was at 
the New York Homceopathic College, from which 
he graduated in the spring. The summer he spent 


in practising with his uncle in Taunton, and then in iNIiss H. Elizabeth Alden, of Bridgewater, Conn. ; 

the following winter and spring he took a post- they have three children : Ira M., born Aug. 26, 

graduate course in the New York Ophthalmic Hos- 1 S7 5, Maude K., born Dec. 27, 1S77, and Arthur 

pital and College, graduating in 1S73. This fin- .\. Cushing, born Jan. 17, iSSi. 


ished, he resumed practice with his uncle, making 
a specialty of the eye and ear. In the spring of 
1875 he removed to Brookline, Mass., where he 
became the successor of Dr. Warren Sanford, who 
had succeeded Dr. Wilde, the pioneer of homceop- 
athy in this section. In 1872 he was appointed by 
( lovernor Washburn assistant surgeon to the Third 
Regiment of the Militia, the first of his school ap- 
pointed here to a i)ublic professional position ; he 
served three years. He was the inventor, in 1882, 
of the widely known " Cushing process" for purify- 
ing and refining distilled liquors, the discovery of 
which was the result of his investigation, begun 
some years before, into the effect of air upon 
liquors. It utilizes nature's own means, and con- 
sists of forcing heated atmospheric air — which 
is first purified according to Professor Tyndall's 
method of destroying germs of animalculse — 
through the liquors, thoroughly oxidizing the fusel 
oil and eliminating the poisons. Dr. Cushing has 
been examining surgeon for several benevolent 
organizations. He is a member of the Massachu- 
setts HomcEopathic Society, the Boston Medical 
Society, and the Gynaecological Society. He is a 
Master Mason. He was married Oct. 27, 1874, to 

CrsiiMAN, George Thomas, M.D., was born in 
Dorchester Aug. 31, 1858. He was educated in 
Dorchester schools and in the Harvard Medical 
School, where he graduated in 1S81. He at once 
began the practice of his profession, which he has 
since steadily continued. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society and the Suffolk Dis- 
trict Society. He was married Oct. 26, iSSi, 
to Miss Sylvia, daughter of S. 1 ). Bannsdell, of 
( Huncy, also a " descendant of the Mayflower " 
Robert Cushman. 

Cl ni-k, Chaki.ks Kimi'.ai.i., son of Samuel Henry 
and Harriet S. (Blanchard) Cutter, was born in 
.Somer\ille, Mass., March 15, 1851. He graduated 
from 'lufts College in 1872, and the Harvard Medi- 
cal School in 1876, and at once began the practice 
of his profession in Boston. Dr. Cutter paid his 
way through college by teaching, acting as a book 
agent and as insurance agent. During this period he 
was at different times principal of the Green Moun- 
tain Academy, principal of the Franklin Evening 
School here in Boston, and a teacher in Bedford, 
.Mass., and Stafford, Vt. He was a delegate to the 
first single-tax conference, held in New York city 
September, 1890. He is a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, the Boston Medical So- 
ciety, and the American Medical Society. He was 
married Oct. 11, 1876, to Annie B. Alexander, 
who died April 14, 1883. On Oct. 22, 1884, he 
was married again, to Carrie M. Sprague. He has 
had two children; I.oring E. (died 1887) and 
Enid J. Cutter. 

CuiTER, Charles R., son of Charles R. and 
.Antoinette P. (Parker) Cutter, was born in Boston 
June 24, 1850. He was educated in the public 
schools, and early entered business life. He began 
work with the Mt. Washington Glass Company, and 
soon went West, spending two years there working 
for contractors. In 1872 he became connected with 
the Boston street department. From 1873 to 18S2 
and from 1883 to 1885 he was foreman in charge of 
street construction in the Dorchester district ; from 
1885 to i89i,in the Roxbury district ; from 18S2 to 
1883 he was assistant superintendent of streets; and 
is now (1892) deputy superintendent of the paving 
division of the department, having the expenditure 
of about two and a half millions in construction of 



Streets. He is a member of the Boston Society of 
Civil f;ngineers. He is a Mason, a member of the 
(iood Fellows, and of the Order of United Work- 
men. On Jan. iS, 1S87, he was married to Miss 
Cora ],. Hunt. 

CuiTER, Dexter Josi.4h, son of Joseph and Lucy 
Stone (Richardson) Cutter, was born in .Sudbury, 
Mass., Sept. 21, 1S27. His father was a former, and 
the son worked on the farm and attended the public 
schools in Sudbury until he was fourteen years old. 
Afterwards he pursued a course of studies in the 
Wayland Seminary, and also at the Northfield Semi- 
nary, N.H. He began his business career as a 
clerk in the Boston market for three years. Re- 
moving to \\'altham at the age of twenty, he engaged 
with the Boston Manufacturing Company there. 
After serving a year he was promoted to the position 
of overseer, which he held for nearly three years, when 
he was made book-keeper and paymaster of the com- 
liany. He held this position for twenty-two years, 
being in the employ of the company twenty-five 
years. Impaired health comi)elled him to engage 
in more active duties outside of an office, and, re- 
signing his position, he removed to Boston in Jan- 
uary, 1882, when he purchased of Messrs. Castner, 
Stickney, & Wellington the coal wharf and busi- 
ness at Commercial point, Dorchester district, 
formerly owned and operated by William H. Floyd. 
Mr. Cutter has since continued in the coal and wood 
business, increasing tlic trade over four hundred per 
cent, in a few years. ( )n June 12, 1851, he married 
Miss Sarah Bemis Stearns, daughter of Ephraim 
Stearns, of Waltham. They have had five children, 
four of whom are now living : Frank Ware, the 
eldest, Lticy Richardson, Elizabeth Learoyd (de- 
ceased), Walter Hill, and Ann Eliza Cutter. Frank 
W. married Miss Mary Gilbert, of Waltham, Lucy R. 
married William B. Everett, Walter H. married 
Miss Carrie Carr, and Ann E. married Carlton 
Blanchard. All reside in the Dorchester district. 
Mr. Cutter is a Republican. He never held or asjiired 
to public office. He is a member of the Unitarian 
church, Dorchester district. 

CrriKK, Leonard R., son of Daniel and Snlly 
(Jones) Cutter, was born in Jaffrey, N.H., July i, 
1825. His education was acquired in the public 
schools, and the academy of his native town. Until 
twenty years of age his time not devoted to study — 
with the exception of three terms of winter school- 
teaching — was spent on the farm. Then, in 1S45, 
he came to ISoston and found employment in a 
general grocery store. After six years' service here 

as clerk he went into business for himself, in which 
he continued for ten years. Subsequently he 
engaged in the real-estate business. He was early 
associated with city business, first as an assessor in 
1859. This continued for three years. Ten years 
later he was elected to the board of aldermen, his 
service beginning in 1871.. Repeatedly reelected, he 
was a member of the board from that time to 1874 
inclusive, serving as chnirni:iii one year, and as acting 
mayor the List nmnth of 1M7;,, the mayor having 
resigned. Later he was a member of the water 
board six years (chairman four years) and water 
commissioner eight years, retiring in 1883. Mr. 
Cutter was married in Brighton in 1852, to Miss 
Merr\-, (laughter of Phineas Taylor; they have 
two daughters : Agnes E. and Emma A. Cutter. 

r^ABNEV, Lewis S., son of Frederick and Roxana 
^-^ (Stackpole) Dabney, both natives of the LInited 
States, was born at Fayal, Azores, Dec. 21,1 840. The 
father was vice-consul of the Azores for a number of 
years, and died there in 1857. I.ewis S. entered Har- 
vard in 1 85 7 and graduated in 1 86 1 . He studied law 
with Horace Gray and Charles F. Blake, and was 
admitted to the bar in February, 1863. He was a 


member of the Second Massachusetts Cavalry, serv- 
ing in the Civil War from November, 1862, to Jan- 
uary, 1865, being mustered out as captain of cavalry 


in the Second Regiment, having passed through 
the grades of first and second lieutenant. In 1865 
Mr. Dabney began the practice of law in Bos- 
ton, and has continued to the present time. He 
was assistant United States attorney in 1866 under 
R. H. Dana, until the latter's resignation — about six 
months. In politics he is Republican, and in 
religion Unitarian. He is a member of the Somer- 
set, .-Athletic, Country, and Beverly Yacht Clubs. 
Mr. Dabney was married .April 22, 1867, to Clara, 
daughter of the late Chief Justice Bigelow, and has 
three children, two sons and one daughter. 

Dabnev, William H., son of William H. and 
Mary A. D. (Parker) Dabney, was born in f'ayal, 
Azores, April 8, 1855. His education was attained 
at Teneriffe, Canary Islands, and here in Boston, in 
the Institute of Technology, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1875. He began the practice of his profes- 
sion as a draughtsman in the office of the 
Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Company, in 
this city. Here he remained twelve years, mean- 
while occasionally doing some work on his own 
account, drawing plans for several mills and other 
structures. In i8go he formed a partnership witli 
H. B. Ball, when the architectural firm of Hall tV- 
Dabney was established. Mr. Dabney is a memlier 
of the Young Men's DennH ratic Chib. 

Dalk, William J., jr., son of Dr. William J. 
Dale, a distinguished physician of Boston and after- 
wards surgeon-general of Massachusetts (appointed 
to that office by Governor Andrew, and continued in 
it for nearly a score of years after the close of the 
war), was born in Boston April 15, 1850. When 
the war ended Surgeon-General Dale moved to the 
ancestral homestead in North Andover, a farm of 
several hundred acres, which had been in the pos- 
session of the Dale family since 1636, and here 
William J., jr., has for most of the time since lived. 
He has been a member of the school committee of 
Andover, serving several terms as chairman ; and a 
member of the board of selec tnien, of which he was 
also several years chairman. In December, 1886, 
he was appointed assistant postmaster of Boston, 
under Postmaster Corse, assuming the duties of that 
office on the ist of January, 1887. Here he re- 
mained until the change of administration, and the 
incoming of Postmaster Hart. At the opening of 
the present year (1892) he was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Russell to the board of railroad commission- 
ers. For a number of years he was president of the 
Exeter Manufacturing Company of Exeter, N.H., 
manufacturers of cotton goods ; and he has been 

one of the directors of the Music Hall Association 
of Boston. He is a member of the First Corps of 
Cadets, of which his maternal grandfather, Colonel 
Joseph H. .Adams, was at one time commander. 
On Nov. 26, 1891, Mr. Dale was married, at 
Boxford, to Miss Elise M. Ballou, daughter of 
Murray Ballou, chairman of the Boston Stock E^x- 

Daly, James Mo.vroe, was born in Salisbury, 
Vt., Dec. 23, 1829. His boyhood was passed in 
the towns of Middlebury and Bristol, and at sixteen 
he came to Boston, where he finished his education. 
Choosing dentistry as his profession, he began his 
studies in the office of Dr. John Sabine, at No. 
5 Franklin street. At twenty-two he began practice 
on his own account, and since that time has enjoyed 
a successful and prosperous career. In 1870 he 
graduated with honors from the Boston Dental Col- 
lege. He has been conspicuous in many well-known 
organizations. He was one of the corporators of 


the Dental College, and is at ]iresent one of its 
trustees. His oldest son, James H. Daly, is now a 
professor in that institution. 

Dallinger, William W., treasurer of city of 
Cambridge, was born in Cambridge in 1840. His 
fother was a native of England, and his mother ol 
Massachusetts. He was educated in the public 



schools. After leaving school he went into the 
wholesale boot and shoe business as clerk, and re- 
mained in it until 1878, when he was elected city 
treasurer of Cambridge, which position he has held 
ever since. He is a member of the Knights of 
Honor and Legion of Honor. He is married and 
has a family. 

Damon, George Leonard, son of Leonard and 
Elizabeth P. (Linfield) Damon, was born in Stough- 


ton, Mass., July 15, 1843. He comes of a sturdy 
New England ancestry. His father was long a 
prosperous trader in Stoughton and Boston. He 
attended the public schools in Stoughton until he 
was t\VL-l\ e vears old, when the family moved to 
East Bdstcin, ami there his early education was com- 
pleted in the Adams School, from which he gradu- 
ated at the age of eighteen. Then his school days 
were ended and work was begun. As he grew 
older the bent of his mind carried him away from 
mercantile pursuits and into the field of mechanics, 
which he chose for his lifework. He apprenticed 
himself to Harrison Loring, the South Boston ship- 
builder, to learn that business, and while performing 
every duty faithfully during the day, he attended 
school and studied draughting in the evening. At 
this time his special aim was to qualify himself for 
a mechanical engineer, and with this end in view he 
made a careful study of the construction of marine 

engines, the building of vessels, and of all kinds 
of iron-steamship work. Just before he completed 
his apprenticeship he received a flattering offer from 
Charles Staples & Son, of Portland, Me., who had ob- 
tained a contract for several light-draught monitors. 
This he accepted, and he remained in Portland until 
the great fire of 1866 destroyed the works of 
Staples & Son and caused him to look elsewhere for 
congenial work. He soon settled upon the safe- 
business, forming a copartnership with James Wil- 
son, of Boston. The firm bought the tools and 
plant of the Tremont Safe Company, and with these 
began the manufacture of safes. At the end of two 
and a half years he was urged again to enter the 
employ of Staples & Son, of Portland, and the finan- 
cial considerations being made satisfactory, he sold 
out to the .American Steam Safe Company, who had 
also just purchased the safe business of the old firm 
of Denio &: Roberts. .Another period of two years 
was passed in Portland, during which he did a large 
amount of special designing and added to his repu- 
tation as a mechanical engineer. In 1870 he was 
offered a yearly salary of six thousand dollars for 
three years by the .American Safe Company, to take 
charge of their manufacturing department. This 
offer he accepted, and his management resulted in a 
large increase of production. This situation was 
held until the stoppage of the business, owing to the 
conduct of Abram Jackson, the president. While 
here Mr. Damon patented and brought out several 
locks and other devices for safe-construction, which 
proved quite remunerative; and when, in 1874, the 
entire plant of the American Steam Safe Company 
was off"ered for sale he was able to purchase it out- 
right. His business has steadily increased. He 
has constructed vaults for nearly all the banks and 
safe deposit companies of Boston, and probably 
ninety per cent, of the work of this character in 
New England. Perhaps the most responsible piece 
of work which ever passed through his hands 
was in the '70's, when Secretary Bristow quietly 
ordered him to remodel the treasury vaults at New 
York. All of the labor had to be performed outside 
of business hours, and although none of the valuables 
were removed, and nearly one hundred million 
dollars were stored in the vaults, he safely accom- 
plished the task without a cent of loss and to the 
great satisfaction of the secretary. The numerous 
safes and vaults in the great Exchange Building on 
State street were placed by Mr. Damon, the contract 
exceeding two hundred thousand dollars. In addi- 
tion to his immense safe-business Mr. Damon has be- 
come interested in a branch of the photographic art, 
and is proprietor of the Harvard Dry Plate Company 



of Cambridgeport. During his residence in Soutli 
Boston, some years ago, he served one year as a 
member of the common council. For several years 
he has been a trustee of the Home Savings Bank, 
and is now a member of the executive committee. 
Mr. Damon was married in Lynn Nov. 25, 1868, to 
Miss Arolyn P., daughter of Nehemiah Leavitt, a 
substantial farmer and civil engineer of Sherman, 

Damrell, Chari.ks S., son of John S. and Susan 
E. Damrell, was born in Boston Sept. i, 1858. He 
was educated in the public schools, after which he 
took an advanced course. In 1876 he entered the 
office of his fiither in the management of real estate, 
and in 1878 was appointed to a clerkship in the 
city department for the inspection of buildings. 
Beginning at the lowest grade of clerkship, he has 
succeeded in advancing himself to the position of 
clerk of the department, which he now holds (1892 ). 
Mr. Damrell is a Royal Arch Mason, past noble 
grand of Odd F'ellows, a member of the Order of 
Red Men, and other social orders ; and of the Ath- 
letic Club. He is married to a New Bedford lady 
(granddaughter of Thomas E. Clark), and has two 
daughters. He resides in Boston. 

Damrell, Icihx Sianhopr, son of Samuel and .Ann 
(Stanhope) Damrell, was born in Boston June 29, 
1828. He was educated in the public schools of 
Boston and Cambridge. His first connection in 
business was with Isaac Melvin, of Cambridge, to 
whom he was apprenticed to learn the trade of a 
carpenter. He then came to Boston as a master 
builder, and in 1856 formed a partnership with 
James Long, which continued until 1874. During 
an interregnum of three years he made no con- 
tracts, by reason of attachments on account of his 
connection with the explosion of buildings with 
powder at the great Boston fire in 1872, when he 
was chief engineer of the fire department. ■ To that 
position he was elected in 1868, and he held it 
continuously until 1874, when the fire department 
was placed under a commission. From boyhood 
he had taken an interest in fire matters, his father 
and brother being members of the department. In 
1848 he joined "Hero Engine Company, No. 6," 
and continued through all the grades of membership 
and official position until 1858, when he was elected 
assistant engineer. It was from this position that 
he was raised to that of chief engineer. In the de- 
partment Captain Damrell performed conspicuous 
service. He has been conceded to be a master of 
the science of the extinguishment of fires, and an 

expert of advanced ideas connected with that 
important service. He was unanimously elected 
president of a convention of chief engineers called 


at Baltimore in 1874 in consequence of the sweep- 
ing conflagrations that had taken place in the cities 
of Portland, Chicago, and Boston. He was first 
president of the Massachusetts State Firemen's 
Association. He has also served as president of the 
Firemen's Charitable Association, the Boston Fire- 
men's Mutual Relief Association, the Boston \'et- 
eran Firemen's Association, and is to-day actively 
connected with these and kindred organizations. 
He is president of the Boston Firemen's Cemetery 
Association and chairman of the executive commit- 
tee to erect a monument to firemen. He has 
also been connected with the State militia, serving 
as lieutenant of the old Mechanic Rifles of Boston ; 
is an honorary member of the National Lancers ; 
and has been a member of the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery. During the war he performed pa- 
triotic service under Governor Andrew and Mayor 
Lincoln of Boston, in filling the quota of men 
allotted to the city. He is a member of the Knights 
of Honor, Royal Arcanum, Odd Fellows, (lood 
Tem]ilars, and is a Mason of the thirty-second de- 
gree. He has been, since its organization, president 
of the supreme parliament of the Golden Rule Alli- 
ance. For the past fifteen years he has been a 
trustee of the State School for the Feeble-Minded. 



In 1877 he was appointed inspector of buildings, 
wliich office he still holds. His church connections 
have long been with the Methodist Episcopal 
church, and he has served for twenty-three consecu- 
tive years as superintendent of a Sunday-school. He 
has received during his career a large number of 
interesting and valuable presents from his com- 
rades, the city authorities, and the general public. 
Captain Damrell was married April 11, 1850, at 
Cambridge, to Miss Susan Emily, daughter of John 
Hill ; they have had five children : Eliza Ann, John 
K. S., Carrie M., Charles S., and Susan Emily Dam- 
rell, of whom only the two sons are now living. 

Davis, Samuki, Ai.oxzu, M.D., son of Samuel and 
Olive (Holmes) Davis, was born in Bridgton, Me., 
in 1837. He was educated in the village schools 
and Bridgton Academy, Bowdoin College, and the 
Harvard Medical School. He met the expense of 
his college training by teaching. He began the 
practice of his profession in 1862, establishing him- 
self in Charlestown. In August of the same year 
he entered the Union army, and served through the 
war; mustered out in 1866. He was engaged in 
many of the battles — at Port Hudson, Donaldson- 
ville, Fisher's Hill, Cedar Creek, and was at Win- 

chester when Sheridan made his famous ride from 
" twenty miles away." After the war he returned 
to Charlestown and resumed r)ractice : and there he 

has since remained. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, the Harvard Med- 
ical Society, the Royal Arcanum, Masonic order, 
and Home Circle. He was married in Boston 
in 1870, to Miss Ella, daughter of the Rev. Dr. 

Davis, Thomas W., city surveyor of Boston for 
twenty-six years, son of Joseph and Mary (Wood) 
Davis, was born in Templeton, Mass. He was edu- 
cated in the Rensselaer Institute of Troy, N.Y., 
and the Lawrence Scientific School at Cambridge. 
He was city surveyor of Boston from 1866 to April, 
1892, when he declined longer to serve. From 
1863 to 1866 he was assistant city engineer, and 
previous to 1863 was for several years an assistant 
in the office of the city engineer. He is a member 
of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. 

Dav, Alhf.rt, was born in \\'ells, Me., C^ct. 15, 
1 82 1. When a boy he was obliged to give almost 
his entire time to working on the farm, and could 
attend the district school only during a jaart of the 
winter months. W^ien he was but thirteen years 
old his father died, and he went out in the world to 
make his own way. He first found employment 
with Dr. Jacob Fisher in Wells, and two years later 
he bound himself as apprentice to learn a trade, in 
the town of Sanford. Here he worked days and 
studied nights to obtain the education he craved. 
When yet a lad he became interested in the tem- 
perance cause, and worked and spoke in its behalf. 
In 1850 he settled in Lowell, Mass., and two years 
later came to Boston. In 1856 he was elected 
to the lower house of the Legislature, where he in- 
troduced measures looking to the establishment of 
an asylum for the care and cure of inebriates, his 
pet idea from boyhood. In 1857 the Washingto- 
nian Home was organized, and Albert Day was se- 
lected as superintendent. Realizing the importance 
of his position, and desiring to fortify himself for 
all emergencies, he entered the Harvard Medical 
School and obtained a medical education. Dr. 
Day remained as superintendent of the Washing- 
tonian Home for eleven years, and then was called 
to the Asylum at Binghamton, N.Y., where he re- 
mained three years. Returning to Massachusetts he 
established a private retreat at Greenwood. This 
was burned out four years later. An imperative call 
for his return to the conduct of the Washingtonian 
Home being made, in 1875 he again assumed the 
duties of superintendent and physician of that in- 
stitution, which position he still holds. It is now 
one of the most successful institutions of the kind 



in the country. Dr. Day has been a frequent con- 
tributor to temperance journals, and he is the author 
of " Methomania." 

Dkan, Benjamin, son of Benjamin and Alice 
Dean, was born in Clitheroe, Lancashire, Eng., 
Aug. 14, 1824. He was one of a family of ten 
children, — five boys and five girls, — all of whom 
lived to pass the meridian of life. When five years 
of age he came to this country with his parents, who 
settled in Lowell, Mass. There he received his 
early education, graduating from the Lowell High 
School in 1840. He then entered Dartmouth Col- 
lege, remaining through the freshman year. He 
began the study of law with Judge Thomas Hopkin- 
son, of Lowell, and in 1845 was admitted to the bar, 
and began practice in Lowell with James Dinsmore, 
where he remained until 1852. He then removed 
to Boston, and became a partner of Henry H. 
Fuller. Mr. Fuller dying soon after the partnership, 
the business fell to Messrs. Dean and Dinsmore, 
who carried it on several years, after which Mr. 
Dean assumed it alone. In 1862 and 1863, and 
again in 1869, Mr. Dean was a member of the State 
senate. He served on the committee of probate 
and chancery, was chairman of the joint committee 
on prisons, and of the joint special committee on the 
serving of processes on volunteers, was a member 
of those on the eligibility of members of Congress, 
and on proceedings for the restraint of the in- 
sane, hi 1869, when Francis A. Dewey was elevated 
to the judiciary of the Superior Court, Mr. Dean, 
although a Democrat, was made chairman of the 
committee on the judiciary. He was also chairman 
of the joint standing committee on the library, and 
a member of the special committee on the license 
law. He was a member of the common council 
of Boston in 1865, 1866, 1872, and 1873, where 
he continuously held the chairmanship of committee 
on ordinances. He served his Congressional dis- 
trict (the third Massachusetts) in the forty-fifth 
Congress. His seat was contested, but he was 
declared elected. Since 1854 Mr. Dean has been 
a prominent member and officer in the order of 
Free Masonry. He is deputy for Massachusetts, of 
the supreme council of the Ancient Accepted 
Scottish Rite for the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction 
of the L'nited States. Of the grand commandery 
for Massachusetts and Rhode Island he was grand 
commander from 187 1 to 1873, and from 1880 to 
1883 he was grand master of the grand encamp- 
ment of the Knights Templar of the United States. 
He has been one of the directors for the public 
institutions of Boston, a trustee of the South Boston 

.Savings Bank, a director of the South Boston Rail- 
road Corporation, president of the South Boston 
Gas Company, and chairman of the board of park 
commissioners of Boston. Mr. Dean is an expert 
yachtsman, and for several years was commodore of 
the Boston Yacht Club. He married in Lowell, in 
1848, Mary A., daughter of J. B. French. Mr. 
French had been a county commissioner of the 
city of Lowell, president of the Northern Railroad 
of New Hampshire, mayor of the city of Lowell, 
and at the time of his death was president of the 
.\ppleton National Bank of that city. The children 
of this union were six, five of whom are living : 
Benjamin Wheelock, Walter Loftus, Josiah Stevens, 
Clitheroe (now Mrs. C. L. James), and Mary (Mrs. 
Walter Tufts) Dean. Mr. Dean has two brothers 
living, one of them, Peter Dean, president of the 
Merchants Exchange Bank of San Francisco, Cal., 
who has been a president of the Society of Pioneers 
and a member of the State senate of California. He 
is a Forty-nine-er., Jusiah S., son of Benjamin Dean, was born 
.May II, i860. His early education was attained 
in the Boston public schools. He spent one year 
in the Institute of Technology, read law in his 
father's office, and attended both the Boston 
University Law School and the Harvard Law 
School. He was admitted to the bar in January, 
1885, and was then associated for a year or more 
with L. S. Dabney, as attorney for the South 
Boston Railway Company. He is now (1892) as- 
sociated with his father at No. 28 State street. In 
1890 and 1 89 1 he was elected a member of the 
common council from Ward 14, on the Demo- 
cratic ticket. He takes an active interest in 
athletic sports, is a member of the Boston Athletic 
x\ssociation, the Boston Bicycle, the Puritan, the 
Canoe, and the Young Men's Democratic Clubs ; 
and he is one of the editors of the " Bicycling 

De.arh(irx, Charles Ehenezer, son of Ebenezer 
and Hannah (Dyson) Dearborn, was born in 
Nashua, N.H., Feb. 28, 1820. He was educated 
in the Nashua Academy, when David Crosby was 
principal, and at Dartmouth College, from which he 
graduated in 1842. Coming to Boston he studied 
dentistry with Dr. Willard \V. Codman on Boylston 
street, and then began the practice of his profes- 
sion here. He was associated with Dr. Daniel 
Harwood for ten years, and with Dr. David M. 
Parker for thirty-five years. Dr. Dearborn was 
married April 30, 1857, to Miss Caroline M. Law- 



rente ; they have two children : 
Henrv M. Dearborn. 

Edward E. and 

Dennison, George, was born in Dorchester Feb. 
23, 1853, and still resides in that district. He was 
educated in the public schools, and started out in 
life as a clerk in an insurance office, remaining 
there for four years. He was then in mercantile 
business for two years, the conveyancer's business 
fifteen years, and assistant manager in the Boston 
office of the Equitable Mortgage Co. of Kansas 
t'ity, Mo., three years. He established business 
for himself in real estate, mortgages, insurance, and 
investment securities, Jan. i, 1890, with office at No. 
113 Devonshire street. He has the charge and 
management of much trust proi)erty in Boston, and 
is also interested in developments in Sioux City, la. 
He is a member of the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce, of the Real Estate Exchange and .\uction 
Board, the Boston Board of Fire Underwriters, is 
secretary and treasurer of the Sioux City Land Co., 
secretary of the American Security and Trust Co. 
of Sioux City, la., vice-president of the Nickel Plate 
Mining Co. of Aurora, Mo., a notary public and 
justice of the peace. He is also a member of the 
Massachusetts Yacht Club. 

Dkvens, Charles, son of Charles antl Mary 
(Lithgow) Devens, was born in Charlestown .^iiril 
4, 1S20; died in Boston January, 1891. He was 
a State senator at twenty-eight. United States mar- 
shal at thirty, a major-general during the Civil 
^Var, a justice of the Superior Court, United States 
attorney-general and justice of the Massachusetts 
Supreme Judicial Court at two different periods, an 
able jurist, and an eloquent and finished orator. 
His father was a leading citizen of Charlestown, and 
his mother was a daughter of Col. Arthur Lithgow, 
of Augusta, Me. His great-grandfather, Richard 
Devens, was of the " Committee of Safety," and a 
veteran of the Revolution of considerable local emi- 
nence. Carefully trained for college, he entered 
Harvard at the age of fourteen, and was graduated 
in the class of 1838. Then he pursued his law 
studies in the law department of the university, and 
in the Boston office of Hubbard & Watts, and 
was admitted to practice in 1841. He established 
himself in Franklin county, first residing in North- 
field and subsequently in Greenfield, where he 
remained until 1849; the last two years of his 
residence in that district representing it in the 
State senate. At the close of his term he was 
appointed United States marshal for the district of 
Massachusetts, which office he held from 1849 to 

1853. It was during his service as marshal, in 
1S51, that the fugitive slave Thomas F. Simms was 
returned to slavery — a deed which greatly excited 
many citizens and brought upon him their severest 
censure. "We do not believe," writes one of his 
eulogists, " that the United States marshal acted 
with 'alacrity.' No doubt 'his soul abhorred the 
deed, and consented not,' even while his official 
arm performed it." Three or four years after- 


wards he strove, through the colored preacher, the 
Rev. A. L. Grimes, to obtain freedom for Simms, 
offering personally to defray the entire expense ; but 
the effort proved fruitless. And again, when he 
learned that Lydia Maria Child was endeavoring to 
raise a fund for the slave's redemption, he made 
another effort with a similar offer ; but the war came 
before the negotiations were completed. ^ Subse- 
quently he aided Simms pecuniarily to establish 
himself in civil life, and when attorney-general 
appointed him to a place which he was able to fill 
in the department of justice. On retiring from the 
marshalship, Mr. Devens resumed the practice of 
his profession, making his home in Worcester. 
When the war broke out he accepted the position of 
major, commanding an independent battalion of 
rifles, and remained with it about three months. 
Then, in July, 1861, he was made colonel of the 
Fifteenth Regiment, which was recruited in Worces- 
ter county, and on the 8th of August left with it for 



the seat of war. He ser\'ed with this command 
until 1S62, and was wounded in the battle of fiall's 
Bluff. Then he was made a brigadier-general, and 
commanded a brigade during the Pennsylvania 
campaign. He was disabled by a wound at Fair 
Oaks, and participated in the battles of Antietam 
and Fredericksburg. In 1863 he commanded a 
division in the Eleventh Corps at the battle of 
Chancellorsville, and was again wounded, this time 
severely. Recovering, he returned to the field in 
1S64, was appointed to the command of a division 
in the eighteenth army corps, and his troops were 
the first to occupy Richmond upon its fall. For 
gallantry and good conduct at this capture he was 
breveted major-general. He remained another 
year in the service, in command of the district of 
Charleston, S.C., and in June, 1866, he was mus- 
tered out of service at his own request. Then he 
at once resumed the practice of law at Worcester. 
In April, 1867, he was appointed by Governor 
Bullock one of the justices of the Superior Court, 
and in 1S73 he was promoted by Governor Wash- 
burn to the supreme bench. This seat he resigned 
in 1877 to accept the position of attorney-general 
of the United States in the cabinet of President 
Hayes. At the close of his term in 18S1 he 
returned to Massachusetts, and was soon again 
appointed to the supreme bench, this time by 
(lovernor Long, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
resignation of Mr. Justice Soule. This position he 
held at the time of his death. His most notable 
addresses on public occasions were the oration at 
the centennial celebration of the battle of Bunker 
Hill, at the dedication of the soldiers' monuments in 
Boston and in Worcester, on the deaths of General 
Meade and General Grant, and at the celebration 
of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
founding of Harvard College, on which occasion he 
presided. Cleneral Devens was never married. 

Df.vink, William Hknrv, M.D., son of William 
Devine, of South Boston, was born there July 22, 
i860. He was educated in the public grammar, 
high, and Latin schools, and graduated from Har- 
vard M.D. in 1883. He was then house officer 
at Carney Hospital one year. The same year he 
was commissioned assistant surgeon of the Ninth 
Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, and 
the following year was ap))ointed surgeon. He was 
appointed physician to the Suffolk County House 
of Correction in 1886. There he served until 1S89, 
when he resigned. Then he became out-patient 
physician to Carney Hospital, which position he 
still holds. He is a member of the Massachusetts 

Medical Society and the South Boston Medical Club. 
He has occasionally contributed to the medical 
journals. Dr. Devine was married June 11, 18S9, 
to Miss Catherine G., daughter of Barry Sullivan, of 
South Boston. 

Dkwkv, Hf.nrv Sweetskr, was born in Hanover, 
N.H., Nov. 9, 1856. His ancestors were among 
the earliest settlers of Massachusetts, for he is a 
direct lineal descendant of Thomas Dewey, from 
Sandwich, county of Kent, Eng., who settled in 
Dorchester as early as 1633, and, on the ma- 
ternal side, of Seth Sweetser, from Tring, Hert- 
fordshire, Eng., who was a resident of Charles- 
town in 1637. His father was Maj. Israel Otis 
Dewey, in early life a merchant in Hanover, where 
he held many positions of honor, both State and 
Federal, and afterwards a paymaster in the Ignited 
States army. His mother was Susan Augusta, daugh- 
ter of Gen. Henry Sweetser, of Concord, N.H. 
Mr. Dewey's boyhood and youth were passed prin- 
cipally in the Southern and Western States, at various 
places where his father was stationed. He gradu- 
ated from Dartmouth in 1878, and received the 
degree of A.M. from the same institution in 18.S1. 
In college he was a member of the Alpha Delta Phi 
Society. Soon after his graduation he was appointed 
paymaster's clerk in the United States army, and 
while serving in this capacity came to Boston, in 
.■\ugust, 1878, where he has since resided. In 1880 
he resigned his position as paymaster's clerk, and 
studied law in the Boston LTniversity Law School 
and in the office of A. A. Ranney. He received 
the degree of LL.B. from the law school, and was 
admitted to the Suffolk bar in June, i88t. Since 
that time he has been actively engaged in the 
practice of his profession in Boston. He was a 
member of the First Corps of Cadets from June 1 1, 
1880, imtil Feb. 26, 1889, when he was commis- 
sioned judge-advocate on the staff of the First 
Brigade Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, with rank 
of captain, which position he now holds. He has 
been justice of the peace and notary public sime 
1882 ; was a member of the Republican ward and 
city committee of Boston from 1884 to :888 ; was 
a member of the common council of Boston in 
1885, 1886, and 1887 ; and was a member of the 
lower house of the Legislature from the Twenl\- 
first Suffolk District in 1889, 1890, and 1891, serv- 
ing as chairman of the committee on the judiciary 
during the last two years. He is a member of the 
Military Order of the Loyal Legion, and of the 
Algonquin, Athletic, Roxbury, and Curtis Clubs of 




Dexiek, Wallace D., was born in Boston Sept. 
15, 1852, and was educated in the public schools 
of Newton. He was a member of the firm of Dex- 
ter Bros., dealers in paints, oils, etc., from 1875 
to 1889, and owing to the t\tcnsi\x' business of the 
concern he formed a large business acquaintance 
among the real-estate owners and buyers. In 1890 
he withdrew from this connection and entered the 
real-estate Imsiness at No. 14 Kilby street. Resid- 
ini; in I'.rm .klme, he has made Brookline property 
somewhat a ^l>c(■ialty, although doing a general busi- 
ness in other suburbs and in Boston. In a short 
time he has built up a good clientage and taken a 
leading position among the real-estate men of the 
city. He is an active member of the Real Kstate 

DicKiNSiix, Marijiis Favejie, jr., eldest son of 
Maninis F. and Hannah (Williams) Dickinson, was 
born in Aniliirst, Mass., Jan. 16, 1840. He re- 


ceived his early education in the common schools 
of his native town, at Amherst and Monson Acade- 
mies, and Williston Seminary, luisthaiupton, from 
which he graduated in the class ut 1X58. He 
entered Amherst College in the same year, graduat- 
ing therefrom in 1862, having one of the three 
highest of the commencement appointments. After 
teaching classics in Williston Seminary for three 
years, 1862-5, he studied law with \\'ells & Soule, 

Springfield, at the Harvard Law School, 1866-7, 
and with Hon. George S. Hillard, of Boston. He 
was assistant United States attorney from 1869 to 
1 87 I. He then became a member of the law firm 
of Hillard, Hyde, & Dickinson, the style subse- 
quently changing to the well-known firm of Hyde, 
Dickinson, & Howe. IVIr. Dickinson was a member 
of the Boston common council in 1871 and 1872, 
holding the office of president of that body during 
the latter year. He was a trustee of the Boston 
Pul)li<- Library in 1871; has been a trustee of the 
Williston Seiiiinarv since 1872 ; and one of the over- 
seers of the < liarit\- fund of Amherst College since 
1877. He was a lecturer on law as applied to rural 
affairs in the Massachusetts Agricultural College, 
187 1-7; author of "Legislation on the Hours of 
Labor," 187 1; and of the "Amherst Centennial 
Address," 1876. Mr. Dickinson is at present 
(1892) one of the counsel for the West End Street 
Railway Company, his especial work being the de- 
fence of their accident cases in court. Mr. Dickin- 
son was married at Easthampton Nov. 23, 1864, to 
Ccrilia R., adoiited daughter of Samuel and Emily 
(Craves) Williston. Of his three children only one 
is living, — Charles, — Williston and Florence hav- 
nig de( eased. He has an adopted daughter, Jennie 
Couden Dickinson, daughter of his deceased sister. 

Du.i.AWAV, William Kdwarh Lovell, son of Will- 
iam S. and Ann Maria (Brown) Dillaway, was born 
in Boston Feb. 17, 1852. He was educated in 
the Boston grammar schools and the English High 
School, under Master Thomas Sherwin. He at- 
tended the Harvard Law School, and took a private 
( oiiisr under a tutor at Harvard College. He also 
studied law with A. A. Ranney and Nathan Morse, 
and was admitted to the bar on Feb. 17, 1873, his 
twenty-first birthday. For a few years he was asso- 
ciated with Messrs. Ranney and Morse, engaging 
actively in the trial of many large and important 
( aiisfs. Then he formed a copartnership with C. 
1. C.iUagher, under the firm name of Dillaway & 
(iallagher, which c ontinued until 1S77. Since then 
he has been alone, largely in corjioration |)ractice. 
He is now counsel for several large cur]iorations in 
Boston and New \i<vk, and is a ilirertor in many 
corporations in this State and in the West, where 
he has large interests. He was the princijjal coun- 
sel tortile r.a\ State ( las Company and the West 
End Street Railway Company in all their legislative 
matters, and in bringing about the reorganization 
and consolidation of the various gas-companies and 
street-railway companies of this city. At pres- 
ent he is withdrawn from general practice, and is 


engaged only in personal and corporation matters. 
While at the bar his practice was among the largest 
of the younger men, and was very lucrative. He 
was selected by Mayor O'Brien to deliver the ora- 
tion at the celebration of the one hundred and 
twelfth anniversary of American independence in 
this city, and his effort on this occasion called forth 
general commendation. He is an extensive col- 
lector of books, bronzes, etchings, and prints. Mr. 
Dillaway was married June i6, 1874, to Miss Ger- 
trude St. Clair Eaton ; they have no children. 

DisBROW, Robert, M.D., son of the late Rev. Noah 
Disbrow, of South Boston, was born in St. John, 
N.B., Feb. 8, 1842. He was educated in the local 
schools of the provinces and in the Harvard Medical 
School, from which he graduated M.D. in 1865. 
Then he went into the army as acting assistant sur- 
geon in charge of the One Hundred and Ninth 
United States colored infantry, where he served seven 
months. He settled in Boston in November, 1865. 
He was in that year appointed district physician to 
the Boston Dispensary, and ser\ed four years in the 
Fort Hill district. Since that time he has been 
one of the house physicians to the Dispensary. He 
is a member of the .Massachusetts Medical Society, 
a life member of the Scots Charitable Society, and 
a member of the British Charitable Society. He 
is past chief of the order of Scottish Clans. Dr. 
Disbrow was married in 1884. Two of his brothers 
also graduated from Harvard M.D. : one is settled 
in New Brunswick, and the other is now deceased. 

Dn-.soN, OuvKR, son of Joseph and Lucy (Pierce) 
Ditson, was born in Boston Oct. 20, 181 1, nearly 
opposite the residence of Paul Revere. He died 
Dec. 21, 1S8S, in the city of his birth, and was 
buried from Trinity Church, the Rev. Phillips Brooks 
officiating. His parents were of Scotch descent, 
and their ancestors, soon after the landing of the 
Pilgrims, were driven from Scotland by religious 
persecution. His father was one of a firm of ship- 
owners, and the son knew no hardship until its 
failure. Graduating with a good record from the 
North End public school, he first found employ- 
ment in Parker's book and music store. Then he 
learned the printer's trade, first with Isaac Butts 
and afterwards with .'Mfred Mudge. At this time he 
was the main support of his parents. After a while 
he returned to Colonel Parker's employ, and later 
on he took a single counter in the famous " (Jld 
Corner Bookstore." Here was formed the firm of 
Parker & Ditson, when Mr. Ditson was only twenty- 
one years old. He put his whole force into the 

business, and changed it into a music store. In 
1840 he purchased Colonel Parker's interest, and 
under the name of Oliver Ditson, without the aid 
of capital or influential friends, began his remark- 
able career as a publisher. In the meantime he 
had become an organist, a singer, and an accom- 
plished writer of brilliant notes and letters. In 1840 
he was married to Catherine, daughter of Benjamin 
Delano, a prominent ship-owner. She was a lineal 
descendant of William Bradford, the second gover- 
nor of the Plymouth Colony. They had five chil- 
dren : Mrs. Burr Porter, Charles H., James Edward 
(deceased), Frank Oliver (deceased), and a daugh- 
ter who died in infancy. Mr. Ditson's business 
steadily increased in volume until it reached two 
million dollars annually. He was a long time the 
president of the board of music trade, of which he 
was the founder. He expended large sums in sup- 
porting such artists as gave promise of special dis- 
tinction. He was one of those who gave the Peace 
Jubilee of 1872 support, subscribing twenty-five 
thousand dollars, and made its success possible. 
He was a life-long patron of the Handel and Haydn 
Society, and was never absent from its concerts. 
He was for twenty-one years president of the Con- 
tinental National Bank of Bo.ston ; was many years 
trustee of the Franklin Savings Bank, which he 
originated and managed : a trustee of the Boston 
Safe Deposit Company ; one of the founders of the 
Old Men's Home, Boston; an active supporter of 
the New lingland Conservatory of Music ; trustee 
of the Mechanic Association ; member of the Boston 
Memorial Association ; and a director of the Bunker 
Hill Monument Association. In politics he was a 
Whig, until the formation of the Republican party, 
after which he acted with that organization. His 
religious training was with the Baptist denomina- 
tion, but in later years he allied himself with the 
Unitarians. In his long career he had established a 
number of branch houses, ami pla. ed many a young 
man of ability where he could win mk cess. Of the 
several houses these are notably conspicuous : The 
Boston branch house of J. C. Haynes & Co. ; the 
Cincinnati house (John Church) ; the New York 
house (Charles H. Ditson) ; the Philadelphia house 
(J. E. Ditson) : and the Chicago house of Lyon & 

Dixiix, Lkwis Sf.avf.r, M.D., was born in New 
\'ork Sept. 26, 1845. He was educated and fitted 
for college in the Dedham High School, and gradu- 
ated from Harvard A.B. in 1866, and Harvard A.M. 
in 187 1, .\fter graduation he went to Worcester, 
where he practised until 1882. Dr. Di.\on then 



came to Boston, where he has since remained prac- 
tising his profession. He has been abroad studying 
in London, Paris, and elsewhere. He was ophthal- 
mic surgeon at the Worcester City Hospital and the 
\\'ashburn Free Dispensary, and is now assistant oph- 
thalmic surgeon to the Boston City Hospital. He is 
a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, the 
New England, the American, and the International 
Ophthalmological Socirties. Dr. Dixon was married. 
May, 1873, to Miss I'.lkn R., daughter of William 
Burrage, of Jainaira i'lain, \Vest Roxbury district. 

DoANE, Thomas, son of John and Polly (El- 
dridge) Doane, the former a native of Orleans, 
Cape Cod, and the latter of Yarmouthport, was 
born at Orleans, Mass., Sept. 20, 1S21. His father 
was a well-known lawyer, served in the State senate, 
and filled other public positions. He was the 
originator of " forest culture " in this country, tak- 
ing the initiative step by purchasing tracts of land 
on the cape and ])lanting them in pines. He was 
also a promoter of the culture of fruit-trees of all 
kinds on the cape. Thomas Doane, the son, was 
the eldest of eight children, all of whom lived to 
adult age ; and four, two sons and two daughters, 
are still living. His early education was received 
at an academy established by his father and a few 
other gentlemen having children to educate. He 
attended this old school until he was nineteen 
years of age, and then spent five terms at the 
English Academy at Andover, Mass. After leaving 
this school he entered the office of Samuel Fenton, 
one of the most noted civil engineers of his time 
in this locality, and a leading citizen of Charles- 
town. (Mr. Fenton's office was on the same site 
as that of Mr. Doane's at the present time, in the 
same room, but in an older building.) After serv- 
ing a term or apprenticeship of three years here, 
Mr. Doane became head engineer of a division of 
the Vermont Central Railroad. That was in 1847. 
From 1847 until 1 S49 he was consulting resident en- 
gineer of the Cheshire Raih-oad at Walpole, N.H. 
In December, i.S4r), he returned to Charlestown 
and opened an oftic e, where he has since remained, 
carrying on his |)rofession of civil engineering and 
sui-veying. During his residence here Mr. Doane 
has been connected at one time and another with 
all the railroads running out of Boston, but particu- 
larly with the Boston & Maine Railroad. In 1863 
he was appointed chief engineer of the Hoosac 
Tunnel, and located the line of the tunnel, built the 
dam in the Dcerfield River to furnish water-power, 
and in this work introduced nitroglycerine and 
electrical lilasting in this country. After ha\ing 

charge of that work for four years, in i86g he 
went to Nebraska, where he built two hundred and 
forty miles of railroad on the extension of the 
Chicago, Burlington, & Quincy. He was thus em- 
ployed for four years, having full charge of the con- 
struction, and even running of trains, until the line 
was completed. He made the question of grades a 
special study, and so perfect were those on the ex- 
tension that one engine on that portion of the 
Chicago, Burlington, &: Quincy would haul as many 
cars to the Missouri River as five engines could haul 
across Iowa. He also located and named all the 
towns on the extension. While in Nebraska the 
question of establishing a college in that State was 
agitated, and he took an active and leading part in 
the work of founding the institution. He secured 
for its site a square mile of ground at Crete, 
twenty miles west from Lincoln, and as a recogni- 
tion of his valuable assistance and aid in the work 
the institution was named Doane College. In 1873 
Mr. Doane completed his work in Nebraska and 
returned to Charlestown, reopening his office. But 
soon afterwards he was reappointed on the Hoosac 
Tunnel, and had charge as consulting engineer of 
the reconstruction of the whole of the Troy & 
Greenfield Railway and of the tunnel. In 1873, 
upon the opening of the tunnel, he ran the first 
locomotive through it. He finished his duties in 
this direction in 1877, and two years later, 1S79, 
was appointed consulting and acting chief engineer 
of the Northern Pacific Railroad for one year. 
During that time he located the Pend d'Oreille 
Division across the Columbia plains in Washington 
Territory and parts of the Missouri division in 
Dakota. Since then he has done a great deal of 
important work. Mr. Doane is president of the 
Boston Society of Civil Engineers. He has been 
a justice of the peace for over thirty years, and 
for forty years has been a deacon in Winthrop 
Church. He is a director in the Associate Chari- 
ties of Boston, and president of the Charlestown 
branch of the organization ; vice-president of the 
Hunt Asylum for Destitute Children; is a member 
of the New England Historic Cenealogical So- 
ciety ; of the Congregational Club; and of the 
American College and Educational Society. 

DoBSON, John M., supreme president of the 
Order of /Egis, was born in Ijiswich, Mass., in 
1845. He was fitted with a [jractical education 
in the public schools and business colleges, early 
engaged in trade, and followed successfully a varied 
line of business. He moved to Boston in 1863, 
and thence to Lynn in 1S67. President Dobson 


was an early student of the principles of the 
fraternal endowment plan, and was one of the 
originators of the Order of ^gis, the first of 
Massachusetts fraternities of this class, and was 
its first supreme president. As a believer in the- 
principles of fraternity, he is a member of the Odd 
Fellows, the Order of the World, and several other 
long-term orders, in addition to that of which he is 
the head. For several years he has devoted his 
leisure hours to the gratification of his love for 
blooded horses. He has been a successful breeilcr 

the Builders' Adjustable Staging Company, the in- 
vention by which the staging is elevated as the wall 


in a moderate way, and he possesses se\eral fine 
specimens of his own raising. He keeps about him 
horses of good pedigree. 

DoncE, A., was born in Lowell Nov. 6, 
1848, but has been a citizen of Boston for the past 
twenty-five years. In 1875 he engaged in business 
as a mason and builder with W. D. Vinal, under the 
firm name of Vinal & Dodge. In 1884 Mr. Vinal 
withdrew, and Mr. Dodge succeeded to the busi- 
ness and has since conducted it alone. He was one 
of the original incorporators of the Master Builders' 
Association, and is a member of the National Asso- 
ciation, also of the Charitable Mechanic Association. 
He is a director of the Allston Cooperative Bank at 
AUston, his place of residence, a dealer in masons' 
materials, one of the leading master-builders and 
contractors of Boston, and treasurer and director of 

is built, men and material being raised without 
quitting work, and their work being done without 
stooping. Mr. Dodge has made a specialty of fine 
dwellings, and over two hundred of the houses on 
Commonwealth avenue and Newbury street have 
been built by him. He has also built many of the 
heavy storage-houses, such as the Williams Building 
and Atlas stores. The fine club-house of the Pos- 
tillion Club in Cambridge was built by him. 

Dm ICE, Charles H., was born in West Groton, 
Mass., in 1846. He attended school there until he 
was eighteen years old, when he was engaged with 
Standish & Woodbury, masons and builders. Sub- 
setjuently he formed a partnership with J. P. Lover- 
ing. This firm existed for ten years, and after its 
dissolution Mr. Dodge continued in business for 
himself. He has built several large buildings in 
Boston, among them the Continental Bank Build- 
ing, the Foster's wharf stores, and the remodelled 
John Hancock Building. He also built the Water- 
town Public Library and the Art Museum of 
Wellesley College. He is a member of the Master 
Builders' Exchange. 

Dduge, J. H., city auditor, was bo 
Boston Sept. 22, 1845. He graduate 

in South 
from the 


Latin School and began business life with Messrs. 
Hodges & Silsbee, manufacturers of chemicals, re- 
maining with them for three years. In 1867 he was 
api)ointed junior clerk to the city auditor, rising to 
be chief clerk in 1873. In June, 1881, he was ap- 
l>ointed to the chief ])osition, for which he is 
peculiarly fitted. Mr. Dodge has been secretary of 
the sinking-fund commission since July, 1881. 
During the Civil War he served in the army for 
three months. 

DoGCE'iT, Frb:i)f.rick Forbes, M.D., son of The- 
oi.hilus Pipon and Elizabeth (Bates) Doggett, was 
born in Barnstable, Mass., Feb. 22, 1855. His 
education was attained in Phillips (Exeter) .\cad- 


emy, from which he graduated in the class of 1S73, 
and Harvard College, class of 1877. He studied 
medicine in the Harvard Medical School, graduat- 
ing in 1880, and as a special student in the Uni- 
versity of Vienna, 1880-1 ; Ecole du M^decine in 
Paris, 1881 ; and Guy's Hospital, London, 1881. 
He began the practice of his profession in the spring 
of 1882 in Boston, at No. 805 Broadway, and has 
, continued there to the present date. From 1883 
j he has been medical examiner for the John Han- 
: cock and Equitable Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
! panies, the Golden Cross, and the Order of .-Egis ; 
■ from 1882 to 1886 he was district physician to the 
Boston Dispensary; from 1885 to 1886 he was a 


member of the State committee of the Massachusetts 
Emergency and Hygiene Society, and gave a course 
of lectures for the society before the Boston police 
and others; and in 1888 he was fleet surgeon of 
the South Boston Yacht Club. He is a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society; was treasurer 
of the Harvard Natural History Society. 1874-5; a 
member of the Bolyston Medical Society, Harvard 
University, 1878-1880; and a member of the In- 
ternational Medical Congress in London in 1881. 
Dr. Doggett has published and read before societies 
a number of important articles on professional sub- 
jects, among them papers entitled "Anesthetics 
in Vienna," " Boston Medical and Surgical Jour- 
nal," 1 880-1 ; "Metallic Poisoning from Canned 
Tomatoes," "Medical and Surgical Journal," 1884- 
5 ; and " Abuse of Medical Charity," read June 8, 
1886, before the Massachusetts Medical Society^ 
and published in pamphlet form. Dr. Doggett was 
married July 7, 1880, in Halifax, N..S., to Miss 
Mary Chipman DeWolf; they have four children: 
Elizabeth DeWolf, Arthur Latham, Ellen, and 
Leonard Allison 

DdHKKTV, Philip J., son of Philip and Ellen 
(Munnegle) Doherty, was born in Charlestown 
Jan. 27, 1 85 6. He was educated in the public 
schools of the Charlestown district, graduating from 
the High School, and studied three years in the 
Boston University Law School, from which he was 
graduated in the class of 1876 with the degree of 
LL.B. In June, 1877, he was admitted to the 
Suffolk bar, and began practice in Boston as a 
member of the law firm of Doherty & Sibley. In 
1883 he was elected to the lower house of the Leg- 
islature and twice returned, serving on the com- 
mittees on drainage, rules, and the judiciary, and on 
the joint special committee on the revision of the 
judicial system. At the opening of his third term, 
in 1886, he was the Democratic candidate for 
speaker of the House. In 18S7 he was elected on 
a non-partisan platform by a coalition of Democrats 
and Republicans to the Boston board of aldermen. 
In 1 888 he was a delegate to the national Democratic 
convention at St. Louis. In 1889 he was appointed 
a member of the Boston water board, which position 
he held until 1891. Mr. Doherty was married in 
the Charlestown district, Aug. 16, 1878, to Miss 
Catharine A., daughter of John Butler ; they have 
four children : Philip, Mary, Eleanor, and Alice 

DoNXEM.v, Charles F., son of Hugh and Mar- 
garet (Conway) Donnelly, was born in Athlone, 


county Roscommon, Ire., Oct 14, 1S36. His 
ancestors on the paternal side were of the old 
Irish sept of the north, and on the maternal side 
Welsh-Irish of the west of Ireland. His parents 
came to British America when he was a year old, 
and thence to Rhode Island in 1848. His early 
training was for the Catholic priesthood, but when 
still a youth he determined to enter the legal pro- 
fession. To this end he began his studies in the 
office of Hon. A. A. Ranney in 1856, and entered 
the Harvard Law School. He graduated with the 
degree of LI..B., and was admitted to the Suffolk 
bar in 1858. Elarly becoming a leading member, he 
has had many important cases, notably several civil 
cases instituted against the archbishop and other 
Catholic ecclesiastics in Massachusetts, and he has 
been conspicuous in the arguments showing the 
harmonious relation of Catholic ecclesiastical or 
canon law with the spirit of American law and 
-American institutions. His services in these and 
other directions have been recognized by St. 
Mar)''s College of Maryland, the oldest Catholic 
seat of learning in the country, which conferred 
upon him the degree of LL.l). In 1875 Mr. 
Donnelly was appointed a member of the State 
board of charities, and in its work he has taken a 
leading and important part. For several years he 
has been chairman of the board. When, in 1884, 
the Legislature referred the question of the treatment 
of inebriates to the board for consideration, Mr. 
Donnelly, as chairman, drafted and proposed a bill 
subjecting dipsomaniacs to the same restraint and 
treatment as lunatics. This was adopted by the 
next Legislature, and Massachusetts was the first 
State having such legal remedy for the offence of 
habitual drunkenness. In 1889 the Legislature gave 
further effect to the new law by authorizing the 
erection of a hospital for those coming under its 
provisions, and the establishment of a board of 
trustees for the management of the institution. .Mr. 
Donnelly is a member of the Charitable Irish 
Society, and was for a long time its president. He 
is the senior in membership of the Catholic mem- 
bers of the bar in New England. 

DooGUE, William, was born in Brocklaw Park, 
Stradbally, Queen's county, Ireland, May 24, 1828. 
He came to this country with his father's family 
in 1840, who setded in Middletown, Conn. After 
graduating from the high school there in 1843, 
he was apprenticed to George Affleck & Co., Hart- 
ford, Conn., and while engaged in their extensive 
nurseries he studied horticulture, floriculture, and 
landscape gardening. His term of apprenticeship 

lasted five years, at the end of which time he was 
admitted to the firm, remaining a partner for five 
years. The three years following he studied botany 
with Prof. Comstock, of Trinity College, Hartford, 
and in 1856 he came to Boston, where he assumed 
the management of the floricultural business of the 
late Charles Copeland, at Boston and Melrose. 
.About thirty years ago he established himself in 
Floral place, off Washington street, where he con- 
ducted a flourishing business for many years. Since 

1878 Mr. Doogue has been superintendent of the 
public grounds, and through his efforts the parks of 
the city have been yearly increasing in beauty. The 
floral displays annually made in the spring and 
autumn in the Public Garden are samples of Mr. 
Doogue's skill and taste, and are famous throughout 
the country. In art gardening his advice is much 
sought and is always given, not only gratuitously, but 
with pleasure. Twice he has been prominently 
brought before the public, the first time being in 
1876, when he made a tropical and sub-tro])ical 
display in Fairmount park, Philadelphia, during the 
Centennial Exhibition, for which he was awarded two 
gold medals, two silver medals, and diplomas. The 
second occasion was during the year 1887, when 
the Massachusetts Horticultural Society endeavored 
to have the city government erect a building on the 
Public Garden " to be devoted to the study and 
advancement of floriculture." This project was 
ably furthered by influential men, but Mr. Doogue 
was so vigorous and determined against the inno- 
vation that he aroused public sentiment, and the 
scheme was abandoned. His floral display of army 
and navy, Grand Army, and other badges in the 
Public Garden on the occasion of the meeting of 
the Grand Army of the Republic in Boston in 
.\ugust, 1890, brought him many compliments from 
visiting posts and others. The medals and votes of 
thanks which several organizations sent him after 
their return to their homes are preserved among his 

DoKK, John P., was born in county Cork, Ire., 
Oct. 30, 1832. He was educated there in the 
national schools, under the tuition of the Christian 
Brothers. He came to this country when a kul of 
seventeen, in 1849. In 1856 he started in business 
as a retail boot and shoe merchant in Boston, and 
continued in the trade for twenty-six years, when, in 
1882, he was elected to the board of street com- 
missioners. In 1887 he was made chairman of the 
board — a position which he still holds (1892). In 

1879 he was elected to the board of overseers of the 
poor. He is a member of the Massachusetts Cath- 



olic Order of Foresters, the Knights of St. Rose, 
the Good Fellows, and numerous other societies. 
His home is in the Roxbury district. 

Dorr, Jonathan, son of Ralph S. Dorr, was born 
in Louisville, Ky., 1842. His father was a Massa- 
chusetts man, but for many years in business in San 
Francisco. He graduated from Harvard in 1864, 
and studied law in the Boston University Law School. 
He was admitted to the bar in 1874. His practice 
is mostly corporation and trusts. He is a Repub- 
lican in ])olitics. He resides in the Dorchester dis- 

Dow, James A., M.D., son of Jonathan and Abbie 
(Towne) Dow, was born in Bath, N.H., Dec. 18, 
1844. He was educated in the Lisbon Academy, 
Lisbon, N.H., and the Vermont Conference Semi- 
nary, Newbury, Vt. He began the study of medi- 
cine in the offices of Dr. Watson, of Newbury, and 
Dr. Leonard, of Haverhill, N.H., and then took a 
course in the medical department of the L^niversity 
of \ermont, graduating therefrom in 1867. He 
immediately began practice, establishing himself in 
\\indsor, Vt., where he remained mitil 187 1, when 
he moved to Cambridge, Mass., which city has since 
been his hcnue. He is now visiting physician to the 
CambndL;!- llii^|iUal, and examining physician for 
the Massai husetis Mutual Benefit Association and 
the Royal Arcanum. He is a member of the 
ALissachusetts Medical Society, the Cambridge Med- 
ical Improvement Association, and the American 
Medical Association. He is also connected with 
the Masonic and Odd Fellows orders. Dr. Dow 
was married March 26, 1868, to Miss Alice L. 
1 incoln, iif Windsor, Vt. ; they have had four chil- 
dren : Esther A., Cliftbrd W., George L., and .Arthur 
Dow (deceased). 

DowsLEv, John F., was born in .St. John's, New- 
foundland, Feb. 14, 1854. He attended St. Bona- 
venture's College until 1868, when the sudden and 
tragic death of his father necessitated his withdrawal 
from school and the removal of the family to Bos- 
ton. Here he worked for several years as an oper- 
ator with the ^\'estern Union Telegraph Company, 
pursuing his studies at an evening school. He be- 
gan the study of dentistry in 1880, entering Boston 
Dental College in 1882, which he attended one 
year. In 1884 he graduated from the Baltimore 
College of Dental Surgery with the degree of D.D.S. 
Returning to Boston, he was appointed by Governor 
Ames a member of the Massachusetts board of 
registration in dentistry for one year (1887), and 

in 1888 was reappointed by him for the full term of 
three years. In 1891 he was again reappointed by 
Governor Russell for three years. Dr. Dowsley is a 
member of the Massachusetts, New England, and 
Connecticut Valley Dental Societies. 

Draper, Harr'i' S., was born in Cambridge July 
15, 1863. He moved with his parents to Boston in 
1870, and obtained his education in the jmblic 
schools. He graduated from the English High 
School in 1879, winning the Franklin medal. His 
professional studies were begun in 1880 with Dr. 
R. L. Robbins, and continued in the Boston Dental 
College. He completed his course at that institu- 
tion in 1882, taking the first prize each year, but, 
not being of age to graduate, he did not receive his 
degree of D.D.S. until 1884. During the two years 
succeeding his graduation Dr. Draper was a clinical 
instructor in the college. He is an active member 
of the New England Dental Society, the Massachu- 
setts Dental Society, and the American Academy of 
Dental Science. He is at present in successful 
practice at the Evans House building in this city 
and resides in Greenwood, a suburb of Boston. 

Drisko, Ai.onzo S., was born in Addison, Me., 
Oct. 2, 1829. He came to Boston in 1850, and be- 
gan business as a builder in 1 864, — having worked 
for the four previous years with prominent builders 
in the city, — forming the firm of Laming & Drisko. 
This was continued until 1881, when he succeeded 
to the business. Mr. Drisko has done a large 
amount of domestic work, and has had an extended 
experience in the building of family hotels and resi- 
dences, furnishing his own plans for many of them. 
He built the Globe Theatre after the great fire of 
1872. His firm had built fifty-one of the buildings 
which were burned down in that fire, and afterwards 
rebuilt thirty-six of them. They had charge of the 
interior work of the Rialto Building, Hotel La- 
fayette, Clifford House, and many other prominent 
buildings. Mr. Drisko's latest work is seen in the 
large Emerson Piano Building ; and in a number of 
fine residences in suburban districts, that built for S. 
S. Rowe at Roxville Park, from plans drawn by Mr. 
Drisko, being especially unique, attractive, and 
roomy, although erected on a triangular lot. Mr. 
Drisko is also secretary and manager of the Rogers 
\\'ater Meter Company. 

DuANE, John H., street commissioner, was born 
in Calais, Me., July i, 1842, and, coming to Boston 
when a boy, was educated in the Lyman School, 
winning the Franklin medal in 1856. He has lived 



most of his life in East Boston, and has been in the 
grocery and provision business there since 1866. 
For fifteen years he was in the assessors' depart- 
ment, nearly all that time first assistant assessor for 
Ward 2, East Boston. In 1872 he was secretary of 
the Democratic city committee. 

was assistant to the professor of medical chemis- 
try. After graduation he was surgical house doctor 
at the Massachusetts General Hospital for sixteen 
months, and was the assistant of Dr. Henry I. 
Bowditch, with whom he was associated in the com- 
])ilation of the latter's work on consumption. After- 

DuiiLF.v, Sanfori) Harrison, son of Harrison and 
p;iizabeth (Prentiss) Dudley, natives of Maine, and 
a lineal descendant of Thomas Dudley, the second 
governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, was 
born in China, Me., Jan. 14, 1842. He came to 
Massachusetts with his parents in 1857, residing 
first in Fairhaven, and afterwards in New Bedford, 
until 1870; then he moved to Cambridge, his 
present home. He graduated from Harvard College 
in 1867, and from the Harvard Law School in 187 i, 
having received from his Alma Mater the degrees of 
.-^.B., A.M., and LL.B. After graduation he taught 
for three years in the New Bedford High School, 
having charge of the classics and mathematics, 
meantime reading law with Eliot & Stetson, an 
eminent law-firm of that city. Immediately upon 
receiving his degree from the law school he was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk bar, and has continued in the 
practice of his profession ever since. His office is 
in the Mutual Life Insurance Building, No. 95 Milk 
street. He has been Republican in politics, and 
for many years was connected with the organizations 
of his party in his city ; but he has latterly acted in- 
dependently, though preferably with the Republican 
party. He was for a time a member of the city 
government of Cambridge. He is one of the orig- 
inal members of the Cambridge Club. He is a 
member of the Universalist Church at North Cam- 
bridge, and takes an active interest in religious 
matters, both in church and Sunday-school. He is 
also president of the L^niversalist Club, the repre- 
sentative lay organization of the Universalist denom- 
ination in the Commonwealth. Mr. Dudley was 
married in 1S69, to Laura Nye Howland, daughter 
of John M. Howland, of Fairhaven, and has three 
children, a son and two daughters. 

Dl'Nn, Wii.i.iAM A., M.I)., was born in Boston 
Sept. 6, 1852. His early education was actjuired 
in the Boston public schools. At the age of thirteen 
he graduated a Franklin-medal scholar from the 
Eliot School ; then he went through the English 
High School, and subsequently entered Boston Col- 
lege, from which he duly graduated, after receiving 
in his last year the three silver medals and the gold 
l)rize for dramatic reading. Next he took the 
regular course in the Harvard Medical School, and 

wards, for a year, he was assistant to Dr. John (;. 
Blake. Then he established himself in his own 
office on Chambers street, and his practice soon 
became extensive. In 1876 he was professor of 
chemistry at Boston College, and later taught phys- 
iology there. In 1878 he went abroad with his 
friend George Crompton, the famous inventor, of 
Worcester, Mass., and there further pursued his 
medical studies. In 1882 he was appointed assist- 
ant surgeon to Carney Hospital, and in 1884 he 
was made one of the visiting surgeons. He is at 
present consulting surgeon. For several years he 
was surgeon of the First Battalion of Cavalry, Second 
Brigade of the Militia. He was a member of the 
school committee from 1886 to 1889, and was re- 
elected in 1890 to serve for three years. He is one 
of the trustees of the Institution for the Feeble- 
minded, and trustee of the Union Institution for 
Savings. He is a life member of the Young Men's 
Catholic Association; ex-president of the Alumni 
Association of Boston College ; a member of the 
l':iiot School Association; of the Algoniiuin, Ath- 
letic, University, Puritan, and Clover clubs ; of the 


toman Son 
lulin- the 
IJoston Si I. 

'ty, anil ot various medical societies, 
AnuTican Medical Association and 
ictv for Medical Observation. He 

has contributed much to the medical journals, and 
he has published jiamphlets on the " Therapeutics 
of \'enesection," and on the " Use and Abuse of 

Dl'kgin, Samukl Hni.MES, M.I)., was born in 
Parsonsfield, Me., July 26, 1839. His education 
was acquired in the Parsonsfield, F2ffingham, and 
I'ittsfield Academies. Then he taught school for 
three years in the towns of Alton and Northwood, 
N. H. Early in life developing a marked taste for 
the study of medicine, he entered the Har\-ard 
Medical School, and graduated therefrom in 1864. 
During the latter year he received a commis- 
sion as assistant surgeon in the First Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry, went to the front and served until 
the close of the Civil War. Returning to Boston 
he began the practice of his profession, and has 
since remained in this city. In 1867 Dr. Durgin 
was appointed resident physican at the institutions 
on Deer Island, and port physician of the city of 
Boston, which offices he held until January, 1873. 
He was then appointed a member of the Boston 
board of health, and since 1877 has been chair- 
man of that board. He is a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Medical Society, the Boston Society for 
Medical Observation, the Boston Society for Medi- 
cal Improvement, and the American Public Health 
Association. Since 1885 he has been lecturer on 
hygiene at Harvard Medical School. 

DuTTON, Sa.muel Lane, M.D., son of Solomon 
Lane and Olive Charlotte (Hutchinson) Dutton, 
was born in Acton, Mass., July 15, 1835. He was 
educated in Acton, in Appleton Academy of New 
Ipswich, N.H., Appleton Academy, Mount Vernon, 
N.H., the academy at Francestown, N.H., and the 
Harvard Medical School, from which he graduated 
in the class of i860. He first settled in Derry, 
N.H., and practised his profession there two and a 
half years following his graduation. Then he en- 
tered the Uniteil States service, Aug. 1 1, 1862, as as- 
sistant surgeon. First Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, 
Col. NMUiam B. Oreen commanding. He was first 
ordered to join the command in the defences of 
\Vashington. The following winter he was in 
charge of the hospital at Fort Tillinghast, Va., and 
in July, 1863, was ordered by the secretary of 
war to the charge of troops on Maryland Heights, 
opposite Harper's Ferry. In December he was 
ordered back to the defences of Washington. On 

the ist of March, 1863, he was promoted to the 
position of surgeon to the Fortieth Massachusetts In- 
fantry (Colonel Henry), and ordered to report at 
Boston ; and from this city he was ordered to join 
his new command, then serving in Florida. Thence 
he was ordered with his regiment to Fortress Mon- 
roe, the command now becoming a part of the 
Army of the James, and with it took part in the 
engagements of Drury's Bluff, Chester Station, 
Bermuda Hundreds, Mine Explosion, Darbytovvn 
Road, etc. He was surgeon-in-chief of the Third 
Brigade, First Division of old fighting Eighteenth 
Army Corps. Dr. Dutton returned to civil life after 
the fall of Richmond, having served a little less than 
three years. The hardships of army life had so 
impaired his health that it was not until the follow- 
ing September that he was able to resume practice, 
at which time he established himself in Boston. 
Subsequently, with gradually increasing duties, his 
health failed because of the old array trouble con- 
tracted at the front. After repeated and long sick- 
nesses, confining him to his bed for months at a 
time, and finally necessitating the amputation of 
part of the right hand as a consequence of war 
experience, he was obliged to give up general prac- 
tice. .\ long time was spent in California and 

other distant sections of the country, but the exact- 
ing duties of his profession were found to lie too 
great to resume, ami with much disapiiointment 


they were finally abandoned, and Dr. Dutton's en- 
tire attention is now devoted to the performance 
of the duties of medical director- in-chief of the 
Massachusetts Benefit Life Insurance Company. 
Dr. Dutton has been examining surgeon for State 
aid, and United States examining surgeon for pen- 
sions, Boston district. He is a member of the 
E. W. Kinsley Post 113, G.A.R., and has been its 
surgeon. He is a member of the Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion, Massachusetts Commandery, 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and the 
Norfolk District Medical Society. He was one of 
the founders of the Gynaecological Society of Bos- 
ton, and a former member of the Boston Society 
for Medical Observation. He has been visiting 
and consulting physician to St. Elizabeth's Hospital, 
and was for many years medical examiner for the 
Penn Mutual and the Provident Life Insurance 
Companies of Philadelphia. Dr. Dutton was mar- 
ried Sept. 25, i860, at North Chelmsford, Mass., 
to Miss Surviah Parkhurst Stevens, of that town ; 
they have had four children : Edgar Fulton, who 
was graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology in the class of 1888, as electrical en- 
gineer, Grace Stevens (died in 1880, at the age of 
twelve). Bertha Hutchinson, and Mary PHizabeth 

the Suffolk Dispensary, in the nose and throat de- 
partment. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society, president of the Massachusetts 


EAMi:s, Geori;e Frank, M.D., D.D.S., was born 
in Swanville, Me., May 26, 1854. He was 
educated in the Belfast, Me., city schools. In his 
eighteenth year he began teaching in public schools, 
and this, with attendance at the Eastern State 
Normal School at Castine, occupied his time until 
May, 1875, when he was graduated from that insti- 
tution. After a private pupilage with G. W . Stod- 
dard, D.D.S., of Belfast, Me., and Prof. D. D. Smith, 
of Philadelphia, he graduated from the Philadelphia 
Dental College in 1877 and the Jefferson Medical 
College in 18S2. While in the latter college he 
was a member of Professor Bartholow's private class 
in experimental therapeutics, and had charge of the 
out-patients department of the Philadelphia Medi- 
cal Mission. He began the practice of dentistry in 
Bucksport, Me., and while there was elected to the 
chair of natural science in the East Maine Con- 
ference Seminary, which position he held until he 
came to Boston in 1883. In 1888 he was appointed 
professor of pathology and the practice of dental 
medicine in the Boston Dental College, and at the 
same time he was engaged to give the " Emergency 
Course " of lectures at the Boston Young Men's 
Christian Association, both of which positions he 
hoMs at the present time. He is also physician to 

Dental Society, and a member of the American 
Academy of Dental Science. He is a graduate of 
the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. 

EiiDv, Oris, son of Darius and Lydia Otis (Her- 
sev) Eddy, was born in Boston Oct. 15, 1843. He 
was educated in the Boston public schools, and 
when a young man entered the establishment of 
Messrs. Ballard & Stearns, house furnishers. Later 
he established himself in the lumber business, with 
which he is still connected. He was a member of 
the common council in 1881, 1882, and 1883, and 
of the board of aldermen 1888-9. He is worshipful 
master of Union Lodge, Free Masons, and an officer 
in the Boston Commandery, Knights Templar. Mr. 
Eddy was married .April 29, 1869, to Miss Mary C. 
Willard. They have no children. 

iMHiKRi.v, Martin \". P., son of Samuel J. ami 
Eliza (Bickford) Edgerly, was born in Barnstead, 
N.H., Sept. 26, 1833. He was educated in the 
public schools of Manchester, N.H., and in that 
city began work as an employ^ in the shop and 
mills of the .'Vmoskeag Manufacturing Company. 
At this occupation, however, he did not continue 
long. In 1S59 he went to Pittsfield and engaged 



in the insurance business, giving his chief attention 
to fire insurance. Among other companies which 
he at that time represented was the Massachusetts 
Mutual Life Insurance Company. With this com- 
[xiny, in the course of a few years, he became in- 
timately associated. In 1868 he was made general 
superintendent of its agencies; in 1882 he was 


chosen a director in the company; in 1884, second 
vice-president; in 1885, vice-president; and in 
1886, president, which position he at present holds. 
He remained in Pittsfield until 1863, when he re- 
turned to Manchester for a wider field. There he 
made his headquarters until 1883. In that year 
he moved to Massachusetts ; and since his election 
to the presidency of the Massachusetts Mutual Life 
he has resided in Springfield. While a resident of 
New Hampshire he served in Manchester as direc- 
tor of the City National Bank, the New Hampshire 
Fire Insurance Company, the Suncook Valley and 
the Worcester & Nashua Railroad Companies, and 
as trustee of the Merrimac River Savings Bank. 
He has also served as delegate from that State to 
national Democratic conventions (of 1872, 1876, 
and 1880) ; as a member of the national Democratic 
committee ; as centennial commissioner ; and as 
chief of staff to Governor Weston. In 1882 he was 
the candidate of his party for governor of New 
Hampshire, and was defeated by a very small 

Elder, Charles R., son of Charles Leonard and 
Roxana (Cummings) Elder, was born in Sabattus, 
Me., Oct. 21, 1850. He was educated in Hebron 
Academy, Hebron, Me., and studied law with the 
Hon. Alvah Black, of Paris, Me., afterwards enter- 
ing the Boston University Law School, from which 
he graduated in 1876. While studying law he 
taught school in Maine for five years, part of the 
time as principal of the ■ Paris Hill Academy, at 
Paris. He was admitted to the bar, and began 
practice in Boston in 1876. He is a member 
of the Kenwood Club of Maiden. His first wife 
was Mary G. Flint, to whom he was married June 
15, 1 88 1, and his second, Maria F. Wood, married 
Feb. 28, 1888. His children are Flint C. and 
Crordon W. ; and Mildred T. and Margarith E. 

Elmer, Sa.mlkl J., son of James and Deborah 
Dunbar (Keen) Elder, was born in Hope, R.I., 
Jan. 4, 1850. He was educated in the Lawrence, 



Mass., public chools and at Vale College. He 
studied law with George W. Morse and John H. 
Hardy, and after his admittance to the bar he 
began practice in Boston. He is now associated 
with ^Villiam C. Wait, under the firm name of Elder 
& Wait. He is counsel for the International Copy- 
right League, and treasurer of the Shipman Engine 
Company. Mr. Elder belongs to a number of clubs ; 

H()S-|X)N r)F TO-DAY. 

is secretary of the Curtis Club, and a member of of the Dedham Institution for Savings, a director 
the elections committee of the new University Club : in the 1 )edham Fire Insurance Company, and in 
and is president of the Yale Alumni Association, the Dedham PHectric Light Company; a member 
He is a State commissioner on portraits of gov- 
ernors. He was married May lo, 1S76, to Miss j 
Lilla Thomas ; they have two children : Margaret | 
Munroe and Fanny .Adele Klder. -„!j.^ 

Ki.Lio]-, Georce B., was born in Keene, N'.H., 
Feb. 15, 1855, of a family of six children, .\fter 
attending the public schools there he was under 
discipline as cadet in Eagleswood Military Academy, 
New Jersey. Thence he was sent to Williston 
Seminary, Easthampton, Mass., to prepare for Har- 
vard College, but was diverted from that end, and 
passed the last three years of his student life in the 
Institute of Technology of the class of 1874, taking 
also at that time a year's course in the Massachu- 
setts Normal An School. Then until 1879, except- 
ing a trip to the Azores, he passed most of the time 
at his home in Keene. In the latter year he en- 
tered the real-estate business in Boston, in the office 
of Alexander S. Porter. After about three years' 
clerkship he opened an oflfice for himself in the 
Rogers Building, Washington street. His specialty 
is brokerage in real estate and mortgages in 
Boston and vicinity, and he has charge of some 
trusts and seashore property. Mr. Elliot is a 
member of the Real Estate Exchange and of the 
Boston .Athletic Association. He is married, and 
resides on Pond street, Jamaica Plain, West Rox- 
hury district. 

FjLY, F'rederick David, was born in Wrentham, 
Mass., Sept. 24, 1838. He prepared for college in 
Day's .Academy, that town, and entered Brown 
University, graduating in the class of 1859. He 
afterwards read law in the office of the Hon. 
Waldo Colburn, of Dedham. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1862, opening an office in Dedham, and 
later in Boston, where he practised up to 1888, 
when he was appointed associate justice of the 
municipal court of this city. Judge Ely has been 
prominent in politics, and has taken an active 
place in the affairs of the Republican party. He 
was elected to the lower house of the Legislature 
in 1873, and to the Senate in 1878 and 1879, 
ser%'ing on important committees. In 1884 he was 
elected to Congress, in which he served as a member 
of the committees on elections and on private 
land claims. He is a prominent Mason, has been 
master of the Constellation Lodge of Dedham, 
and grand marshal and deputy grand master of 
the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts. He is a trustee 


of the vestry of the St. Paul F>piscopal Church, 
I )edham, and a member of the Dedham school 
board. F'or seventeen years he was a trial justice. 

F^MERsoN, William Ralph, architect, was born in 
Alton, 111., in 1833, but came to Boston at an early 
age to reside with his uncle, George B. F^merson. 
He was educated in the Boston public schools, and 
studied architecture under Jonathan Preston, the 
designer of the Boston Theatre, and at one time a 
candidate for the mayoralty in this city. He began 
practice in 1855, entering into partnership with Mr. 
Preston. His work has comprised many school- 
houses, theatres, and club-buildings in diflTerent sec- 
tions of the country, numbers of country houses, 
and several elegant private dwellings on Common- 
wealth avenue and other fashionable streets of Bos- 
ton. He was one of the promoters and incorpora- 
tors of the Boston Architectural Club, and has long 
been closely identified with art matters. When he 
began his career, architecture was not looked upon 
as a distinct profession. It was his idea to arrange 
shingles on roofs and sides of country houses in 
fanciful designs, producing unique exterior effects ; 
and the introduction of stained glass in pri- 
vate houses was also an original suggestion of his. 



One of the best comments on his ability was an 
article recently published in "Scribner's Magazine," 
in which he is credited with having advanced the 
cause of beautiful architecture more than any other 
American architect. 

Emery, William Hknrv, son of Isaac and Faith 
Savage (Bigelow) Kmery, was born in Biddeford, 
Me., March 22, 1822. (Jn his father's side he is 
descended from Anthony Emery, who came to the 
country in 1635 in the bark "James," of London, 
and on his mother's side from Ann Hutchinson. 
He attended Thornton Academy, Saco, Me., and at 
eighteen years of age engaged with his father in the 
coal business at the foot of Poplar street, Boston. 
He remained here about five years, when he was 
appointed foreign entry clerk in the United States 
custom house, under Marcus Morton, collector of the 
])ort. Sixteen years were spent in the custom house. 
Eight years of this time he was also interested with his 
lather in the coal business, then at the corner of Fed- 
eral street and Mt. Washington avenue, from which 
they removed in i860 to No. 288 Federal street. 
In 1857 the firm name became W. H. & S. I.. 
Emery, and has so continued since. The senior 
Emery was aid to Governor Paris, of Maine, and 
member of the committee to receive General La- 
fayette in 1824, upon the latter's memorable visit to 
America. He was Democratic in politics, and a 
member of Governor Boutwell's council. He was 
one of the founders of the Boylston Bank, director 
in John Hancock Life Insurance Company, and di- 
rector of the Boston & Worcester Railroad for twenty 
years. W. H. Emery is trustee of the Franklin 
Savings Bank, and holds other positions of trust. 
He is also a member of the Masonic fraternity. He 
was first married to Miss Sarah, daughter of Thomas 
Haviland. She died in 1855. There were two 
children by this marriage : Helen Bigelow and Mary 
Haviland. In 1856 he married Miss Eliza, daughter 
of Nathaniel Holmes Bishop, of Medford, a de- 
scendant of Dr. John Bishop of that town, an emi- 
nent physician of his day. Of this second marriage 
there are a daughter, Eliza Kate, and two sons, ^\■. 
Bishop and Heber Bishop Emery. Mr. Emery now 
resides in Newton, upon property once owned by 
Francis Skinner on Waverly avenue. 

Emmons, Freeman, son of Dimon and Mary Ann 
(Currier) Emmons, was born in Lyman, Me., 
March i, 1848. He was educated in the public 
schools of his native town and in the high school of 
Alfred, Me. He taught school for a couple of years 
in Lyman (1864 and 1865), worked as clerk in 

mercantile concerns in Danvers, Salem, and Wake- 
field, Mass., and then studied law with the Hon. D. 
W. Gouch in the latter's Boston office. Admitted 
to the Suffolk bar in 1880, he at once began the 
practice of his profession in this city. He is now 
proprietor and nian^iLjcr of the largest government 
claim ageiK \- in New I'.ngland, at No. 4 State street, 
and is also associated with William B. Orcutt in gen- 
eral law practice at No. 53 State street. Since his 
admission to the bar he has transacted business for 
nearly ten thousand different people. In 1882 and 
1883 Mr. Emmons was clerk and treasurer of the 
Troy and Greenfield Railroad Company. He is a 
director of the Colchis Mining Company, owning 
mining and reduction works in New Mexico. He 
has been connected with and held office in the 
order of Good Templars, Knights of Honor, and 
New England Order of Protection. Mr. Emmons 


was married on Sept. 6, 1870, to Miss Maria 
Richardson : they have no children. 

Endico'it, WiLLiAJi Crowninshield, son of Wil- 
liam Putman and Mary (Crowninshield) Endicott, 
of Salem, Mass., was born in that city Nov. 19, 
1826. His father was a graduate of Harvard, 
class of 1822, and a descendant from John Endicott, 
the first governor of Massachusetts. His maternal 
grandfather, Jacob Crowninshield, was a merchant 
of Salem, and a member of Congress from 1802 to 


1809. He was appointed and confirmed secretary 
of the navy in Jefferson's cabinet in 1806, but de- 
clined, preferring to remain in Congress. He died 
suddenly in Washington in 1808. William C. Endi- 
cott received his early education in the Latin School 
in Salem. He entered Harvard University in 1843, 
and w,is graduated with the class of 1847. Soon 
after graduating, he studied law in the office of 
Nathaniel J. Lord, then the leading member of the 
Essex bar, and in the Harvard Law School. He 
was called to the bar in 1850, and began practice 
in Salem in 1851. He was elected a member of 
the Salem common council in 1852 and afterwards its 
]jresident. In 1853 he entered into copartnership 
with J. W. Perry, under the firm name of Perry ^: 
Endicott. In 1857 he became city solicitor, which 
office he held until 1864. In the State elections of 
1 87 1, 2, and 3 he was candidate for attorney-general 
and in 1870 for Congress, on the Democratic ticket. 
In 1873 he was appointed, by Oovernor William B. 
Washburn, to the bench of the supreme court of 
Massachusetts. He remained on the bench for ten 
years, when he resigned. He was president of the 
Essex bar from 1878 to 1883, and of the Salem 
Bank from 1857 to 1873. In 1863 he was elected 
president of the Peabody Academy of Science in 
Salem, and still holds that office. In 1884 he was 
Democratic candidate for governor of the State. 
In 1885 he became secretary of war in the cabinet 
of President Cleveland. He was married Decem- 
ber 13, 1859, to F:ilen, daughter of George Pea- 
body, of Salem. His family consists of two children : 
William C, jr., and Mary C. Endicott, who was 
married on the 15th of November, 1888, to Mr. 
Joseph Chamberlain, of Birmingham, Eng. 

Enolish, J.^mk.s S., son of James L. and Mary 
Elizabeth (Steele) English, the former a native of 
Boston, and the latter of Goffstown, N.H., was bo^n 
in Boston March 6, 1844. His fiither was a Har- 
vard graduate, and a well-known Boston lawyer in 
his day. James S. was also educated at Hansard, 
graduating in 1867. He studied law with his father 
and was admitted to the bar in September, 1870. 
Father and son practised in partnershijj until the 
death of the former in 1883. Since that time Mr. 
English has been alone at No. 68 Cornhill, where 
his father began in 1859. His practice is confined 
to trusts and probate business. He is a Democrat 
in politics, as was his father. 

Ernst, George A. 0., son of Andrew H. and 
Sarah G. (Otis) Ernst, was born in Cincinnati, O., 
Nov. 8, 1850. His father was born in Germany, 

and his mother was a native of Boston, daughter of 
George Alexander Otis. He was educated in Cin- 
cinnati private schools, the Mount Pleasant Mili- 
tary Academy, Sing Sing, N.Y., the Flliot High 
School in Jamaica Plain, Boston private schools, and 
Harvard College, graduating from the latter in the 


class of 1 87 1. He studied law in the office of 
Ropes & Gray for two years, then in the Harvard 
Law School, and later in the office of J. B. Rich- 
ardson. He was admitted to the bar in Feliruary, 
1875, and has since practised in Boston. In June, 
1880, he was sent to the Republican National Con- 
vention at Chicago as one of a committee repre- 
senting the Massachusetts Voung Re])ublicans, to 
secure a civil-ser\-ice reform plank in the party 
platform. In 1883 and 1884 he was a member of 
the lower house of the State Legislature, serving on 
important committees, and taking an influential part 
in legislation. Mr. Ernst has also devoted some time 
to literature. He has translated two novels, " The 
Widow Lerouge " (published by James R. Osgood 
& Co.) and "The Clique of Gold;" and has 
adapted three plays from the French, — " .\ Christ- 
mas Supper, " "The Double Wedding," and "Our 
Friends," — all produced at the Boston Museum. 
On Dec. 11, 1879, he was married in Brooklyn, 
N.V., to Miss Jeanie C. Bynner, of Brooklyn ; 
they have two children : Roger E. and Sarah Otis 


'M/i^ m (b/'M/^i, 


Evans, Alonzo H., was born in Allenstown, N.H., 
in February, 1820. He attended the public schools, 
and worked on the farm until he was fifteen years 
old, when he went to Lowell, and there was em- 
ployed for a year and a half as a bobbin-boy in one 
of the factories. Then he came to Boston, and 
obtained a place in a grocery and provision store. 
After continuing at this work about five years, at- 
tending a private school during his leisure hours, 
he began business for himself. In 1854 he, with 
others, started the movement for the establishment 
of the Five Cents Savings Bank, to encourage in 
children and others thrift and economy, and from 
the Legislature a charter was early obtained. The 
bank was organized in Aiiril that year, with Paul 
Adams as president, Mr. Evans as treasurer, and 
("urtis C. Nichols as secretary of the corporation. 
In 1874, upon the retirement of Mr. .\dams, Mr. 
Evans was elected president, which position he has 
held ever since. Mr. Evans was a moving spirit in 
the incorporation of Everett as a town, and twice 
represented it in the lower house of the Legislature. 
He was also a member of the Senate of 1890, ser\'- 
ing on the committees on banking (chairman) and 
on taxation. J'',arly in 1S92 he was elected by 
the Legislature to the executive council, to fill a va- 
cancy caused by the death of Councilman Loring. 
He was for seventeen years a member of the Re- 
publican town committee of Everett, and has served 
on the Republican State committee. 

F.\LL, Ch.arlejs G., was born in Maiden, June 22, 
1S45. He fitted for college at Phillips (Exeter) 
Academy, and graduated from Harvard in the class 
of 1868. Then, taking a course in the Harvard Law 
School, he graduated therefrom in 1871. In 1869 
he was admitted to the bar, and has been in active 
practice since 187 1, with offices now at No. 209 
\Vashington street. In politics he is a Republican. 
He has written several poetical works of note, 
and is also the author of a legal work entitled " Em- 
ployer's Liability for Personal Injuries." He is the 
father of the board of arbitration and also of the 
Employers' Liability Bill. He is a member of the 
Algonquin and the .Athletic clubs. 

Faxon, Henkv H., son of Job and Judith B. 
( Hardwick ) Faxon, was born in Quincy, Mass., 
Sept. 28, 1823. He is a descendant in the eight 
generation of Thomas Faxon, who came to .America 
from England with his wife, daughter, and two sons 
previous to 1647, and settled in that part of Brain- 
tree now Quincy. Job Faxon was an extensive 

farmer, and he owned and managed, for many years 
in connection with his farm, a stall in the Quincy 
Market in Boston. Henry H. passed his youth on 
the farm and in the common schools of the village. 
When about sixteen years old he was apprenticed 
to learn the shoemaker's trade, and five years after 
began, in company with his brother John, the manu- 
facture of boots and shoes. About the year 1846 
he opened a retail grocery and provision store in 
Quincy, which he conducted for seven years, dur- 
ing the last three years of that time carrying on also 
a bakery and the business of a real-estate and mer- 
chandise auctioneer. Next he became a retail 
grocer in Boston, at the corner of South and Beach 
streets, under the firm name of Faxon, Wood, & 
Co. Two years later, with his brothers, he moved 
into Commercial street, changing the firm name to 
Faxon Bros. & Co., and the business from retail to 
wholesale. Retiring from the partnership in 1861 
he went to New Orleans, where he made large pur- 
chases of molasses, shipping the stuff to his former 
partners in Boston. Returning the following year 
he engaged in speculating in merchandise, estab- 
lishing himself first in Chatham street and then on 
India wharf. Here he operated largely in chiccory, 
kerosene oil, raisins, spices, and other staples. At 
one time anticipating the rise in the price of liquors, 
on account of the laying of a government tax, he 
purchased several hundred barrels of whiskey and 
rum, and held them for the expected advance. The 
result proved the accuracy of his judgment. Subse- 
quently he dealt in real estate on a large scale, and 
it was in these operations that he made the bulk of 
his fortune. He has become the largest real-estate 
owner in Quincy, where he has over one hundred 
tenants. In Boston and Chelsea also he has nearly 
the same number. In 1864, and again in 1871, Mr. 
Faxon represented Quincy in the Legislature ; and 
in 1884 he ran for lieutenant-governor on the Pro- 
hibitory State ticket. For many years he had 
devoted himself to the temperance cause, and used 
his wealth in its aid. He has taken a leading hand 
in politics, seeking the advancement of temperance 
issues. He was a police officer in Quincy from 
1 88 1 to 1886 inclusive, and was again appointed in 
1889, for the purpose of enabling him the more suc- 
cessfully to check the liquor traffic. Faxon Hall, a 
permanent memorial to his name, was erected in 1876 
for the Reform Club of Quincy, and of its cost, eleven 
thousand dollars, he paid more than four-fifths. Mr. 
Faxon was married Nov. 18, 1852, to Mary B., 
daughter of Israel W. and Priscilla L. (Burbank) 
Munroe ; she died Sept. 6, 1885, leaving one son, 
Henry Munroe Faxon, born May 22, 1864. 



Fkf,, Thiimas, deputy sheriff of Suffolk county, 
son of Thomas and Mary (Baxter) Fee, was born 
in Hingham, Mass., Aug. 13, 1850. His father was 
a mason and contractor, and lived in Hingham for 
forty years — from 1S48 until his death in 1888. 
The son was educated in the Hingham public 
schools, and came to Boston in 1866, where he 
learned the machinist's trade. He followed this 
trade a few years, and then, in 1875, entered the 
sheriff's office as clerk. Two years later he was 
appointed a constable by Mayor Prince, and served 
in this capacity until he was commissioned deputy 
sheriff in January, 1884. In politics he is a Demo- 
crat, and has been a member of the Democratic 
ward and city committees for ten years, serving on 
the finance committee, and as secretary for two 
years. In religion he is Roman Catholic, and he 
is a member of the Young Men's Catholic Associa- 
tion of Boston. He now resides in Ward 21. Mr. 
Fee was married to Elizabeth N. Harris, of Boston ; 
they have one daughter living : Alice B. Fee. 

Fenderson, I.orv Hacon, was born in Biddeford, 
Me., March 31, 1855, but early came to this city, 
which has since been his home. He graduated 
from the English High School, and began the study 
of dentistry, in 1872, under Dr. Isaac J. Wetherbee. 
He then entered the Boston Dental College, from 
which institution he received his degree in 1876. 
He immediately began practice and has had a most 
successfiil career. He was a demonstrator at the 
Dental College for a term of three years. He is a 
member of the Massachusetts Dental Society, and 
of the Boston Dental Alumni Association. During 
his college life he made a special study of elocu- 
tion, displaying marked ability in this department, 
and is now frequently engaged to deliver public 

Fisher, Theoikire Willis, M.D., was born in 
Westborough, Mass., May 29, 1837. His ancestors 
on both sides were of English origin, and came to 
New England soon after its settlement. His father 
was Hon. M. M. Fisher, of Medway, Mass. His 
mother, Eleanor Metcalf, was the daughter of Hon. 
Luther Metcalf. His early years were spent in Med- 
way, and he fitted for college at Williston Seminary, 
and Phillips (Andover) Academy. He graduated in 
medicine at Harvard in 1861 ; served as resident 
physician at Deer Island a year, and then was com- 
missioned surgeon of the Forty-fourth regiment, 
Massachusetts Volunteer Militia. In 1863 he was 
appointed assistant physician to the Boston Luna- 
tic Hospital, resigning in 1869. In 1867 he 

made the tour of foreign insane hos))itals, spending 
five months abroad. For ten years he was exam- 
ining physician to the board of directors for public 
institutions. In practice he made a specialty of 
insanity, writing much on the subject. He was 
for several years on the staff of the " Boston Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal." He often appeared 
in court as an expert, and was called to Washington 
in the ("ruiteau case. In 1881 he was appointed 
superintendent of the Boston Lunatic Hospital, a 
position he now holds. He has been a persistent 
advocate of the plan of having the city care for all 
her insane in hospitals near home, and has lived to 
see the policy of the city reversed in this matter. 
He has long given clinical instruction in mental dis- 
eases to Har\-ard students, and is at present lecturer 
on mental diseases in the Medical School. In 
1890 he attended the International Medical Con- 
gress at Berlin, and visited many of the newer in- 
sane hospitals in England and Germany. He is 
a member of the .American Medical Association, 
the Association of American Superintendents, the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, the Harvard Medi 
cal School Association, the New England Psychical 
Society, and the Boston Medical Psychical Society. 
His first wife was Maria C, daughter of Dr. Artemas 
Brown, of Medway, to whom he was married in 
1858. In 1873 he was married to Ella G., daugh- 
ter of J. W. Richardson, of Boston, and has five 
children : Willis R., Edward M., Gertrude, Florence, 
and Margery Fisher. 

FiskE, Gec.rce M., was born in Mcdfiehl, Mass., 
in 1842. He received his education in the public 
schools of that town. He served in the Forty-second 
Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteers, during the Ci\il 
War, and for several years after was engaged in farm- 
ing in Medfield. In 187 1 he entered the employ 
of James Edmond & Co., manufacturers and im- 
porters of fire-brick, sewer-pipes, etc., whose fac- 
tory and wharf, leased from the Boston Fire Brick 
Company, was at No. 394 Federal street. He re- 
mained with Edmond & Co. until 1877, when he 
formed a copartnership with K. B. Coleman, under 
the firm name of Fiske & Coleman, and opened an 
office at No. 72 Water street, for the sale of fire- 
brick, sewer pipe, etc. The firm were the first to 
introduce into New England, on a large scale, the 
Akron salt glazed sewer-pipe, manufactured at Akron, 
Ohio. They also imported largely fire-brick and 
sewer-pipe. In 1880 James Edmond, the sole sur- 
viving member of James Edmond & Co., concluded 
to discontinue business, and a proposition was made 
bv the Boston Fire Brick Comi)anvt() Fiske c\: Cole- 


man that they merge their business under a corpo- 
ration, Fiske & Coleman to have the management. 
This was done, under the tide of the Boston Fire 
Brick Works, Fiske & Coleman, managers. The 
business was thus continued until 1885, when Wil- 
liam Homes was admitted to partnership, and the 
firm became Fiske, Coleman, & Co. In 1S81 the 
Boston Terra Cotta Company was formed for the 
manufacture of architectural terra-cotta, and while 
a separate corporation, it was placed under the 
management of Fiske, Coleman, & Co., the manu- 
facture being carried on at their F"ederal-street 
works. This business soon outgrew its quarters, 
and in 1886 the fire-brick plant of Newton, Morton, 
iS; Co., on K street, South Boston, was purchased, 
and the manufacture of fire-brick and gas-retorts 
was moved there, the Federal-street works being 
reserved solely for the manufacture of terra-cotta. 
.^mong the many prominent buildings furnished 
with bricks and terra-cotta from these works are the 
Youth's Companion building, the Shoe and Leather 
Exchange, the Columbia Theatre, the Iv\eter Cham- 
bers, in this city ; the fjrockton Court House ; the 


Potter Building, Park Row, and the Catholic Club, 
Sgth street, New York City ; the " Brooklyn Eagle " 
building, Brooklyn, N.Y. ; the Young Men's Library, 
Buffalo, N.Y. ; the Park Theatre, Philadelphia ; and 
the new Pension Building, Washington. Another 
important branch of the clay-working industry in 

late years entered upon by Mr. Fiske and his as- 
sociates, is the production of faience for interior and 
exterior decoration. Notable work successfully 
executed is seen in the corridors of the Charles- 
gate apartment-house, on Beacon street, and those 
of the Adams House extension, the arches of the 
Stony Brook bridge, Boston park department, and 
in the house of M. J. Jessop in Lenox. Mr. Fiske 
is the inventor of the Boston brick ashlar, a new 
and unique form of building material, upon which 
he has secured several patents. Mr. Fiske resides in 
Newton, where he has served in the city government 
and in other capacities. 

Fiske, John Minot, deputy collector of the port 
of Boston, son of John Minot and Eliza ^Laria 
(Winn) Fiske, of Salem, was born in Boston Aug. 
1 7, 1834. He fitted for college at Phillips (Andover) 
Academy, graduating therefrom in the class of 1852. 
Then he entered Yale, from which he graduated in 
1856. He studied law at the Harvard Law School, 
and was also a student in the office of Col. Seth J. 
Thomas. He was admitted to the Suffolk bar in the 
year 1859, and practised his profession for some 
years, having an office at No. 46 Court street. 
He was a member of the Boston common coun- 
cil from old Ward 4 (now Ward 10) for the 
years 1862 and 1863. In May, 1863, he was 
appointed deputy naval officer of the port of 
Boston under Hon. Amos Tuck, then naval officer ; 
and in November of the same year, deputy col- 
lector of the port under Hon. J. Z. Goodrich, 
collector. At one time he was special deputy 
collector and auditor of the port. Thus it will be 
observed he has been in continuous service in the 
customs at the port of Boston since May, 1863 ; 
at present (1892) as special deputy collector under 
Hon. A. W. Beard, collector. Mr. Fiske was chair- 
man of the civil-service board of examiners in the 
customs service at this port when it was first organ- 
ized in 1883, and held that position until the year 
1886, when he resigned it. On June i, 1864, Mr. 
Fiske was married at Stockbridge to Isabella Landon, 
daughter of the Hon. John Z. (ioodrich; their 
children are Sallie Goodrich and John Landon 

Fitch, Robert Gershom, was born in Sheffield, 
Mass., May 19, 1846. Until he was twenty years 
of age he worked on a farm, and then studying at 
the South Berkshire Institute, New Marlborough, he 
entered Williams College, and graduated in 1870. 
While at college he was the editor of the " Williams 
Quarterlv," received an honorary oration at Com- 


mencement, and was chosen a member of the Phi l!eta 
Kappa Society. Mr. Fitch's tastes were in the line 
of journalism, and from 1870 to 1872 he was asso- 
ciated with the " Springfield Republican." In the 
latter year he joined the staff of the "Boston 
Post," rising through the different editorial dejjart- 


ments until he became editor-in-chief. He is a 
brilliant, able journalist, thorough in iletails and 
judicious yet fearless in his opinions. In May, 
1886, he was appointed fire commissioner, by 
Mayor O'Brien, and reappointed in 1889 by Mayor 
Hart. He is now chairman of the board, and his 
administration has been characterized by efficiency 
and fidelity to his duties. Mr. Fitch is a member 
of the Boston Press Club and of the Papyrus Club. 

Fnz, Frank E., oldest son of Eustace and Sarah 
J. (Blanchard) Fitz, was born in Cambridge, Mass., 
Nov. 14, 1857. He was educated in the public 
schools of Chelsea and in Brown University, from 
which he graduated in 1880. He studied law at the 
Harvard Law School two years, and then at the 
Boston University Law School, taking the degree of 
LL.B. in 1883. The same year, in July, he was 
admitted to the Suffolk bar. He formed a co- 
partnership with J.Converse Clray in January, 1884, 
which continued until 1890. Then it was dissolved, 
and Mr. Fitz continued alone at No. 23 Court 
street, practising as general corporation counsel. 

In February, 1889, he was elected city solicitor of 
Chelsea, which office he now holds. In politics he 
is a Republican. He is a director of the Boston & 
Lockport Block Company and of several other manu- 
facturing companies, and is a trustee of the County 
Savings Bank of Chelsea. He is a member of the 
Review Club of Chelsea, and of D.K.E. Fraternitv. 
i)n Nov. 20, 1884, he was married to Miss Ade- 
line F. Slade, of Chelsea ; they have two sons : 
F>ustace C. and David S. Fitz. In religion he is a 

FrrzCJKKAi.i), Desmomi, civil engineer, was born 
in Nassau, N.P., May 20, 1846. He was brought 
to Providence, R.I., when three years old. He at- 
tended the Providence High School, and then 
Phillips (Exeter) Academy; and studied a year 
in Paris. He held the position of deputy secre- 
tary of State of Rhode Island for a year, and 
also acted as private secretary to General Burn- 
side. He subsequently adopted the profession of 
a civil engineer, and has been engaged on important 
public works since 1867. In 187 1 he removed to 
Boston. He was appointed superintendent of the 
Western Division Boston Water Works in 1873, 
and in addition to this position, which he now holds, 
he has since been appointed resident engineer for 
the additional supply of water for Boston. During 
his exjierience he has been engaged for four years 
in l)\iilding railroads in the West, and for two years 
was engineer of the Boston & Albany Railroad. He 
is past president of the Boston Society of Civil 
Engineers, a director of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, treasurer of the Council of the 
New England Meteorological Society, fellow of the 
Royal Meteorological Society of England, and a 
member of the corporation of the Institute of 
Technology, besides holding other positions of 
public trust. 

Flood, Thomas W., is a native of Ireland, and 
was born Nov. 7, 1857. He came to the United 
States in 1869, and becoming a resident of Boston 
a year later, was here employed by Thomas John- 
son and D. A. Noonan, the former's successor, in the 
grocery and provision business. Here he remained 
until 1884, when he was appointed clerk in the 
street department of the city of Boston. In De- 
cember, 1889, he was elected to the board of 
aldermen, as a Democrat from the Seventh .Alder- 
manic District, and reelected in 1890 and 1S91. 
In March, 1890, he engaged in the real-estate and 
insurance business, at No. 474A West Broad- 
wav, South Boston. He is a member of the 


Knights of Honor, the Ancient t)rder of United 
Workmen, the Royal Arcanum, the South Boston 
Citizens' Association, the Washington Village Im- 
provement Association, the Irish Charitable Society, 
anil many other organizations. 

1'"lu\ver, Benjamin O., was born in Albion, 111., 
( )rt. 19, 1858. His education began under private 


tutors at his home. His tamily removing to Evans- 
ville, Ind., he there entered the public schools, which 
he attended for three years, going from the Evans- 
ville High School to the Kentucky University, Lex- 
ington, Ky., where he finished his education. It 
was his intention to enter the ministry, but owing to 
a change of religious views, he resolved to adopt 
journalism as a profession ; and with this idea in 
view he became the editor and publisher of " The 
American Sentinel," a weekly social and literary 
paper published at his home, Albion, 111. In 1881 
he moved to Philadelphia, Pa., and became asso- 
ciated with his brother. Dr. Richard C. Flower, 
taking charge of his correspondence. A few years 
later he came to Boston, and began the publication 
here of " The American Spectator," which was sub- 
sequently merged into " The Arena." His idea in 
founding this magazine was not pecuniary gain, but 
to afford a field of combat where the intellectual 
giants could defend those principles which aji- 
peared to them to be founded on truth, justice, and 

wisdom, and to give a fair hearing to radical and 
progressive thinkers who so largely mould the 
thought of the world, but who in their day are often 
denied a hearing in the great arena of thought. 
The success of this publication has more than ful- 
filled his fondest anticipations ; its articles have 
commanded attention and been widely quoted. 
Mr. Flower is a thoughtful man, a fluent conversa- 
tionalist, with a mind stored with information. On 
the great social, political, and ethical questions of 
the day he entertains most decided opinions, and 
fearlessly advocates them. He has been a frequent 
contributor to leading newspapers and magazines, 
and is the author of " Lessons learned from Other 
Lives," a book which has been widely read. He 
is a prolific writer, and clearness of diction, com- 
bined with eloquence and elegance, characterize 
his literary efforts. His religious views are pro- 
nounced, but liberal. He has a pew in the Rev. 
M. J. Sa\age's church, and is an earnest supporter 
of the views held by the so-called evolutionary 
school of Unitarians. He was married Sept. 10, 
1886, to Miss Hattie Cloud, of Evansville, Ind. 

Flower, Rich.^rd Charles, son of Alfred and 
Elizabeth (Orange) Flower, was born in Albion, 
111., Dec. II, 1849. His early education was ac- 
quired in private schools in his native town. At 
eleven years of age he was sent to the Northwestern 
University, Indianapolis, Ind., and there pursuing a 
thorough course, was graduated in the class of 1868. 
He then studied law and was admitted to practice, 
but upon the solicitation of family and friends he 
relinquished it and entered the ministry. In this 
field he met with remarkable success, preaching in 
various places in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky. 
His last call was to the city of Alliance, O., in De- 
cember, 1875. About this time he resolved to 
enter the field towards which his thoughts had been 
for many years turned. From boyhood he had been 
interested in the natural sciences, and acquiring by 
study a love for organic structure, he had a desire, 
soon after his graduation from college, for the pro- 
fessional career of a physician. Accordingly he 
entered the Cincinnati Health College, having pre- 
viously gone through a thorough preparation with 
Andrew Strong, M.D., of Troy, N.Y., who was so 
long connected with Bellevue Hospital. After grad- 
uation from the medical college he immediately 
began practice. He built up a phenomenal busi- 
ness in Philadelphia and New York, and in 1882 
coming to Boston, continued his regular practice 
here, distinguishing himself by his peculiar manner 
of diagnosis and large volume of business. In the 



early part of 18S9 Dr. Flower opened the " Hotel 
Flower " on Columbus avenue, palatial in construc- 
tion and appointments. Here were combined the 
features of the home, hotel, and hospital without the 


disagreeable accompaniments of the latter. Subse- 
quently he leased the property and it became the 
Grand Hotel. Dr. Flower was first married in 
December, 187 i, in Jeffersonville, Ind., to Miss Ella 
Nicholson ; of this union there were two children, 
Altus D. and Jewell Flower. His second marriage 
was in July, 1877, to Miss Maude M. Manfull ; they 
have one child, Kvangeline Flower. 

Flovd, DavU), Second, son of Edward and Lucretia 
(Tewksbury) Floyd, was born in Winthrop, Mass., 
Oct. 26, 1854. He was educated in the public 
schools of his native town, and at French's Com- 
mercial College. He began his business career as 
a clerk in a general store in Winthrop, where he re- 
mained for several years. Then he gave his atten- 
tion to the real-estate interests of the locality. At 
the age of twenty-eight he was elected one of the 
assessors of Wmthrop, and realizing the importance 
of a more comprehensive system of keeping real- 
estate records than was then in use, he established 
the so-called block system, of writing up and record- 
ing the changes of every parcel of land in the town. 
Winthrop was the first town in this Commonwealth 
to adopt this system. Having been concerned in 

real estate formerly in charge of his father, whose 
death occurred in 1879, Mr. Floyd resolved to adopt 
real estate as a permanent business, and 1889 he 
formed a partnership with Frank W. Tucker, under 
the firm name of Floyd & Tucker, establishing 
offices in Winthrop and Boston. Under careful 
and enterprising management, the business has 
grown to large proportions. Mr. Floyd has held 
many offices of trust and responsibility. He has been 
town treasurer since 1883, chairman of the Republi- 
can town committee, is trustee and was one of the 
founders of the Winthrop Public Library, is president 
of the Law and Order League and of the Winthrop 
Horticultural Society, was clerk of the Boston & Win- 
throp and Point Shirley Railroads, and is trustee and 
steward of the Winthrop Methodist Episcopal Church. 
He was a member of the lower house of the Legisla- 
ture in 1888-1889, and served on the committees on 
mercantile affairs, engrossed bills, and taxation (chair- 
man). In 1880 he began a four years' course of 
study in the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Cir- 
cle, graduating therefrom in 1884. On June 9, 

1886, Mr. Floyd was married to Miss Belle A., 
daughter of Charles T. Seavey. 

Flvnn, Euwakii J., son of JNLaurice and Mary 
(McSweeny) Flynn, was born in Boston June 16, 
1859. He acquired his education in the Boston 
public schools and in Boston College, from which 
he graduated in 1881 valedictorian of his class, 
with the customary degree, receiving in 1SS4 that 
of A.M. He studied law in the Boston University 
Law School, graduating in 1884, and the same year 
took a special course in the Harvard Law School. 
Also admitted to the Suffolk bar that year, he at 
once began practice, opening an office in this city. 
Elected to the lower house of the Legislature from the 
Sixth Suffolk District and twice reelected, he served 
during 1885, 1886, and 1888, taking an active part 
in the debates and as a member of the important 
committees on probate and insolvency, election 
laws, the judiciary, and constitutional amendments. 
He was identified with several important measures, 
among them the credibility of witnesses, and the 
biennial elections bills, and the resolve to abolish 
the poll-tax as a prerequisite for voting. In 1886, 

1887, and 1888 he was also a director of the East 
Boston ferries. In 1889 he was first elected to 
the governor's council, upon which he served, the 
only Democratic member, in 1890, 1891, and 1892. 
He was the youngest man who ever sat in the execu- 
tive council. He is a member of the Democratic 
city committee ; of the Har\'ard Law School and the 
Boston University Associations ; the Boston College 



Alumni Association, of wliich he was the first secre- 
tary ; and of the Boston CathoHc Union. He was 
the first president of the Paul Revere Division Mas- 
sachusetts United Benevolent Association. Mr. 
Flynn is unmarried. 

Fogg, John Samuel Hill, M.D., was born in Kliot, 
Me., May 21, 1826. He was educated in the 
schools of Eliot and at Bowdoin College, where he 
graduated A.B. in 1846 and .iV.M. in 1849. Then 
he studied in the Harvard Medical School, gradu- 
ating M.D. in 1850. He established himself in 
South Boston, where he has since remained in pri- 
vate practice, occupying a foremost position among 
the physicians of that section of the city. He has 
given much attention also to local matters. He was 
a valued member of the school board in 1854, and 
again from 1868 to 1874 ; and as a member of the 
lower house of the Legislature in 1854 and 1855, 
ably represented his constituents. He is a member 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society and of various 
other medical organizations, and has contributed for 
seventeen years to the Clynaecological Society. He 
has long been a close student of American history, 
and is a corresponding member of the Maine His- 
torical Society. Dr. Fogg was married first to Miss 
Sarah Frances Gordon of South Berwick, Me., July 
II, 1850, and second to Miss Sarah Griselda Clinch, 
April 2, 1872. 

FiiGG, ^VILLH^I John Gordon, M.D., son of 
Dr. John S. H. Fogg, was born in .South Boston 
Aug. 7, 1 85 1. He was educated in grammar 
schools there ; the Boston Latin School, graduat- 
ing in 1869 ; and at Harvard, graduating A.M. in 
1S73 and M.D. in 1876. He was then connected 
with the Boston City Dispensary for three years, at 
the same time conducting a private practice in 
South Boston. He has been examining physician 
for the Travellers Insurance Company, Hartford, for 
ten years ; was for three years examining physician 
for the South Boston Horse Railroad Company ; and 
since the consolidation of the street railways has 
been one of the examining physicians for the West 
End Street Railroad Company. He is a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society and of other pro- 
fessional organizations. On Nov. 4, 1880, Dr. Fogg 
was married to Miss Ella F., daughter of Henry E. 
Bradlee, of Sharon, Mass. 

F(iLLETT, John .Atwood, M.D., was born in 
Centre Harbor, N.H., Feb. 17, 1834. Receiving 
his early education in the public schools of Kings- 
ton, N.H., he prepared for college, entering Dart- 

mouth and graduating in the class of 1857. .Among his 
classmates were ex-Gov. Edward F. Noyes, of Ohio, 
Rev. William Burnett Wright, James B. Richardson 
( formerly corporation counsel of the city of Boston, 

^ %^^ 


and now a rapid-transit commissioner), and the 
late Gen. Henry Fuller. He was for a time en- 
gaged in teaching in schools in Kingston, and then, 
choosing the medical profession for his lifework, 
he entered the Albany Medical College, from which 
he graduated in 1858. In 1862 he joined the Union 
army, remaining until the close of the war. He was 
at first surgeon of the Thirty-ninth Ohio Infantry, 
and afterwards medical inspector of the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Army Corps. Dr. FoUett is dean of 
the Boston Dental College, — the only case on record 
where a physician has acted as dean for a dental 
college. He was the first dean of this college, and 
has served in this capacity for eighteen years, the 
last twelve successive. He is a member of the New 
England Mutual Accident .Association, and its medical 
director. He is a director in the Kiesel Fire Brick 
Company. Dr. Follett has been in active and suc- 
cessful practice here in Boston since 1866. 

FousoM, WiLLLAM A., son of James A. and Eliza- 
beth A. (Waterhouse) Folsom, was born in Rox- 
bury Oct. 14, 1858. He was educated in public 
and private schools. He began business with the 
late William G. Thacher as clerk, and is now a 



trustee and manager of various important estates. 
He u-as married Oct. 14, 1885, to Miss Mary E. 


Dimmock ; they have two children : \Villiam Thacher 
and Marguerite E. Folsom. 

FiiRS.AnH, William J., son of Josiah Forsaith, a 
graduate of Dartmouth College and a practitioner 
of law both in New Hampshire and in this State, 
was born in Newport, N.H., April 19, 1836. He 
was educated in his native town, and prepared for 
college at the Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, 
N.H., after which he spent two years in Amherst 
College, and then entering Dartmouth, graduated in 
1857. He read law with Messrs. Burke & Wait, 
of Newport, N.H., and later with B. F. Hallett and 
Messrs. Ranney & Morse in this city, a term in the 
Harvard Law School completing his legal studies. 
He was admitted to the Suffolk bar in i860, and 
practised until 1872, when he was appointed special 
justice of the municipal court. In March, 1882, 
he received his present appointment of associate 
justice of the municipal court. 

Foss, James H., son of Joshua and Eliza (Foss) 
F'oss, was born in Charleston, Me., July 25, 1842. 
He was educated in the public schools of Rowley, 
Mass., at Dummer Academy, Byfield, and at Brown 
University, from which he graduated in the class of 
1863. \\hile fitting for college he taught school in 

Barrington, N.H., at the early age of fifteen, and at 
that time, impressed with a belief that it was his mis- 
sion, preached from the Baptist pulpits of the sur- 
rounding towns. After graduation he continued 
teaching, successfully following the profession for a 
number of years. He taught in the high school, 
Bristol, Conn., in the House of Refuge, Randall's 
Island, N.Y., Williams Academy, Stockbridge, and in 
schools in Beverly, Winchester, and Newton. He 
was also for some time superintendent of schools in 
Rowley. Leaving his profession on account of ill 
health, he was appointed by the late Hon. George B. 
Loring, when United States commissioner of agricul- 
ture, deputy commissioner. L^pon his retirement 
from this position he became interested in Florida 
lands ; and he has since founded and built the flour- 
ishing towns of Altamont, Orange county, and Belle- 
view, Marion county. In the former he built the 
famous Altamont hotel. Mr. Foss is an ardent Re- 
publican, and is at present president of the Needham 
Repubhcan Club. He has been twice married. 
His first wife was Mary H. Burnhani, of Gloucester ; 
she left three children, Mary P., Ada, and Ida Foss. 
His second marriage was on June 20, 187S, in 
AUston, to Lilian A. Washburn ; they have one 
child, Elizabeth Foss. 

Fox, John A., architect, was born in Newbury- 
port Dec. 23, 1835. He was educated in the 
Boston schools. After a course of study of civil 
engineering in the office of Messrs. Whitweli & 
Henck, and a few years' practice in field and office 
work, he entered the office of B. F. Dwight, archi- 
tect, where he remained, except during the years of 
the Civil War, until he entered on independent 
practice. He began the practice of his profession 
in Boston in 1870. He is the architect of the re- 
modelled interior of the Master Builders' Associa- 
tion ISuilding and Exchange, No. 164 Devonshire 
street ; of the Keeler Building, Washington street, 
the Homans Building, Harrison avenue, the Thomas 
Building, corner of Winter and Tremont streets, the 
City Block, City Theatre, and Field Building in 
Brockton, and other fine business-houses and dwell- 
ings in Boston and vicinity. Among his most 
notable theatre-designs are the Providence Opera 
House, the Lewiston Music Hall, and the Chelsea 
Academy of Music. He is not a specialist, but he 
has engaged in every branch of design and con- 
struction, and he has never been associated with 
any other architect. 

Fkknxh, J. Warrex, was born in Phillijis, Me., 
in 1849. He attended the ]iublic schools of liis 

i:^ 3^^:^^ 



native town until he reached eighteen, when he was 
apprenticed to the plumbing trade. After he had 
learned his trade, he engaged in business for him- 
self In 1879 he formed a partnership with Na- 
thaniel Bosworth, under the firm name of Bosworth 
&: French, and an extensive plumbing, steam and 
gas fitting business was established at No. 7 Apple- 
ton street, Boston. The business has steadily in- 
creased, and the firm now employ about fifty hands. 
Their work appears in a large number of the best 
residences in Boston and the suburbs. 

Frink, Ai.nF.N, railroad architect, was born in 
Woodstock, Vt., April iS, 1833. He has earned 
his own living since he was nine years old. Work- 
ing on a farm until the age of fifteen, he then 
learned the carpenter's trade. This occupation 
he followed for six years in Windsor, Vt., and 
Worcester, Mass., during which time he learned the 
draughting of plans, and when twenty-one years of 
age he began the study of architecture in the office 
of Elbridge Boyden, in Worcester. After remain- 
ing there three years, in the spring of 1857 he 
came to Boston, and was employed by the United 
States government as a draughtsman in the new 
Minot's Ledge Lighthouse. In 1859 he visited 
Europe, travelling through England, Ireland, and 
Scotland, as well as on the Continent. In i860 he 
returned to this country and opened an architect's 
office in Boston, at No. 28 State street, where he 
has been located ever since. Mr. Frink has built 
over fifty stores and over one hundred dwellings, 
ranging in cost from ^5,000 to $150,000, and a 
number of school-houses, engine-houses, and police 
stations for the city of Boston. He also built the 
New England Manufacturers' and Mechanics' Insti- 
tute Building in this city, which was destroyed by 
fire in 1886. For the past six or seven years he 
has built quite a number of railroad stations for the 
Boston & Maine Railroad Company, at Woburn, 
Somerville Highlands, Winter Hill, Prospect Hill, 
Wakefield, Marblehead, Lynn Common, and other 
places, and is at present (1892) engaged on the 
new station at Lowell. He has also made extensive 
additions to the Lowell station in Boston. Mr. 
Frink was married in Boston Feb. 28, 1859, to Miss 
Roxana Folsom, daughter of Benjamin Folsom, of 
Vienna, Me., and resides in the Roxbury district. 

Frost, Gf.orce F^dmund, son of George Henry 
and Susan M. (Pond) Frost, was born in Franklin, 
Mass., March, 1850. He received a common- 
school education. At the age of fourteen he left 
school and went to Jacksonville, Fla., as clerk in 

his father's store for one year. Then he returned 
to the North. In 1869 he began the coal trade 
with his fother, — who had also returned North, — 
at Neponset, with office at No. 488 Neponset 
avenue ; and he has continued ever since as a 
dealer in coal, wood, and masons' materials. In 
politics Mr. Frost is an independent Democrat. 
He has never held office. He is a member of the 
Appleton Methodist F^piscopal Church, Neponset, 
and also a member of Neponset Lodge, No. 84, 
Odd Fellows. In June, 1874, he married Miss Clara 
Hawes, daughter of Sylvester Hawes, of Norwood ; 
they had one child, a son, Clarence Edmund Frost. 
His wife died on Dec. 29, 1883. He was again 
married, on Thanksgiving Day, 1887, to Miss Mary 
F. Savage, daughter of William Savage, of Atlantic ; 
they have one child, a son, \Villiam Preston Frost. 

Frost, Rufus S., son of Joseph, jr., and Lucy 
(Wheeler) Frost, was born in Marlborough, Cheshire 
coimty, N.H., July 18, 1826. His fother, a thrifty 
farmer, was a native of this town, as were three suc- 
cessive generations of the same family. The Eng- 
lish ancestor. Elder Edmund Frost, came to this 
country in the ship " Great Hope " during the 
autumn of 1635, from Ipswich, England, accom- 
panied by his wife and son. He settled in Cam- 
bridge, where he became the ruling elder of the First 
Church, which was organized soon after his arrival. 
From this most excellent patriarch nine generations 
have lineally descended, Mr. Frost being in the 
seventh. On his maternal side he derives his origin 
from Thomas Wheeler, who was settled in Townsend 
as early as 1640. His grandfather was David 
Wheeler, who married Rebecca Hoar, of Concord, 
Mass., and was the. first town clerk of Marlborough, 
N.H., in 1776. Mr. Frost, the eighth child of his 
parents, left his native town at the age of seven, 
together with his widowed mother and family, and 
removed to Boston. Here he attended the public 
schools and supplemented this education by a course 
of academic training in Newton. Then he entered 
a wholesale dry-goods house in Boston. By energy, 
aptitude, and ability displayed in this service he 
rapidly rose to the highest position, and at the age 
of twenty-one was admitted to partnershiji in the 
firm, which adopted the title of Osgood & FVost, 
and continued in business for several years. In 
1866 the present firm of Rufus S. Frost & Co. was 
organized for the transaction of a general commis- 
sion business in American goods. Mr. Frost soon 
became extensively engaged in the manufacture of 
woollens. The National Association of Woollen 
Manufacturers was founded Nov. 20, 1S64. Of 




that association Hon. J. Wiley Edmunds was 
the first president, and Mr. Frost was his successor 
for seven years. He is now chairman of the execu- 
tive committee. To the rapid development of 
American manufacture during the last twenty-five 
years, Mr. Frost has conspicuously and effectively 
contributed. His administrative ability has been 
recognized by his fellow-citizens, and he has been 
called repeatedly to positions of public honor and 
responsibility. He was mayor of Chelsea, where he 
has resided since his boyhood. In 1867 and in 
1868 he received a practically unanimous reelec- 
tion. In 1 87 1-2 he was a member of the State 
senate, serving on the committees on harbors and 
mercantile affairs, and was chairman of the same 
committees during the latter session. In 1873 and 
1874 he was a member of Governor Washburn's 
council. In 1874 he was elected to the Forty- 
fourth Congress from the F'ourth Congressional 
District, and served with marked ability on the 
committee on railroads and the committee on 
freedmen's affairs. In 1879-80 he was president 
of the Boston board of trade. Mr. Frost has long 
been actively connected with numerous benevo- 
lent and religious societies, and the educational 
institutions of the State have found in him a liberal 
patron and a wise counsellor. He remembered his 
native town by a generous gift in the shape of an 
elegant granite library building furnished with two 
thousand volumes, the deed of the whole being pre- 
sented to the citizens of Marlborough, N.H., Aug. 26, 
1867. To this was added also a fund of §5,000, the 
interest annually accruing from which to be used for 
the purchase of additional books, now numbering 
over five thousand volumes. In honor of the donor, 
it was named by the town the "Frost Free Library." 
In 1873 he was president of the Congregational 
Club of Boston, and for several years has been presi- 
dent of the American Congregational Association, a 
national organization which owns the Congregational 
House on Beacon street. For several years he was 
president of the Massachusetts Homceopathic Hos- 
pital, and has recently established a general hospital 
in the city of Chelsea, containing rooms for fifty 
patients, a fine operating-room for the surgeons, all 
heated by steam, with all modern improvements 
and comforts, and thorough ventilation ; this he has 
presented to his fellow-citizens upon condition that 
no human being shall ever be denied treatment 
because of poverty or race or color, and that e\ery 
patient may choose by which school of medicine he 
or she shall be treated. To the credit of the 
physicians of Chelsea let it be stated that they are 
working together harmoniously and most success- 

fully upon this plan. For twenty-eight years Mr. 
Frost has been a director in the North National 
Bank of Boston, and was in 1891 unanimously elected 
its president. Mr. Frost has been twice married. 
His first wife was Ellen M., daughter of Hon. 
Charles and Amelia (Ripley) Hubbard. His second 
marriage occurred in Corning, N.Y., on June 18, 
1879, with Catherine Emily, daughter of Benjamin 
C. and Catherine (Matthews) Wickham. He has 
had si.x children : Charles Hubbard, Ellen Amelia, 
John Osgood (deceased), Emma Wheeler, Rufus 
Haskell, and Albert Plumb Frost. 

Fuller, Frank, son of Seth W. and Annie Dewitt 
(Cross) Fuller, was born in Boston Aug. 5, 1850. 
He was educated in the public schools. He began 
his business career when sixteen years old in the 
establishment of his father, and upon the latter's 
death some years ago he succeeded to the control 
and management of the business. The firm was 
founded in 1809 by his grandfather, Seth Fuller, 
who was the first person in Boston to make an 
entirely distinct business of hanging mechanical 
bells and speaking-tubes. His father, Seth W. 
Fuller, who succeeded to the business in 1835, 

while continuing it along the same lines, was the 
Ijioneer of the electrical business in Boston, if not 
in the United States, having begun to install electric 
bells about twenty-five years ago. At that time he 



was obliged to imijort annunciators, wire, batteries, 
and even the ordinary wood push-button, from Paris ; 
but the business has since grown to such magnitude 
that not an article now used by the house is im- 
ported. During the management of Frank Fuller, 
the installation of incandescent electric lights has be- 
come one of its most important branches. Mr. Ful- 
ler is a past master of Mt. Lebanon Lodge Free 
Masons ; a member of the Commandery and St. 
Paul's Royal Chapter, Boston Lodge of Perfection, 
and Aleppo Mystic Shrine. He belongs to the 
Ancient and Honorable .-Vrtillery Company, and is a 
member of the Charitable Mechanic Association. 
Mr. Fuller was married May 25, 1891,10 Miss Annie 
C. Littlefield. 

Fuller, Lorin L., son of David C. and Maria 
(Lovejoy) Fuller, was born in Readfield, Me., Jan. 


25, 1820. He obtained his early education in 
public schools in his native State. In the spring of 
1839 he came to Boston, and in 1845 began busi- 
ness on his own account as carpenter. F"or forty- 
five years he has been a real-estate dealer and 
builder in the city. For a number of years 
he resided in Melrose, which he represented in 
the Legislature of 1859, and in i860 moved to 
Maiden, where he now resides. He served as 
alderman during the first year of the organization 
of the Maiden city government, was mayor of the 

city in 1884 and 1885, and again alderman in 1887. 
For ten years he was a member of the water board ; 
he has been a member of the Industrial Aid Society 
from its organization to the present time, and he is 
an active member of the Maiden Improvement 
Association. At the time of the separation of 
F>erett from Maiden, he was chairman of the com- 
mittee for the .nljustnicnt and dividing of the town- 
ship property, and his able and satisfactory negotia- 
tion gained for him the respect and esteem of his 
fellow-citizens. In politics he is a conservative 
Democrat. Mr. Fuller w,is inirried in Sebec, Me., 
Nov. 8, 1852, to I iM V r.. iliughter of John and 
Lydia (Brown) Loxcjoy; tlii\' have four children: 
Henry L., M. Louise, Everett L., and L. Alma 
Fuller. Mrs. Fuller died April 11, 1886. At 
Maiden, June 20, 1889, Mr. Fuller was again 
married, to Mrs. Annie Hornsby, daughter of 
Thomas and Lydia Stewart, of Hartland, Me. 

GAHM, Joseph, is a native of Germany, born in 
Mergentheim, Wurtemberg, in 1835. After 
attending the schools of his native town from his 
sixth to his fourteenth year, he was apprenticed for 
three years to learn the tailoring trade, during which 
period he also received instruction in music, having 
developed quite a talent in that direction. In 1854, 
when but eighteen years of age, he decided to come 
to America, and accordingly sailed for New York, 
coming from that city direct to Boston, where his 
brother was then residing. For five years he 
worked at his trade here in Boston, gave music 
lessons, and played different instruments in several 
musical organizations. In 1856 he became a 
member of the Navy Yard Band, and remained 
with that organization until 1862, engaging at the 
same time in business. F'irst he established a 
tailoring establishment in Charlestown, and then, 
abandoning that enterprise, opened a restaurant. 
The latter prospered, and in 1865, removing to larger 
quarters, he added a billiard hall. Desiring a larger 
field, in 1878 he decided to move to Boston proper, 
and selling out his interests in Charlestown he 
established himself at Nos. 83 and 85 State street. 
Here he opened one of the best-equipped restau- 
rants in the city, and his patrons from the start 
were leading down-town merchants, bankers, and 
brokers. It was not long before he was compelled 
to occupy the entire building in order to accom- 
modate his increasing trade. In 1872 Mr. Gahni 
took the agency for all New England for the Joseph 
Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, and three 
years after his removal to State street this business 



had so increased that he was obliged to transfer his 
bottUng works back to Charlestown, where he erected 
a large building for them. In 1878 he decided to 
give all his time and attention to this agency, and to 

bring all the departments of the business under one 
roof in Boston ; accordingly he began the erection 
of a large five-story brick business block on the 
corner of Hartford and Purchase streets, and upon 
its completion the following year he retired from 
the restaurant business and removed his beer busi- 
ness to the ne\v building. Mr. Gahm has confined 
his operations to his one line of business, his only 
other investments having been made in real estate, 
in which he has also met with success. Since 1864 
Mr. Gahm has been a member of the Masonic 
fraternity, and to-day is a thirty-second degree 
Mason, a Knight Templar and a member of the 
Mystic Shrine. He is also a member of various 
other organizations of a social and benevolent 
nature. Mr. Gahm was married in Boston, in 1S56, 
to Barbara Hoartel, who was also a native of \\' urtem- 
berg, Germany ; they have had six children, four of 
whom are living. All have enjoyed the best of educa- 
tional advantages offered by the Boston schools ; have 
also been given good musical instruction, and have 
taken a course in Bryant & Stratton's business college. 
Mr. Gahm's winter residence is at No. 31 Monu- 
ment square, Charlestown district, and his summer 
residence at VVinthrop Island. 

Gai.k, William B., son of John Gale, an early 
resident of Lawrence, Mass., was born in South- 
ampton, N.H., Aug. 8, 1829. He fitted for college 
at the Amesbury private school, and took a two 
years' course in Harvard. Then he began the 
study of law at Concord, N.H., with Franklin 
Pierce, completing his studies with Judge Asa 
Fowler of that city. Admitted to the bar in 1853, 
he began practice in Marlborough, Mass., in July 
that year. Soon after the war he opened an office 
in Boston, giving up his office in Marlborough a few 
years later. Here he has since remained. He has 
a thoroughly general commercial practice. He has 
resided in Boston for the last thirteen years. He is 
,1 Kt_|Mililican in politics, and was chairman of the 
Middlesex county Republican committee for twelve 
years. He has never aspired to office. He has been 
l^rominently identified with the Masonic order, and 
is now a thirty-second degree Mason. He is chair- 
man of the council of administration of Knights of 
Pythias. His son, John P. Gale, who was a prominent 
voiing lawyer of Seattle, Wash., died May 11, 1 S92. 

(;alla(;hlk, Charles Thkodork, son of William 
and Emily C. Gallagher, was born in Boston May 
21, 185 I. After passing through the public schools 
of the city he studied law, following the Harvard 
Law School course, and completing his legal edu- 
cation in the office of Hon. A. A. Ranney. He 
graduated from the Boston University Law School 
in 1875, and was admitted to the Suffolk bar the 
same year. He has been an active member of the 
school committee for ten years or more, and for 
two years has been its president. He served one 
term in the State senate (in 1S82), declining a re- 
nomination. He also twice refused a congres- 
sional nomination. In 1864 he enlisted as .a 
drummer-boy in the First L'nattached Massachu- 
setts Infantry. He is now a member of Dahlgren 
Post 2, G..A.R. He is also a member of the Ath- 
letic, the An, and the Curtis Clubs. He is a 
tnistee of the Bird estate and the John Hawes 
fund, two educational funds left for the benefit of 
South Boston people, and a member of the board 
of in\estment of the South Boston Savings Bank. 

(lALviN, (iKdRt^K W., M.I)., son of Johu and Kliza 
(Gevan) Galvin, was born in Somerville, Mass., 
May 4, 1854. He was educated in the public 
schools and Boston College, and studied three 
years in the Harvard Medical School, from which 
he graduated in 1879. Then he began the prac- 
tice of medicine in Boston, and was soon after 
appointed surgeon for the New York iS: New Kng- 



land and the Old Colony Railroads. In 1891 he 
established the Emergency Hospital in the business 
section of the city, — on Kingston street near by the 
L'nited States Hotel, — equipped for the prompt 
treatment of accident cases ; and to its work and 
develojjment he has zealously devoted himself. Dr. 
Oalvin is a member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society and of the Gynaecological Society. In 18S1 
he was married to Miss .\lice S. Logan. 

CrALVix, John MncHKi.L, son of John Oalvin, for 
many years superintendent of public grounds, ami 
now the superintendent of public institutions on 
Rainsford Island, was born in Charlestown in 1849. 
He was educated in the public schools, graduating 
from the Dwight School, one of the Franklin-medal 
scholars. Upon leaving school he entered the floral 
business with his fiither, in which he has ever since 
been engaged. He now conducts large and e.xten- 
sive greenhouses for the raising of plants and flowers. 
Mr. (lalvin was a member of the school boaid from 
the Janiaua Plam distru t in 1S72. In 1S91 he 
was elected cit\ ( leik, and reelec ted to this position 

(Hughes) (lalvin, was born in Boston June 21, 
1852. He was educated in the public schools, 
studied law in the Boston University Law School 
and in the office of Charles F. Donnelly, was ad- 


in 1892. He is a member of the Clover, Old 
Dorchester, Boston, anil Butler Clubs, and of the 
Charitable Irish Society. Mr. (ialvin was married 
Sept. 15, 1873, to Miss Mary K. Hanlon. 

Galvin, Owen A., son of Patrick and .Marv 


niitted to the bar in February, 1876, and began 
l)ractice in Boston in 1881. The same year he 
was a member of the lower house of the Legis- 
lature, ser\-ing upon the committees on education 
and constitutional amendments ; and in 1882, 1883, 
and 1884, of the senate, sendng upon - the com- 
mittees on the liquor law, labor, education, the 
judiciary, antl election laws. He also served upon 
a special committee to visit penal and charitable 
institutions, and on its report the Reformatory 
Prison at Concord and the Homceopathic Hospital 
for the Insane were established. In the senate he 
receiveil the entire vote of the Democratic minority 
for president. In July, 1886, Mr. Galvin was ap- 
pointed by United States district attorney (ieorge 
M. Stearns, assistant United States district attorney, 
and upon Mr. Stearns' resignation in September, 
1887, he was appointed by President Cleveland to 
the chief position. This he held until November, 
1889, when he resigned. He was a member of the 
Democratic city committee in 1879, 1880, 1881, and 
1882, serving the two latter years as vice-president. 
.Mr. (lalvin was married in Boston July 3, 1879, to 
.Miss Jennie T. Sullivan ; they have three children : 
Stephen P., Augustus H., and Frederick S. (lalvin. 



ClANNEiT, George, son of Luther and t)live 
(Washburn) Gannett, was born in East Bridge water, 
Mass., Oct. 29, 1819. His parents removed to 
Belfast, Me., the year after he was born, and there 
he received his early education and was prepared 
for college. He entered Bowdoin and graduated 
in the class of 1842. Later he received the degree 
of A.M. from his college, and was also elected a 
member of Phi Beta Kappa. For the first two 
years after graduation he was principal of Strafford 
Academy, Strafford, N.H. Then he studied in the 
Bangor Theological Seminary, and soon after grad- 
uating therefrom, in 1847, he was settled over the 
Congregational church in Boothbay Harbor, Me. 
Here he remained three years, when he was com- 
pelled to resign on account of ill health, much to 
the regret of his church people. Soon after he 
opened a private school for girls in West Cambridge 
.(now Arlington), Mass., and subsequently, in 1857, 
removing to Boston, he established here a similar 
school for the thorough training of young women, 
which, as the Gannett Institute, became widely 
known. It was among the earliest of the insti- 
tutions for the higher education of giris, and began 
collegiate work before any of the colleges for 
women were established. The school flourished, 
enjoying a prosperous course until 1891, when 
Dr. Gannett retired to devote hivnself to literary 
pursuits. In 1864 Dr. Gannett was chosen one 
of the examining committee of Harvard College. 
In 187 1 he made an extended tour abroad, visiting 
the great art centres of Europe. In 1887 he 
received the degree of D.D. from Middlebury 
College, Middlebury, Vt. He has been a frequent 
contributor to educational journals and magazines, 
and has lectured on literature, art, and kindred 
subjects. He was first married in 1847, to Miss 
Mary Jane Shaw, of Wolfl:)orough, N.H., who died 
in 1876. In 1877 he married Miss Georgiana, 
daughter of Shubael P. Butterworth, of Warren, 

Garg.w, Thom.^s J., son of Patrick and Rose 
Gargan, was born in Boston Oct. 27, 1844. He 
was educated in the public schools, and, through 
private instruction, in literature and the classics, 
by Rev. Peter Krose, S.J, who fitted him for 
college. He took the course of the Boston Uni- 
versity Law School, graduating in 1873 with the 
degree of LL.B., and further studied in the law 
office of Henry W. Paine. Meantime he had 
served the LTnited States in the Civil War, enlisting 
in 1863, and commissioned as second lieutenant; 
and had had experience in business, having been in 

the dry-goods store 01 Wilkinson, Stetson, & Co., 
agents for A. & W. Sprague and the house of Hoyt, 
Sprague, & Co. He began the practice of law in 
Boston, and has since continued here, meeting with 
gratifying success. Mr. Gargan has long been prom- 

inent in local and State politics, acting with the 
progressive wing of the Democratic party. In 1868, 
1870, and 1876 he was a member of the lower 
house of the Legislature; in 1875 a member of the 
Boston board of overseers of the poor; in 1877-8 
chairman of the board of license commissioners ; 
and in 1880-1 a member of the board of police. 
He is a forcible and brilliant speaker, and among 
his most notable addresses have been the Fourth of 
July oration delivered in 1885 by invitation of the 
city of Boston, and the oration at the ( entt-iinial 
celebration of the Charitable Irish Society of Halifax, 
N.S., the following year. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Charitable Irish Society, and was its 
president in 1873 anfl 1874. Mr. (;argan was 
married in Boston, in September, 1 868, to Miss 
Catherine L. Mcfkath. 

CiARLANii, Georcf, MiNd'j, M.l)., was bom in 
Laconia, N.H., Oct. 14, 1S48. He was educated 
in the public schools of Lawrence, and fitting for 
college, entered Harvard College, receiving his 
degree in 1871. He then studied in the Har\-ard 
Medical School, graduating in 1874. The same 

ijpulit^-.ipLililisiiLiLj i-linfr^ 



2,-^ 7 

year he went abroad to complete his professional 
education, studying for two years in Vienna, Stras- 
burg, and Paris. Returning to Boston in 1876 he 
began the practice of his profession. He was 
appointed in 1877 assistant in physiology at the 
Harvard Medical School; in 1881 to the position 
of assistant in clinical medicine ; and in 1887 in- 
structor in clinical medicine, which position he still 
holds. In 1878 he was appointed professor of 
thoracic diseases in the University of Vermont, re- 
taining the i)osition for five years. In 1881 he was 
made physician to the Boston Dispensary, in 1880 
visiting physician to Carney Hospital, and in 
1888 physician to out-patients at the Massachusetts 
Ceneral Hospital. Dr. Garland is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, Boston Society of 
Medical Sciences, American Medical Association, 
American Association of Physicians, and the Amer- 
ican Climatological Association. He has been a 
frequent contributor to medical journals, and has 
written a book on " Pneumono-Dynamics." 

Gaston, WiLUAir, son of Alexander and Kesia 
(Arnold) Gaston, was l>orn in Killingly, Conn., 
Oct. 3, 1820. He comes of a distinguished an- 
cestry on both sides. On the paternal side he is 
a descendant from Jean Gaston, born in France, 
probably about the year 1600, a Huguenot, who was 
banished on account of his religion, and settled in 
Scotland ; and on the maternal side from Thomas 
Arnold, who, with his brother William, came to 
New England in 1636, and in 1654 joined William 
in Rhode Island, whither he had gone with Roger 
Williams. William Gaston's father was a well- 
known merchant of Connecticut, and was for many 
years in the Legislature, as was his fiither before 
him. With his parents, William Gaston moved to 
Roxbury in the summer of 1838. He was edu- 
cated at the academy in Brooklyn, Conn., the 
Plainfield Academy, and Brown University, which 
he entered at the age of fifteen. Graduating in 
1S40, he began his law studies in the office of 
Judge Francis Hilliard, of Roxbury, and completed 
them with Charles P. and Benjamin R. Curtis, of 
Boston. He was admitted to the bar in 1844, and 
opened his first law-office in Roxbury in 1846. 
Subsequendy, in 1865, the law firm of Jewell, 
Gaston, & Field was formed, consisting of the 
late Harvey Jewell, Mr. (Inston, and Walbridge A. 
Field, now Chief Justiie Meld of the Suiireme Judi- 
cial Court, with offices in Boston. Mr. Claston was 
city solicitor of Roxbury for five years, and in 1861 
and 1862 mayor of the city; and after the annexa- 
tion of Roxbury to Boston, he was mayor of Boston 

in 187 1 and 1872. In 1853 and 1854 he was 
elected to the Legislature as a Whig, and reelected 
in 1856 by a fusion of Whigs and Democrats, in 
opposition to the Know-Nothing candidate. In 
1868 he was elected as a Democrat to the senate; 
and in 1874 to the governorship. Among his ap- 
pointments while governor in 1875 were those of 
Otis P. Lord to the supreme bench, and of W'aldo 
Colburn and William S. Gardner to the superior 
bench. In 1870 he was a candidate for Congress, 
but tailed of an election. In 1875 Harvard College 
and Brown LIniversity conferred upon him the 
degree of LL.D. LTpon his election to the gover- 
norship, Mr. Gaston retired from the firm with 
which he had been associated and relinquished his 
practice. When he returned to private life, he 
opened a new office. In 1879 he took into partner- 
ship C. L. B. Whitney, and in 1883 his son, William 
A. Claston, was admitted to the firm. Mr. Gaston was 
married May 27, 1852, to Miss Louisa A. Beecher, 
daughter of Laban S. and Frances A. (Lines) 
Beecher ; they have had one daughter and two 
sons : Sarah Howard, William Alexander, and 
Theodore Beecher Gaston. Theodore, born in 
February, 1861, died in July, 1869. Mr. Gaston 
now resides in Boston in the Back Bay district. 

Gaston, William .Vlrxaxdf.k, son of William 


Gaston and Louisa Augusta (Beecher) Gaston, we 



T( )-r)AY. 

born in Roxbury May i, 1859. His early educa- 
tion was attained in private schools and in the 
Roxbury Latin School. He graduated from Har- 
vard in the class of 1880, and subsequently from 
the Harvard Law School. After admittance to the 
bar he began practice with his father and Charles 
L. B. Whitney, entering into partnership with them 
Oct. I, 1883. His present partners are his father 
and Frederic K. Snow, under the firm name of 
Oaston & Whitney. Mr. (laston is a director of 
the Manufecturers National Bank, and a trustee 
of the proprietors of Forest Hills Cemetery. He is 
a member of a number of clubs — the Somerset, the 
Puritan, the Athletic, and the Curtis, of Boston ; the 
Country Club, Brookline ; the Commodore Club, 
Maine ; and other associations. He is also a mem- 
ber of the staff of Gov. William K. Russell. 

(Iavin, MicHAKL Freebkrn, M.D., was born in 
Ireland May 12, 1846. His education was begun 
in schools in Ireland, and completed in the Boston 
grammar schools. His medical training was ob- 
tained in the Har\'ard Medical School, from which 
he graduated M.D. in 1864, after acting as house 
surgeon in the City Hospital one year. He ser\ed 
in the army, and at the close of the war went 
abroad, where he studied in Dublin, and in Paris 
two years, and received the fellowship at the Royal 
College of Surgeons in Dublin. Then returning to 
Boston in 1868, he engaged in general practice and 
surger)-. He is one of the visiting surgeons to the 
City Hospital and to Carney Hospital, was a 
trustee of the City Hospital for several years, and 
was for some time pension examiner. He is a 
member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, the 
Boston Society for Medical Improvement, and the 
Boston Society for Medical Observation. He has 
been a frequent contributor to the Dublin medical 
press, and also to medical and other journals in this 
country. Dr. Oavin was married Nov. 23, 1876, to 
Miss Ellen T., daughter of Patrick Doherty, of New 

G.w, (Ikorck Washimhon, M.D., was born in 
Swanzey, N.H., Jan. 14, 1842. His early education 
was acquired in the local schools. He took the course 
of the Harvard Medical School, graduating M.D. 
in 1868, passed a year in the hospital at Rainsford's 
Island, and another as house surgeon at the City 
Hospital, and then entered into active practice in 
this city, where he has since remained. He is a 
member of the British Medical Association, of the 
American Surgical Association, the American Medi- 
cal Association, the Massachusetts Medical Society, 

the Boston Society for Medical Improvement, Rox- 
bury Society for Medical Improvement, and Boston 
Society for Medical Obser\'ation ; and he is president 
of the Suffolk District Medical Society. Dr. Gay is 
also clinical instractor in surgery at the Har\ard 
Medical School, and surgeon to the Boston City Hos- 
pital. He has prepared and jiublished in the medical 
journals of the day various important papers on croup, 
hernia, ingrown toe-nail, tracheotomy, a])pendicitis, 
shock, the asi>irator, and kindred tojiics. 

CrEDRCE, Ki.ijAH, son of William E. George, \vas 
born in New Rochelle, N'.V., Sept. 6, 1850. He 
was reared in his native State, receiving a high- 
school and academic education in New York city, 
and there began the study of law. He came to 
Boston and graduated from the Boston I'niversity 
Law School in 1873, was admitted to the .Suf- 
folk bar the following year, and to the bar of the 
Supreme Court of the United States in the year 
1889. He studied with the well-known law firm of 
I'riel H. & George G. Crocker. In 1S75 he was 
ap]iointed assistant register of i)rol)ate and insol- 


vency, followed two years later by his election to 
the office of register of probate and insolvency, 
which position he has ably filled ever since, being 
indorsed by all political parties at each election, 
save that of 1890, when he had a Democratic op- 
iionent. Mr. George for manv vears has been 





inonuncnt m military aliairs, ami at one time was a 
member of the First Corps of Cadets. In 1881 
he was made judge-advocate, with the rank of 
captain, of the First Brigade, State Mihtia, resign- 
ing in 1882 ; and in August of the same year 
he was appointed judge-advocate of the Second 
Brigade. He still holds this office. Mr. Ceorge 
is a member of the Union, Algonquin, Athletic, 
Century, Roxbury, and Massachusetts Yacht Clubs, 
the Beacon Society, the Curtis Law Club, and 
the Abstract Club ; he is also a member of 
the Boston Bar Association, and other local organi- 

Oerrish, James R., superintendent of institutions 
on Deer Island, was born in Chelsea in 1840. His 
early education was obtained in the Chelsea public 
schools. After leaving school he was apprenticed 
to a carpenter and builder, and continued at that 
business until the breaking out of the war. He 
entered the service with the First Massachusetts 
Regiment and remained in it for twenty months, 
when he was discharged for disability. After he 
had obtained sufficient rest he entered the dry- 
goods business as clerk with (leorge M. ^\'inslow. 
Here he was employed about se\cn years. Then 
he engaged in the real-estate and building business 
for himself until 1878, when he relinquished it to 
accept the position of receiver at the institutions on 
Deer Island. This position he held for three years, 
when he was apjiointed superintendent of the State 
prison in Charlestown. After eight years' service 
here he was returned to Deer Island, having been 
appointed superintendent of the lity institutions 
there — the houses of industry and of reformation — 
which position he has since held. He is a member 
of the (t.A.R., of the Masonic order, and of other 
fraternal orders. 

Oilman, Ravmoxd R., son of Ambrose and Eunice 
(^^'ilcox) Oilman, was born in Shelburne F\alls, 
Mass., July 28, 1859. He was educated in the 
schools of his native town, the Shelburne Falls 
Academy, and Boston University. Immediately 
after graduation he began the study of law in the 
office of Judge Ely, and was admitted to the Norfolk 
county bar — the youngest man ever admitted — 
on Sept. 28, 1880. He at once began practice in 
Shelburne Falls, but soon removed his office to Bos- 
ton, where he has since remained, steadily advancing 
in his profession. He is a prominent member of 
the Odd Fellows order, now distnc t (k]nu\ i^rand 
master, and a member of the (irand l.twlgc of Massa- 
chusetts. He is a resident of Melrose, ami is a 

leading member of the Melrose Athletic and the 
Melrose Clubs. Mr. (Oilman was married June 16, 


1S82, to Miss Kate .^i. Tuttle ; they have one child : 
Alice K. Oilman. 

OiLSON, Alfred Henry, was born in Boston April 
17, 1855. He obtained his education in the Bos- 
ton schools, graduating from the high school in 
1873. After practising civil-engineering for six years 
in the Back Bay district he entered the Boston 
Dental College, graduating in 1882, and receiving 
the degree of D.D.S. He then began his professional 
career as a dentist. He is a member of the Massa- 
chusetts and New F^ngland Dental Societies, in both 
of which organizations he has held important offices ; 
and he is an honorary member of the Oeorgia State 
Dental Society. In January, 1887, he wrote a valu- 
able paper on " Homoeopathic Therapeutics in Den- 
tistry," which was read by him before the State 
Central Dental Society of Newark, N.J. This was 
one of the first papers of the kind ever published. 
While practising all branches of his profession, Dr. 
Oilson makes a specialty of orthodontia. 

Olines, Euward, son of Jacob T. and Sarah A. 
(Washburn) Olines, was born in Somerville, Mass., 
Aug. 31, 1849. He was educated in the public 
schools, graduating from the high school in 1869. 
He early entered trade as clerk in a general 


spice and coffee store, and was with his father in 
the same business until the latter's retirement, which 
brought the son to the head of the oldest firm in its 


line in Boston. He is still iarr_ving .on the iniijor- 
tation, manufacture, and sale of spices, tea, and 
coffee. Mr. Glines was an officer and member of 
the Somerville fire department for ten years. He was 
a member of the lower house of the Legislature two 
years (1882 and 1883) ; and member of the State 
senate in 1887 and 1888, ser\'ing on the committees 
on street railways, expediting business, labor, and 
public health, and as chairman of the railroad com- 
mittee and of those on federal relations and roads 
and bridges. He was largely influential in the 
adoption by the Legislature of the important ])ublic 
improvement known as the widening and extension 
of Beacon street, giving to the city of Boston one of 
its most elegant boulevards. As chairman of the 
railroad committee, he reported and successfully 
advocated the passage of two important measures 
affecting the railroad and mercantile interests of the 
State, the consolidation of the Old Colony and the 
Boston & Providence Railroads, and the uniting 
of the larger and more important rival lines, the 
Boston & Maine and the Eastern Railroads. Mr. 
Glines enjoys the remarkable and unprecedented 
legislative record of never losing a bill which was 
reported by either of the three committees of which 
he was chairman. He has been connected with 

various literary and religious associations, his church 
relations being with the Unitarians. He is a mem- 
ber of the Central, Webcowitt, and Winter Hill 
Clubs of Somenille, and the Central, Middlesex, 
New England, Taylor, and Cereal Clubs of Boston. 
He is a member also of the Boston chamber of 
commerce. He has held office in the order of 
( )dd Fellows and the Knights of Honor ; and is 
a Mason, Knight Templar degree. He has served in 
the militia as a private ; has been president of the 
Republican city committee ; member of the Republi- 
can State central committee ; president of the Somer- 
ville common council, and overseer of the poor. Mr. 
(;iines was married in Boston March 5, 1872, to Miss 
Frances C, daughter of Ziba P. and Nancy L. 
(Henderson) Hanks, of Augusta, Me. They have 

GooLH, Joseph L., was born in Lyman, Me., Aug. 
lb, 1849. He came to Boston in 1870, and served 
three years as an apprentice to the mason's trade 
with T. J. Whidden. After another three years as a 
journeyman, he formed a partnership with William 
I'ray, under the firm name of Gooch & Pray, which 
concern is now one of the foremost in New Eng- 
land in the building line. Among the buildings 
erected under his suiser^'ision are the Winchester 
Town Hall, the Abington Savings Bank, the Brighton 
Grammar School; business blocks in Boston for the 
heirs of D. H. Watson on Causeway street, for the 
Newton Associates on Columbia street, for J. Tir- 
rell on Federal street, and for Oliver Ditson & Co. 
on North street, and one at Plymouth. Mr. Clooch 
is an active member of the Master Builders' Associa- 
tion. He was married in 1877 to Miss Sarah A. 
Dennis. He resides in \\'est Medford, with a sum- 
mer home in Hingham. 

(looDRicH, Fkedf.kick E., SOU of lOli/ur Tiyon and 
Mary Catherine (Beach) (loodrich, was born in 
Hartford, Conn., Jan. 16, 1843. He was educateil 
at the Hartford public high school and Yale Col- 
lege, from which he graduated in 1864. The same 
year he entered Journalism with Dorsey Gardner, 
one of his classmates, who started "The Monitor, " 
an anti-monopoly paper, in Trenton, N.J. After 
a short experience here and upon the abantlonment 
of the enterprise, he returned to Hartford, where he 
was engaged as editor of " The Courant. " Two 
years were devoted to this work, and then, the own- 
ership of the paper changing, he retired and came 
to Boston. That was in May, 1867. His reputation 
had jireceded him, and he at once found a position 
on the "Post" as assistant to Nathaniel (Jreene. 



Subsequently he became managing editor, and 
then in 1875 succeeded Col. Charles G. Greene as 
editor-in-chief. This position he held, conducting 
the paper with ability and skill, until 1878, when, 
finding himself out of touch with the controlling in- 
terest in the ownership, he withdrew from the man- 
agement. Then he was for two years editorial 
writer for the " Boston Globe ; " also mayor's clerk 
for Mayor Prince 1879-81. During this period, 
besides his journalistic work, Mr. Goodrich engaged 
in general literary work, contributing short stories to 
the earlier "Scribner's" (which afterwards became 
the " Century "), " Harper's, " and other magazines. 
In 1883 he was elected city clerk of Boston, and re- 
elected the following year. Then, returning to 
journalism, he became a regular contributor to the 
editorial columns of the "Daily Advertiser" and 
other journals ; and in the spring of 1886, when the 
" Post" passed into new hands, he returned to that 
jiaper as a leader writer, which position he has since 
held. During the years 1887-9 he was also 
[irivate secretary and chief clerk under the Hon. 
Leverett Saltonstall, collector of customs at this 
port. In August, 1890, with Dr. Pklward E. Hale 
and a few others, representing science, history, 
literature, and kindred interests, he purchased the 
" Boston Commonwealth, " and made it the repre- 
sentative journal of this line of thought in Boston. 
Mr. Hale and Mr. Goodrich are the editors, and 
under their conduct the " Commonwealth " has 
become a sort of organ of thinking Boston, an inter- 
mediary between the learned societies and culti- 
vated people. Of Mr. Goodrich's publications 
between covers are the lives of (General Hancock 
and Grover Cleveland ; the former, originally written 
as a campaign biography, revised and expanded 
after the death of Hancock into a substantial 
volume. He has an intimate knowledge of munici- 
jial law and history, and has prepared several useful 
and important publications for the city of Boston. 
Mr. Goodrich was married Nov. 20, 1866, to F21iza- 
beth Williams Parsons, daughter of Edward W. 
Parsons, of Hartford, Conn. ; they have had three 
children: David Parsons (now an architect practising 
in Boston), Harold Beach (graduate of Harvard Col- 
lege, 1892), and Theodora Caroline Goodrich. 

GooDSPEED, Joseph Horace, was born in I-^ast 
Haddam, Conn., Jan. 14, 1845. He was educated 
in Trinity College, Hartford. In 1865 he went to 
Denver, Col., where he was successfully engaged 
in the banking business until 1870. From this 
he went into the railroad business, becoming con- 
nected with the St. Joseph (Missouri) Railroad, 

remaining there until 1876. He was then general 
auditor of what was known as the " Joy " Railroad 
in the West. At that time (1876) Massachusetts 
passed a law creating the office of supervisor of rail- 
road accounts of this Commonwealth, and through 
Charles F. Adams, then the chairman of the railroad 
commissioners, the position was offered to Mr. Good- 
speed, which he accepted and held until 1881. Then 
he was made general auditor of the Me.xican Central 
Railroad. This position he held until 1887. When the 
consolidation of street railroads was consummated 
with the establishment of the West End Street Rail- 
road Company, Mr. Goodspeed was otfered the posi- 
tion of treasurer, which he accepted and still holds. 

Gove, Wesley Austin, was born in Boston 
Sept. 9, 1835. He attended the public schools 
here, finishing his education at the Wilbraham 
Academy. At the beginning of the Civil War he 
went to the front as a lieutenant in llu- Forty-first 
Massachusetts Regiment, and altii\\aril^ scr\'cd as 
a captain in the Third Massac huM'tts Cavalry. He 
began public life in 1866, as a member of the 
lower house of the Legislature; reelected in 1S67, 
serving during the latter session on the committee 
on military affairs. He was elected to the senate of 
1886, from the First Suffolk District, serving on the 
committee on harbors and public lands (as chair- 
man), and also on water supply. He was re- 
elected to the senate the following year, and was 
chairman of the committee on harbors and lands, 
and a member of the committee on towns. In 
December, 1889, he was chosen to represent the 
First District in the Boston b.oard of aldermen, and 
during his term of office he devoted much time 
and attention to the matter of public improvements 
and the general welfare of the district he repre- 
sented. Mr. Gove is a director of the First National 
Bank of East Boston, and of the Erie Telegraph 
and Telephone Company; he is also director of 
the East Boston Company, and trustee of the East 
Boston Savings Bank. He is a Mason of the 
thirty-second degree, an Odd F"ellow, and a mem- 
ber of the New England and Jeffries ('lubs. 

GRAH.'iM, Douglas, M.D., son of a Scotch 
farmer, was born in Kirkoswald, Scotland, May 
2, 1848. It was in this village that his great- 
grandfather on his mother's side of the family, 
Hugh Rodger, was schoolmaster and taught Robert 
Burns mathematics. The old-fashioned clock that 
belonged to Mr. Rodger and timed Burns' lessons 
now stands in the hall of Dr. Clraham's residence. 
On his father's side. Dr. Graham's great-grand- 



uncle was the veritable Tam o' Shanter, whose name 
he bears. Dr. Graham's descent has been traced 
to Sir William Wallace, the defender of Scotland; 
thus proving, as Bret Harte says, that it is danger- 
ous to climb the ancestral tree too far lest we find 
that one of our ancestors has been hung ; for Wal- 
lace was not only hung, but drawn and quartered, 
though in a good cause, however. At the age of 
sixteen Graham emigrated to the United States and 
continued his studies at the academy in Lee, Mass. 
In 1873, after a three years' course of study, he 
graduated with honor from the Jefferson Medical 
College of Philadelphia. He was then admitted to 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, and the follow- 
ing year took a post-graduate course in the Harvard 
Medical School. He has since been engaged in 
private practice in Boston, devoting special atten- 
tion to massage, and occasionally visiting Europe 
to investigate this subject. He has written numer- 
ous articles as well as a large treatise on massage, 
all of which have been freely quoted and stolen from 
on both sides of the .Atlantic. He is regarded by 
the profession as the authority in the United States 
on this subject. He is a member of the Alumni 
Association of Jeflferson Medical College, of the 
American Medical Association, of the British Med- 
ical Association, and other organizations. 

Ann Jane (Henderson) Graham, was born in En- 
niskillen, county Fermanagh, Ire., Dec. 19, 1847. 
He came to this country with his parents when a 
lad, and received his early education in the Boston 
public schools. He began his business career in the 
boot and shoe manufactory of J. T. Penniman in 
Quincy, and he is now one of the largest gentlemen's 
custom boot and shoe makers in the United States. 
His stores are at No. 280 Washington street, Boston, 
and his manufactory in Quincy, where he resides. 
He is much interested in public matters, and in 
1892 represented the Fifth Norfolk District in the 
lower house of the Legislature. He served in the 
Civil War, enlisting in Company E, Fourth Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry, and Company A, Forty-second 
Massachusetts Infantry, and he is now a leading 
member of Post 88, G..\.R. He is concerned in im- 
portant local enterprises ; is president of the Quincy 
& Boston Electric Street Railway, and director in the 
Quincy Electric Light and Power Company ; and he 
is also director in the Broadway National Bank of 
Boston. On Feb. 28, 1871, Mr. Graham married 
Mary E. B. Graham ; they have eleven children, — 
six boys, Robert B., John W., Harold and Malcom 
(twins), James Lester, and Edward Montrose, — 
and five girls, Clara Louise, Edith Rowe, Mary 
Augusta, Annie Henderson, and Beatrice Graham. 

Graham, loiix R.. son of |ames Grahnr 


Graixcek, William Henrn-, M.D., son of William 
and Charlotte (Cotter) Grainger, was born in 
Mallow, county Cork, Ire., Nov. 7, 1845. His 
early education was acquired in a private school at 
Mallow ; subsequently he went to a private tutor in 
Dublin, and the Bandon Institute. He came to 
the United States in November, 1864, and made his 
home first in Brooklyn, N.Y., where he studied med- 
icine, and subsequently he graduated from the 
Medical School of the L^niversity of the City- of 
New York. In 1870 he moved to Boston and here 
began the practice of his profession ; he is now one 
of the most successful physicians of East Boston, 
and IS regarded as an authority especially on diseases 
of the lungs. He has been a frequent contributor 
in late years to the leading medical journals. Dr. 
Grainger belongs to a number of professional organ- 
izations , is a member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society, the American Medical Association, the 
Boston (gynaecological Society, and the Boston Med- 
ical Library .Association. He also belongs to the 
Charitable Irish Society, the Catholic Union, the 
Wendell Phillips branch of the Land League, and 
the Clover Club. He has served as a member of 
the school committee, first elected to the board 
in the autumn of 18.S6 ; antl has been a trustee of 



the East Boston Savings Bank since 1881. 
Dr. Grainger was married to Miss Mary A. 

In 1873 


of Boston ; tliey have six children, all boys : William 
H., Henry A., Edward J., Oeorge L., Charles J., 
and John G. Cirainger. 

Grant, Melville C, son of .Adam and Harrii-t 
Newell (Hutchins) Grant, was born in lloston 
April 20, 1841. He was educated in the ])iil)li( 
schools of Boston and Chelsea. He began actne 
life as a mason and builder, and after working some 
years at his trade, on Jan. i, 1873, became a mem- 
ber of the building firm of B. F. Dewing & Co. 
Subsequently he conducted business alone, and exe- 
cuted many important contracts. During his long 
career he has built a large number of notable pub- 
lic and private buildings throughout the New 
England States. Mr. Grant has an admirable war 
record, and has since continued his interest in 
military affairs. He was a member of the Charles- 
town artillery at the breaking out of the war, and 
left Boston with it April 19, 1861, serving three 
months. He had a hand in the fight at Bull Run. 
Then he enlisted October 24, that year, in Company 
C, United States Engineers, as private, and was acting 
sergeant-major when he was honorably discharged 
Oct. 24, 1864, at Petersburg, Va. He is now presi- 
dent of the Association of Veterans of United States 
Engineers, an officer in Gettysburg Post 191, G.A.R., 

and is an active member of the Boston Lancers 
and the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. 
He is also prominent in fraternal organizations : is 
a past presiding officer in lodge, encampment, and 
canton. Odd Fellows; and a member of Colum- 
bian Lodge, Free Masons ; Columbian Council 
Legion of Honor, and of Sumner Lodge Knights 
of Honor. He was one of the early members and 
some time a trustee of the Master Builders' Associa- 
tion, and has long been connected with the Charitable 
Mechanic Association. Mr. Grant was married Dec. 
S, 1865, to Miss Harriet C. Organ; they have six 


children : Fred A., (nirney S., Alice V,., Melville E., 
Benjamin I)., and Amy E. Grant. 

Graves, Chester Hatch, was born in Sunder- 
land, Mass., Jan. 5, 18 18. He was educated in 
the schools of that locality. He came to Boston 
in 1844, and the year following entered the house 
of Seth W. Fowle, manufacturers of and dealers in 
patent medicines. Here he remained until 1849, 
when he associated himself with the house of John 
T. Hearn, with which he was connected for a 
period of twelve years. In 186 1 he engaged in 
business for himself. Subsequently he associated 
with him in business his sons Edward C. and George 
A. Graves, and these two now carry on the business 
under the firm name of C. H. Graves & Sons. 
Their " Hub Punch " is one of their specialties. 

= 44 


GiLW, Orin T., was born in Norridgewock, Som- 
erset county, Me., June 2, 1839. His father, Robert 
D. Gray, was a thrifty farmer and lumberman, who 
during the summer months managed the farm, and 
in winter conducted an extensive lumbering-busi- 
ness on the Kennebec and Dead Rivers ; and Capt. 
Joshua Gray, his grandfather, was one of the most 
prominent and influential, citizens of his town and 
county. His mother, Lurana (Tinkham) Gray, was 
the daughter of Deacon Orin Tinkham, of Nor- 
ridgewock, after whom he was named. She was a 
woman of rare ability, strength of character, and 
culture. Before her marriage she taught school, 
and won more than a local reputation as a writer 
both of prose and poetry. On either side of the 
house, Mr. Gray is the descendant of robust Revo- 
lutionary ancestors. Both his grandfathers were 
officers in the last war with Great Britain. His 
maternal grandfather was of the best old Puritan 
stock. During his forty years' residence in Nor- 
ridgewock he exercised an influence in town and 
church afiairs second to that of no man in the town- 
ship. Nor was his maternal grandfather a man of 
less mark and power. The Hon. John Tinkham, 
father of Deacon Orin, was born and lived in Mid- 
dleborough, Mass., in the house which had been con- 
secutively occupied by four generations of his family. 
He was a member of the town, county, or State 
government almost constantly from the time that 
he attained his majority until his death. He ser\ed, 
on several different occasions, in both branches 
of the Massachusetts Legislature. Orin T. Gray's 
education w-as begun in private schools and under 
the tuition of ]5rivate instructors. At the age of 
twelve he was reported as the best scholar in the 
schools of the town. He subsequently prepared 
for college in the Anson and Bloomfield Acade- 
mies, and also under private tutors. At seventeen 
he successfully passed his examination for admis- 
sion to the sophomore class. After pursuing his 
collegiate studies for two years, during much of 
which time he was engaged in teaching, he was 
prostrated by a serious illness attributed to over- 
work. Upon recovery he decided to begin at 
once the study of the law for his chosen profes- 
sion. Entering the office of Josiah H. Drummond, 
of Waterville, then the attorney-general of Maine, 
he studied for more than two years, and in i860 was 
admitted to the bar at the session of the Supreme 
Court in Augusta. He had then just completed his 
twenty-first year. He began practice in Water\ille, 
but in the autumn of 1862 removed to Boston, 
where he has since remained. He now enjoys a 
large clientage. He was prevented from entering 

the Union army, at the very commencement of the 
struggle, by physical infirmity, the examining surgeon 
refusing to pass him. In politics he has always 
been affiliated with the Republican party, and in 
all the recent important political campaigns he has 
advocated its principles and its candidate on the 
stump. He has been a member of several national 
conventions, and was the chairman of the com- 
mittee on resolutions in the National League 
convention of 1889. Before the duties of his 
profession became so exacting, he was for several 
years a successful and popular lyceum lecturer. ( )f 
the temperance cause he has always been an ear- 
nest supporter, and he has delivered many addresses 
on this topic. For years he was the candidate of 
the Prohibition party for the office of attorney- 
general. Of local official positions he has held a 
comparatively large number, among theiu that of 
chairman of the school committee of Hyde Park, 
where he resides — a post which he filled for several 
years. He is connected wuth the management of 
several important corporations. Since the incor- 
poration of the Hyde Park Savings Bank he has 
been annually elected one of its trustees, and also 
its attorney. Mr. Gray was married in i860 to 
Louise Bradford Holmes, a direct descendant of 
Governor Bradford. 

Green, Charles M(1n-traville, M.D., son of George 
Pient and Melinda (Wetherbee) Green, was born in 
Medford Dec. iS, 1850. He received his early 
education in the public schools of his native town, 
and subsequently attended the Boston Latin School, 
winning a Franklin medal at graduation in 1870. 
He received the degree of A.B., cum laiide, from 
Harvard College in 1874, and graduated from the 
Harvard Medical School in 1877. After a year in a 
hospital he continued his studies in Europe, return- 
ing to Boston in the autumn of 1879, since which 
time he has practised medicine in this city. He 
holds appointments at the Boston Dispensary, at 
the Boston City Hospital, and the Boston Lying-in 
Hospital, and is instructor in obstetrics in the 
Harvard Medical School. Dr. Green is a fellow and 
councillor of the Massachusetts Medical Society and 
the Massachusetts Medical Benevolent Society, a 
member of the Boston Society for Medical Obsen a- 
tion, the Boston Society for Medical Improvement, 
the Obstetrical Society of Boston, the Boston Medi- 
cal Library Association, and a fellow of the American 
Gynaecological Society. He is also a member of 
the Bunker Hill Monument Association, and, 
through his maternal great-grandfather, who ser\ed 
and was wounded in the Revolutionarv \\'ar, of the 



Massachusetts Society of the Sons of the American 
Revohition. Of the latter society he is vice-presi- 
dent. Although too young to ser\e in the Civil 
War, he has ser\^ed for twenty years in the 
Massachusetts \'olnnteer Militia, holding a sub- 
altern's commission in the Fifth Regiment in 1875- 
7, since which time he has been one of the medi- 
cal officers of the First Corps of Cadets. In De- 
cember, 1 888, Dr. Green was elected a member of 
the Boston school committee for two years, and in 
1890 was reelected for the full term of three years. 
Dr. Oreen was married June 29, 1876, to Helen 
Lincoln, daughter of the late Dr. John Ware, of 
Boston. The first child of this union, Charles M., 

surgeon in the United States Army for six months 
at Portsmouth Grove, R.I. He was one of the 


jr., died in infancy ; the second 
ville Green, was born July 11, 18: 

Robert Montra- 

GRr;ENOUf;H, Fr.4NCIS Boott, M.D., son of Henry 
and Frances (Boott) Greenough, was born in Bos- 
ton Dec. 24, 1837. His early education was begun 
abroad, in Germany and Italy, continued in the 
Cambridge High School, and finished in Mr. Brad- 
ford's private school in Boston. Then he entered 
Harvard and graduated A.B. in 1859 ; A.M., M.D., 
in 1867. After graduating from the Medical School 
he continued his medical studies in Vienna a year, 
and in Paris for a shorter period. Returning to 
Boston in i858 he was house physician in the 
Massachusetts General Hospital, and also acting 


original surgical staff at Carney Hospital, and was 
physician to the Children's Hospital when it was 
first opened. He is now clinical instructor in syph- 
ilis at the Harvard Medical School, and physician- 
in-charge in the department for skin diseases in the 
Boston Dispensary. He was president of the Ameri- 
can Dermatological Association in 1891, is a mem- 
ber of the American Genito-Urinary Association, 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, and the Boston 
Society for Medical Improvement. He is unmarried. 

Grinnell, C. a., was born in Providence, R.I., 
Dec. 4, 1 8 16. His education was obtained in the 
public schools. Upon completing it in his six- 
teenth year he sailed for Baltimore. There, in Sep- 
tember, 1832, he entered the employ of his uncle, 
Comfort Tiffany, who was the head of the firm 
of Tiffany, Shaw, & Co., jobbing domestic and 
shoe house. He was employed in the shoe and 
hat department. In those days boys received no 
compensation, but were allowed to sell such articles 
as the firm did not deal in ; and young Grinnell and 
another boy joined together and sold blacking (of 
their own make), and morocco hats for children, by 
which means they made considerable money. A 
few years later Mr. Grinnell was transferred to the 
counting-room, where he took charge of the books 



of the whole business, and subsequently to the dry- 
goods sales department. In 1840 the firm of Tif- 
fany, Shaw, & Co. was dissolved, and Mr. Tiffany, 
taking the shoe and hat department of the old firm, 
began afresh, and associating with him as partners 
Mr. Grinnell and a Mr. File, established the firm of 
Tiftliny, Fite, & Grinnell. On the death of his uncle 
Mr. Grinnell formed a copartnership with J. W. 
Jenkins under the firm name of Grinnell & Jenkins, 
which lasted until 1864. In that year Mr. Grinnell 
came to Boston and entered into copartnership with 
Frank Dane and his brother James F. Dane. On 
the death of Frank Dane he continued with J. F. 
Dane, under the firm name of J. F. Dane, Grinnell, 
& Co. This is now one of the oldest houses in the 
trade. The factories of the firm are in West Med- 
way and Salem. They are equipped with the latest 
improvements, and are run to their full capac- 
ity, turning out medium grades of men's and 
boys' boots and children's shoes. Their business is 
exclusively wholesale, the firm selling direct to the 
jobbers and dealers only. Mr. Grinnell has been so 
long and so honorably associated with the shoe and 
leather trade of Massachusetts that he is looked 
upon as one of its main props. It is to him and a 
few other merchants of the same character that the 
trade is indebted for the establishment of the New 
England Shoe and Leather Association ; and those 
who remember the meeting convened by ex-Gov- 
ernor Claflin in 1869 for its formation will recall 
the speech made by Mr. Grinnell on that occasion. 
He was chosen one of the directors of the new 
organization. In 1876 he was elected its president, 
and was reelected for the years 1877, 1878, and 
1879. He has endeavored to benefit the young 
men of the day, and has on special occasions lec- 
tured at the Young Men's Christian Association and 
the Young Men's Christian Union on practical 
topics. Although beyond the allotted period of 
threescore and ten, Mr. Grinnell is still to be found 
at his office, active not only in his business there, 
but attending carefully to his duties as a director of 
the Bank of Redemption. He is still, also, a direc- 
tor of the Shoe and Leather Association. In 1840 
he was married to the daughter of Daniel Cobb, a 
member of the Friends' Meeting, and one of the 
wholesale domestic-goods merchants of Baltimore, 
Md. Her loss in 1890, occurring one week after 
the celebration of their golden wedding, was a great 
affliction to him. He is of a most philanthropic 
and generous disposition, and his gifts are numer- 
ous and well bestowed. 

GuNTER, Adolphus Byr()N, SOU of Gcorge F. 

and Agnes (Lawrence) Gunter, was born in York 
county, N.B., Feb. 11, 1850. He was educated in 
the schools of his native town, and in the Univer- 
sity of New Brunswick. He began the study of 
medicine with Dr. Atherton, of Fredericton, 
Then he came to Boston and studied in the Har\anl 
Medical School, from which he graduated in 1877. 
He established himself in the Charlestown district, 
where he now has a large and successful practice. 
In 1876 Dr. Gunter was married to Miss Imogene 
Mosher ; they have two children : Beatrice Mildred 
and Kdith Gladdis (hmter. 


AISERSTROH, Ai.hert, son of Lucas and 

Friedericke (.Mulier) Haberstroh, was born 

loston Julv 2 s, 1855. He was educated in Rox- 


bury and Jamaica Plain public schools. He began 
business life as entry clerk and assistant book-keeper 
with Phillips, Shuman, & Co., on Summer street. 
But here he did not long remain. He had inherited 
a taste for art, and in this direction he early turned 
his attention. He first attended the evening draw- 
ing-schools, and then studied in the Museum of Fine 
.•\rts under the late Otto Grundmann. Later, under 
Dr. Rimmer, he took a course in anatomy, .sculpt- 
ure, and painting. He also won approval in his 
drawing and color at the Lowell Institute. In the 
meantime he had become connected with his 







father's mural decorative business, which had flour- 
ished here in Boston since 1840; and in 1877 he 
was admitted to partnership, when the firm name 
was changed to L. Haberstroh & Son. Under this 
title he has conducted the business as the sole 
successor of ' his father since the latter's death, 
which occurred several years ago. He is the in- 
ventor of several patented mural processes of 
decoration, and his work is shown in theatres, 
churches, hotels, public buildings, and private resi- 
dences in Boston, Lowell, Newton, Haverhill, 
Springfield, and other Massachusetts cities, in 
Savannah, Ga., Detroit, Mich., Huntington, Pa., 
Binghamton, N.Y., Plainfield, N.J., and many other 
places in different parts of the country. As a 
mural figure-painter Mr. Haberstroh ranks with the 
foremost in his profession. He is a member of the 
Art and .Architectural Clubs ; of the Art Students' 
Association, of which he was one of the first secre- 
taries ; and of the National Society of Decorators 
and Painters, for some time vice-president. Mr. 
Haberstroh was married in 1880 to Miss Emma 
Raumgarten ; they have two sons : Emil M. and 
Arthur F. Haberstroh. 

H.AiiLDCK, Harvf.v De.ming, born Oct. 7, 1843, is 
descended, in the seventh generation, from Na- 
thaniel Hadlock, who came from England in 1638 
and settled in Charlestown, was subseiiuently one of 
the founders of the town of Lancaster, Mass., and 
whose son Nathaniel is mentioned in Felt's " His- 
tory of Salem " as having been fined and punished 
for declaring " that he could receive no profit from 
Mr. Higginsou's preaching, and that in persecuting 
the Quakers the government was guilty of innocent 
blood." From his paternal grandmother he is 
descended from Thomas Manchester, one of the 
earliest settlers (1642) of Portsmouth, R.L His 
father, Edwin Hadlock, a master mariner in early 
life, succeeded to the shipping and merchandise 
business established by his father, ('a]Jtain Samuel 
Hadlock, after acquiring by jjun hasc •• Little Cran- 
berry Island," and by which he had amassed a 
fortune. His niotlur, Mary Ann Stanwood, was de- 
scended from Phillip Stanwood, one of the earliest 
settlers (1653) of Oloucester, Mass., and the fourth 
generation from Job Stanwood, the soldier men- 
tioned in history, and Martha Bradstreet, his second 
wife. His preliminary studies were under the su- 
pervision of his mother and in the schools of his 
native place until the age of thirteen, when he 
removed with his parents to Bucksport, Me., where 
he became a student at the East Maine Conference 
Seminary. Here, and under private instructors, he 

pursued classical studies fully equal to the course 
prescribed by New England colleges of that day, 
and subsequently he spent a year in the scientific 
department of Dartmouth College. In September, 
1863, he began the study of law in the office of 
Hon. Samuel F. Humphrey at Bangor, Me., and 
under the friendly supervision of ex-Governor 
Edward Kent, then one of the justices of the Su- 
preme Judicial Court of Maine ; and on Jan. 6, 
1865, he was admitted to the bar of that court and 
entered upon his legal career at Bucksport, Me. In 
1865-6, business having led him to New Orleans, he 
pursued there the study of civil and maritime law 
under the direction of the late Christain Roselius, 
returning to Bucksport after an absence of several 
months. The spring and summer of 1868 he 
passed at Omaha, Neb., where he was admitted to 
liractice in the courts of Nebraska, both State and 
Federal. Returning East he was, on Oct. 7, 1868, 
admitted as an attorney and counsellor of the Su- 
preme Judicial Court of Massachusetts and began 
])ractice at Boston. The following spring he was 
admitted to practise in the .State and Federal courts 
of the State of New York. In the autumn of 1869 
he returned to Boston, engaged largely in criminal 
cases, in the defence of which he was very suc- 
cessful, and in 187 1 proceeded to Maine and at- 
tended railroad meetings relating to the construc- 
tion of a line of railway leading from Bangor to 
some eastern ])oint, via Bucksport. In the spring 
of 1873, the construction of the road being as- 
sured, he resumed practice at Bucksport, and sub- 
sequently was retained as counsel for the Bucksport 
& Bangor Railroad, of which corporation he was 
one of the directors. From 1881 to 1887 he re- 
sided in Portland, Me., maintaining as a member 
of the Cumberland bar his leading position, and 
adding new laurels to his fame as a successful prac- 
titioner in causes involving the most important in- 
terests of railway corporations, patents, and maritime 
affairs, as well as criminal cases ; and it was said that 
he tried more causes and was capable of doing 
more work than any other lawyer in that city. 
Many of his clients at this time were residents of 
adjoining States, and he was employed in various 
professional affairs. In 1887 he removed to Bos- 
ton, where he has resided up to the present time, 
the range of his practice extending beyond the 
limits of the State and Federal courts of New Eng- 
land and New York, and embracing cases of great 
moment pending in the Supreme Court of the 
Lfnited States. On Jan. 26, 1865, he was married 
to Miss Alexene L. (joodell, of Searsport, Me., and 
has two children living, Inez and Webster; his eld- 



est son, Haney Deniing Hadlock, jr., bom Dec. 4, 
1870, died Jan. 22, 1886, from accidental shooting 
while handling a revolver. 

Haile, William Henry, lieutenant-governor of 
Massachusetts in 1890, 1891, and 1892, son of 
William and Sebrana Haile, was born in Chesterfield, 
N.H., Sept. 23, 1833. His father, who was a success- 
ful merchant and manufacturer, was also the first Re- 
publican governor of New Hampshire, and when Mr. 
Haile was quite young removed to Hinsdale, N.H., 
where the lad's boyhood was passed. He received his 
education in the public schools of the place, prepar- 
ing for college at Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, 
N.H. He attended Amherst College for a year and 
a half, leaving there to enter Dartmouth, from which 
institution he graduated with high honors in 1856. 
Mr. Haile then studied law in Springfield, Mass., and 
after being admitted to the bar practised in Boston 
for a while. His tastes, however, ran in another 
direction, and he soon removed to Hinsdale, N.H., 
where he engaged in the manufacture of woollen 
goods, becoming the partner of his flither and Hon. 

Rufus S. Frost, of Chelsea, the concern being 
known as Haile, Frost, & Co. This partnership was 
very successful, and subsequently was transformed into 
a corporation entitled The Haile & Frost Manufac- 
turing Company, Mr. Haile becoming the treasurer. 
He early interested himself in politics, on the Re- 

publican side. In the years 1865, 1866, and 1871 
he was a representative from the town of Hinsdale 
in the New Hampshire Legislature, and soon after 
he returned to Springfield this State. In 1881 he 
was elected mayor of that city. In 1882 and 1883 
he was elected State senator from the First Hamp- 
den Senatorial District, serving on the committees 
on military affairs, mercantile affairs, banks and 
banking, and manufactures. In the autumn of 
1889 he was nominated as lieutenant-governor on 
the Republican ticket, with John Q. A. Brackett 
at the head, and was elected at the subsequent 
election in November. He ran again in 1890 and 
1 89 1, and although the head of the ticket was in 
each case defeated, he received the election to the 
office for which he was nominated. He is recog- 
nized as a leader in his party- Mr. Haile was 
married Jan. i, 1861, to Miss Amelia L. Chapin, 
daughter of Ethan S. and Louisa B. Chapin, of 
Springfield ; they have had three children : William 
C, who died on Aug. 14, 1864, AHce, and 
Henry Chapin Haile. 

Hale, Edwin B., son of Aaron and Mary (Kent) 
Hale, was born in Oxford, Grafton county, N.H., 
June 16, 1839. He was educated in the district 
school, in Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N.H., 
and in Dartmouth College, from which he graduated 
in the class of 1865. Then he took the regular 
course in the Harvard Law School, and, admitted to 
the bar, began the practice of his profession in 
Boston in partnership with James B. Richardson — 
an association which still continues. When he 
moved to this State Mr. Hale made his home in 
Cambridge, and before beginning the practice of law 
he was superintendent of the public schools there. 
In 1878 and 1879 he was a member of the lower 
house of the Legislature, holding positions on im- 
portant committees and taking a leading part in the 
work of the sessions. Mr. Hale is unmarried. 

Hall, Boardman, son of Col. Joseph F. and 
Mary M. (Fanovv) Hall, was born in Bangor, Me., 
April 18, 1856. He was educated in the West- 
brook Seminary, Dr. Hanson's Preparatory School 
of Waterville, Me., and Colby University. He 
studied law in the Boston LTniversity Law School, 
and his first professional connection was with the 
office of Hon. William H. McLellan, attorney- 
general of Maine, in 1879. He has since practised 
in Boston, and was for some time assistant United 
States attorney. He has met with marked success, 
especially in criminal cases. He defended Jacob 
and Chaskell Bostwick in the Cross-street homi- 



cide case, Frank Nelson for the Ivjmicide of Lena 
Johnson, and Daniel H. Wilson for the homicide 
of his wife. He was counsel for Capt. Edward J. 
Reed and the owner of the bark " Petrel " in the 


scurvy cases tried October, 1890, in the Ignited 
States courts; defended David Wilbur Wood, o|iium 
smuggler ; was counsel for Leda Lamontague, extra- 
dition case ; and was in the Foss will case and the 
whiskey-trust cases. He has been a member of the 
Boston school committee, and has done newspaper 
work and law editing. 

Upon the dissolution of this firm he formed a co- 
]iartnership, Oct. i, 1888, with Walter B. Allen, under 
the firm name of Allen, Hall, & Co., at No. 88 
Boylston street, beginning business with limited 
capital. During the three vc;irs of their united 
efforts they have become well established, and are 
now recognized among the leading interior decora- 
tors of Boston ; they employ from forty to sixty 
expert workmen and artists. They are enabled to 
111. ike estimates for the entire interior furnishings 
ui line residences, which is their specialty. Much 
(.)f their work is to be seen in the Back Bay district. 
The entire interiors of the houses of Myron W. 
Whitney in ^\'atertown, and George E. Keith in 
Brockton, are among the fine interiors which they 
have completed. Mr. Hall was married Dec. 17, 
1 888, in Wolfborough, N.H., to Miss Abbie A. 
\\hitton, daughter of Charles A. Whitton, of that 

Ham,, \\'ili,i,\.m Duiii.e\, M.D., was born in Bridge- 
port, Conn., July 13, 1856. He obtained his early 
education in the public schools and boarding-schools 
of his native town and vicinity, graduating from 
Phillips (Exeter) Academy in 1876. P^ntering Har- 
vard College, he graduated in i88o ; then he went 
through the Harvard Medical School, graduating 
in 18S3. Dr. Hall was house officer at the Car- 
ney Hospital one year, and then interne of the 
Eye and Ear Infirmary for two years. He has 
]>rartised in Boston since 1886. He is assistant 
ophthalmic surgeon to the Eye and Ear Infirmary 
and surgeon to the Boston Dispensary and the St. 
Elizabeth's Hospital. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society and of the New 
England Ophthalmological Society. 

Hall, K. H., son of Horace Hall, of North Read- 
ing, was born in North Berwick, Me., Sept. 17, 
1864. In 1875 his family moved to this State, 
where he received a high-school education, to- 
gether with a thorough course in a commercial 
college and in music. In 1882 he entered the em- 
ploy of his brother, C. P. Hall, a dry-goods mer- 
chant on Washington street, remaining one and 
one-half years. Having an ambition for decoration 
in drapery, he secured a position in the drapery 
and upholstery department of C. F. Hovey & Co., 
Summer street. The experience gained while 
there, together with the study of works on modern 
drapery, upholstery, and mural decoration, well 
equipped him as a practical decorator, and he went 
direcriy from Hovey & Co. into the service of H. J. 
Allen & Co., interior decorators on West street. 

Halsev, Frederick Wadsvvorth, M.D., son of 
the late Cornelius E. Halsey, of Plattsburg, N.Y., 
was born in that city July 3, 1849. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools and the academy there, 
and graduated M.D. from Columbia College, D.C., 
in 1 87 1. He was first appointed resident physician 
to the Asyhini Hospital at Washington, D.C. ; after- 
wards ser\ed nine months at the Homceopathic 
Dispensary in Albany, N.Y. ; then established him- 
self at Port Henry, N.Y., where he remained four 
years ; then went to Middleboro,- Vt., where he 
practised ten years; and then (in 1885) came to 
Boston, where he has since remained successfully 
practising his profession. He was rectal surgeon to 
the Murdock Hospital for four years, and is now 
lecturer on rectal surgery in the Boston University 
School of Medicine. He is a member of the 



Massachusetts Homceopathic Medical Society, of 
the Boston Homoeopathic Medical Society, the 
American Institute of Homoeopathy, the Surgical 
and Gynaecological Society, and the Hahnemann 
Club. He has been a frequent contributor to 
medical journals. Dr. Halsey was married Feb. 
14, 1881, to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of George C. 
Chapman, of Middleboro, Vt. 

Hamlix, I'jiWARiJ Sumner, eldest son of Nathan 
Sumner and Harriet (Fletcher) Hamlin, was born 
in Westford,. Mass., June 28, 1830; died Feb. 2, 
1888. The Hamlin family were among the promi- 
nent Cape Cod early settlers; James Hamlin 
came to Cape Cod in 1650, setding in Barn- 
stable : his brother, Giles Hamlin, settled in Middle- 
town, Conn. Eleazer Hamlin, the great-grand- 
father of Edward S., was born in Harwich, Mass. ; 
moved to Pembroke, from which town he com- 
manded a company in the Revolutionary War; 
afterwards promoted to the rank of major; then 
moved to Harvard, and from there to Westford. 
Here the father of Edward S. was born. He was 
for many years town clerk, and chairman of the 



board of selectmen and overseers of the poor. He 
also served in the Legislature. In pohtics he was 
a Democrat. Edward S. was educated at Westford 
Academy. At the age of twenty he came to Boston 
and went to work at a salary of one hundred dollars 

a year. He soon entered the office of Benson & 
Pray, coal merchants, as clerk. Next he entered 
into a copartnership with the late Royal Bosworth, 
and as wholesale and retail coal-merchants they 
continued together until about the year 1881, when 
Mr. Bosworth retired. Mr. Hamlin then carried on 
the business alone until his death. Since his death 
the business, which had become one of the largest 
in New England, has been successfully continued by 
his sons Edward and George P. Hamlin. In 
politics Mr. Hamlin, like his father, was a stanch 
Democrat, but while he took an active interest in 
public matters he never would consent to run for 
office. He was a prominent Mason. Of his four 
sons, Edward and George P., as has been stated, 
continued the coal business, and Charles S., the 
eldest, is a prominent lawyer, with offices in the 
Equitable Building. The youngest son is Frederick 
D. H. Mr. Hamlin left also two daughters, Harriet 
G. and Jane G. C. Hamlin. Mr. Hamlin was a 
cousin to the late Vice-President Hannibal Hamlin, 
of Bangor, Me. 

Hammer, Charles D., son of Charles and Susan 
(Dunkel) Hammer, both Pennsylvanians, was born 
in Baltimore, Md., March 9, 1844. His education 
was attained in the public schools of Cleveland, 
(). He early entered the coal business in Pennsyl- 
vania. He began his present business in 1875, as 
a solicitor for the Provident Life and Trust Company 
of Philadelphia, in that city, and in r886 he was 
sent to Chicago as one of the general agents for 
Illinois. On the ist of April, 1891, he came to 
Boston, as manager of the company's oldest and 
largest agency. Mr. Hammer served three years 
during the Civil War, first as private, then adjutant, 
and then as captain in the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fourth Ohio Infantry of the Army of the 
Cumberland. He is now a member of the Military 
Oder of the Loyal Legion. On Jan. 7, 1S75, he 
was married in Philadelphia. He has one child, 
Helen F. Hammer. 

Hamm(ini>, J.ihn Wilkes, son of John and Maria 
Louise Hammond, was born in the little town now 
called Mattapoisett, then a part of Rochester, 
Mass., Dec. 16, 1837. His father died when he 
was quite young, and his youth was passed in the 
small village, where he was educated at the district 
school. Later he fitted for college at the academy 
in the town, and entered Tufts, graduating in the 
class of 1 86 1. In 1861 and a part of 1862 he 
taught school in Stoughton and Tisbury, and in 
September of the latter year he enlisted in Com- 



paiiy I of the Third Massachusetts Vokmteers. 
Returning in June, 1863, he taught the high schools 
of Wakefield and Melrose ; but the legal profession 
claimed his attention, and he pursued his studies in 
the Harvard Law School, and also read in the 
office of Svveetser & Gardner in Boston. Admitted 
to the bar, he practised in Middlesex county courts 
until March 10, 1886, when he was appointed to 
the bench of the superior court, which position he still 
holds. Judge Hammond represented Cambridge 
in the lower house of the Legislature during 1872 
and 1873 ; ^^d ^0™ April, 1873, to the time he re- 
ceived his judgeship he was city solicitor. He has 
filled his judicial office with honor, and has in many 
instances proved himself to be a discriminating and 
careful expounder of the law. Judge Hammond was 
married in Taunton on Aug. 15, 1866, to Miss Clara 

from which he graduated in 1873. He began 
practice in the Charlestown district, where he is 



Ellen Tweed, daughter of Benjamin F. Tweed : 
have had three children : Frank, Clara Maria 
John Wilkes Hammond, jr. 


Haibiond, William Penn, M.D., son of Josiah S. 
and Betsey (Parker) Hammond, was born in Plymp- 
ton, Mass., Sept. 15,. 1843. His early education 
was attained in local schools ; he was prepared for 
college at Phillips (Andover) Academy, and entering 
Amherst, graduated in 1869. He studied medicine 
with Drs. Gordon and Brewster, of Plymouth, and 
then took a course in the Har\'ard Medical School, 


now established, recognized as a leading surgeon. 
He is a member of the Massachusetts Medical 
Society, of the City Hospital Club, and the Harvard 
Medical School Association ; and he is connected 
with the Masonic order, the Odd Fellows, and 
numerous fraternal societies. On Sept. 17, 1873, 
Dr. Hammond was married to Miss Sarah A. 
Harrup : they have one child, Elizabeth P. Ham- 

Harding, Elavakd Mitchell, M.D., was born in 
Yarmouth, Me., Dec. 16, 1852. He obtained his 
early education at the North Yarmouth Academy, 
and graduated from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York City in March, 1874. He 
then went abroad, returning in 1876 and settling in 
\\'oburn, where he practised one year, at the end 
of which time he removed to South Boston. While 
here he was connected with the Massachusetts Eye 
and Ear Lifirmary. In July, 1879, he was ap- 
pointed assistant superintendent of the State Hos- 
pital for the Insane at Danvers, where he remained 
until near the close of 1880. Since that time he 
has been in practice in Boston. He is medical 
examiner for the Mutual Reserve Fund Life Associ- 
ation of New York city, and for the Ancient Order 
of United Workmen, and surgeon of the Theatrical 



Mechanics' Association. He is a member of the street. They handle suburban and farm property, 
Massachusetts Medical Society. and employ fifteen salesmen to attend to their ex- 

tensive business in this line. Mr. Harrington has 
Hardy, John Henry, was born in HoUis, N.H., done much building, having erected and sold 
Feb. 2, 1847. He fitted for college at the academies twenty-five houses in 1890, eleven of them in Som- 
in Mt. Vernon and New Ipswich, N.H., and entered er\-ille. He has done much to develop the suburbs, 

Dartmouth in 1866, graduating in 1870. Next he 

attended the Harvard Law School, and read law 
with Robert M. Morse, jr., also acting in the capac- 
ity of teacher in Chauncy Hall School. In Janu- 
ary, 1872, he was admitted to the Sufiblk bar. He 
then formed a law connection with George W. 
Morse, under the firm name of Morse & Hardy. 
Two years later he associated himself with Samuel ^ 

J. Elder and Thomas W. Proctor, under the name -v <• 

of Hardy, Elder, & Proctor, the firm continuing ' • 

until Mr. Hardy was given a position on the bench 
of the municipal court, which he still holds. He 
was in the army, in the Fifteenth New Hampshire 
Volunteers. He was elected to the lower house of 
the Legislature from Arlington 188 1-4, and was 
Arlington town counsel from 1873 to 1885. 

Harrinchon, Charles, M.D., was born in Salem, 
Mass., July 29, 1856. After instruction in the 
schools of that city, and spending a year at Bowdoin 
College, he entered Harvard College, from which 
he graduated in the class of 1878. Then he took 
the Harvard Medical School course, graduating in 
1 88 1. During the last year of his connection with 
the Medical School he served as house officer at the 
Massachusetts General Hospital. The next two 
years were spent in special study at the University 
of Leipzig, Strasburg, and Munich. In 1883 he re- 
turned to the Harvard Medical School as assistant 
in chemistry, and in the same year he was ap- 
pointed chemist to the State board of health. In 
1885 he was appointed instructor in hygiene in the 
Harvard Medical School, which position he still 
holds. In 1889 he was appointed inspector of milk 
and vinegar for the city of Boston. 

HARRiNiniiN, lu)WARii T., eldest son of Tyler and 
Caroline (.-Xtherton) Harrington, was born in 
Bolton, Mass., Dec. 14, 1842. He was educated 
in the public schools in Worcester and vicinity. 
Coming to Boston in 1873, he entered the real- 
estate business, and in 1876 formed a partnership 
with Benjamin C. Putnam. In 1882 he sold out 
to Mr. Putnam and retired, but in 1885 bought and 
continued the business. He admitted his book- 
keeper, Charles A. Cileason, into partnership, and 
on Jan. i, 1890, established the present firm of 
Edward T. Harrington & Co., at No. 35 Congress 


particularly the cities and towns of Somerville, 
Belmont, Maiden, and Everett. Mr. Harrington 
is a prominent citizen of Lexington, where he re- 
sides, and is concerned in promoting its social and 
political interests. He was married in Worcester 
May 3, 1881, to Miss Miriam A. Temple, eldest 
daughter of Luther and Rozan Temiile. 

Harris, Fr.^ncis Augustine, M.D., the medical 
examiner for the northern district of Suffolk county, 
was born in Ashland March 5, 1845. He was 
educated in the common schools of Rindge, N.H., 
and later in West Cambridge (now Adington). 
He graduated from the Boston Latin School in 
1862, and the same year entered Harvard College, 
graduating in 1866, and receiving the degree of 
A.B. He received the degree of M.D. from the 
Harvard Medical School in 1872. During the 
interim between the time of graduation from the 
academic department and from the medical school 
he was engaged as master of the Boston Latin School 
for three years. In 187 1 also he was ap])ointed 
surgical interne in the Massachusetts Ctcneral 



= 53 

Hospital. The year following his graduation in 
medicine from Hai-vard he passed in the medical 
school of the University of Vienna. In June, 1877, 
he was appointed to his [iresent position, medical 
examiner for the northern district of Suffolk county, 
it being the first appointment made under the new 
law. He has been demonstrator of medico-legal 
examinations in the Harvard Medical School for 
ten or twelve years, and for several years he was 
professor of surgery at the Boston Dental Col- 
lege. Among Dr. Harris' classmates in Harvard 
College were William Blaikie, the athlete; Dr. 
Charles Brigham, of San Francisco, who distin- 
guished himself in the Franco-Prussian War ; 
Henry Rolfe, who is at the head of the Masonic 
order in the State of Nevada : Moorfield Story ; 
and others of note. Dr. Harris is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society; of the Pajjyrus 
Club, being president of that organization in 18S2 ; 
and of the St. Botolph Club. He is a lover of the 
drama, and has written several plays, among them 
" Chums " and " My Son," the latter having a most 
successful run at the Boston Museum, and afford- 
ing the late William Warren one of his most famous 
parts, that of " Herr Weigel." 

Hart, Th(jmas NoR'roN, son of Daniel and 
Margaret (Norton) Hart, was born in North Read- 
ing, Mass., Jan. 20, 1829. His father's ancestors 
settled in Lynnfield, and his mother's father was 
Major John Norton, of Royalston, who fought in the 
Revolution. Thomas N. Hart was educated in the 
schools of his native town, and when a lad of 
thirteen he came to Boston to earn his living. He 
first found employment in the dry-goods store of 
Wheelock, Pratt, & Co. Two years later, in 1844, 
he entered a hat store. In this business he made 
steady progress, and in course of time became a 
partner in the firm of Philip A. Locke & Co. Sub- 
sequently he founded the prosperous house of Hart, 
Taylor, & Co. About the year 1879 he retired 
from the business with a competency. Soon after 
he assumed the presidency of the Mount Vernon 
National Bank, of which he is still the head. Mr. 
Hart is an earnest Republican. He has been a 
member of the Boston common council (1879, 1880, 
and 1881), of the board of aldermen (1882, 1885, 
and 1886), and mayor of the city (1889 and 1890). 
In 1 89 1 he was appointed by President Harrison 
postmaster of Boston, which position he still holds. 
He is identified with a number of societies and 
organizations, is treasurer of the American Uni- 
tarian Association, an officer of the Church of the 
Unity, and a member of the Algonquin and the 

Hull Yacht Clubs. In 1850 Mr. Hart was married, 
in Boston, to Miss Elizabeth Snow, of Bowdoin, Me. : 
they have one child, a daughter (now Mrs. C. W. 
Ernst). Mr. Hart's city home is on Common- 
wealth avenue, and his summer home at Galloupe's 
point, Swampscott. 

Harvev, John Franklin, M.D., son of Moses C. 
and Amanda (Knox) Harvey, was born in Lowell, 
Mass., Aug. 26, 1847. His parents moved to Law- 
rcn( e uhen he was but a year old, and there he 
obtained his early education in the public schools. 
He entered the College of the City of New York in 
1882, taking special courses, and graduated in 1889. 
After leaving school and before entering college he 
was at work, and while pursuing his medical studies 
he continued in business, to obtain the means to 
meet the expense of his education. At one time 
during this period he was a leather salesman on the 
road. He began the practice of his profession in 
New York city, and moved to Boston in July, 1890. 
His spec ialty is gynecology and obstetrics. He is 
now (K-moiislralor of anatomy in the College of 
Physi( i.iiis and Surgeons. He is a member of the 
Massachusetts Medical Society, and of other medi- 
cal organizations, and is prominent in the Masonic 
order, thirty-second degree, Knights Templar, the 
Ancient Order United Workmen, and the Golden 
Cross. On Jan. 7, 1887, he was married to Miss 
Minnie J., daughter of Obed Tingley, of New 

Harwood, Joseph Alfred, son of Colonel Nahum 
and Sophia (Kimball) Harwood, was born in Little- 
ton, Mass., March 26, 1827. He is of old English 
stock, a descendant of Nathaniel Harwood of colo- 
nial days. He obtained his sc hool training in the 
public schools of his native i)lace, and in the 
academies of Westford, Exeter, N.H., and Oroton. 
He began farming and stock-raising on the old 
homestead at the age of sixteen, and taught dis- 
trict schools winters from the age of seventeen to 
twenty-four. In 1868 he went into partnership 
with his brother Nahum, under the firm name of 
J. A. cS: X. Harwood, for the manufacture of leather 
board, with factory at Leominster and store in 
Boston. He follows the same business at the 
present time, having added the manufacture of 
chair-seats and < hairs for public halls, etc., under 
the company title " Harwood Manufacturing Co." 
He is still extensively engaged in farming and stock- 
raising on the old homestead, which has been in his 
family more than one hundred and fifty years, and 
under his management has grown to be one of the 



finest estates in the Commonwealth. Mr. Harwood 
has been a member of the school board ; post- 
master of Littleton twenty-one years ; first president 
of the Farmers' Club of Littleton ; trustee of the 
Middlesex County Agricultural Society ; was on the 
staff of Governor Washburn, also of acting Gov- 
ernor Talbot ; a senator in the Legislature of 1875 
and 1876; and an executive councillor 1877, 1878, 
1879, "'ith Governors Rice and Talbot. In 1882 
he was a prominent candidate for lieutenant-gov- 
ernor before the Republican convention of that 
year. He is at present trustee of the Westford 
Academy and of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, Amherst ; president of the Live Stock In- 
surance Company, Boston ; and director in the New 
York Mutual Reserve Fund Insurance Com])an)-. 
He is a member of the L^nitarian Club, the Mid- 
dlesex Club, and the Home Market Club. He 
was influential in getting the United States cattle 
quarantine established in Littleton. When in the 
senate, it was through his influence and efforts that 
the State prison was built at Concord. During his 
second term as senator occurred the celebrations of 
the Lexington and Concord centennials, and he was 
made chairman of the joint special committee of 
the Legislature which had the matter in hand, in- 
cluding the entertainment of General Grant and his 
cabinet. General (irant afterwards wrote him an 
autograph letter expressing his appreciation of the 
manner in which he and his suite had been re- 
ceived. Mr. Harwood was married in Littleton 
Feb. II, 1852, to Lucy Maria, daughter of the 
Hon. Jonathan and Elizabeth Briard (Walker) 
Hartwell. Of this union were two children ; Her- 
bert Joseph, who graduated at Har\ard College 
1877, and Edward Alfred Harwood, who died in 

Hassam, John Tvlkr, son of John and Abby 
(Hilton) Hassam, was born in Boston Sept. 20, 
1 84 1. He is a lineal descendant of William Has- 
sam who settled in Manchester, Mass., about 1684. 
He fitted for college at the Boston Latin School, 
and graduated from Har\ard in the class of 1863. 
From December 8, that year, to Aug. i, 1864, he 
ser\'ed in the amiy as first lieutenant of the Seventy- 
fifth LTnited States Colored Infantr)', taking part in 
the Red River campaign. In February, 1865, he 
began his law studies in the office of A. A. Ranney, 
and Dec. 13, 1867, was admitted to the bar. In 
his practice he has devoted himself principally to 
conveyancing. From April, 1873, to April, 1874, 
he travelled extensively abroad. In Februar)-, 1867, 
he was elected a member of the Historic Genea- 

logical Society, and his interest in genealogical and 
historical matters has been unflagging. He was 
one of the directors and is now one of the council 
of that society, and for six years he was chairman 
of its committee on library. He first set on foot 
the exhaustive researches in England, undertaken 



by the society through Henry F. Waters, and is 
chairman of the committee under whose direction 
the work has been carried on. He is a frequent 
contributor to the " New England Historical and 
(Genealogical Register," and a number of his anti- 
ijuarian and genealogical papers have been reprinted 
in separate form. He was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Boston Antiquarian Club, organized in 
1879, and subsequently, in 1881, merged in the 
Bostonian Society ; he was one of the corporate 
members of the latter society, and was for nine 
years a member of its board of directors ; he is a 
member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
elected in 1881 ; a member of the American His- 
torical Association ; a corresponding member of 
the Weymouth Historical Society ; and a member of 
the Bunker Hill Monument Association. In 1884 
he was appointed by the Superior Court of Suffolk 
county one of the commissioners under whose 
authority the indices in the Registry of Deeds are 
made, and the reindexing of the entire mass of 
records there, upon the present plan, is the result 
of his efforts. The printing of the early \olunies 



of the Suffolk deeds is due solely to him. He suc- 
ceeded in rescuing from threatened destruction a 
large part of the